英字新聞

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2016年07月

中国成長横ばい 過剰な生産設備の是正を急げ

The Yomiuri Shimbun
China’s excessive production capacity must be cut to ensure stable growth
中国成長横ばい 過剰な生産設備の是正を急げ

How can China overcome the pain that accompanies structural reforms and realize stable growth? The latest data on the nation’s economy has thrown into relief the difficulties of managing its economy.
構造改革に伴う痛みをどう克服し、安定成長を実現するのか。中国の経済運営の難しさが改めて浮き彫りになった。

China must face the arduous challenge of streamlining excessive manufacturing facilities and curtailing inefficient state-owned firms while averting a sudden business slowdown.
景気の腰折れを避けつつ、過剰設備の整理や、非効率な国有企業を淘汰とうたする難題に取り組まねばならない。

China’s real-term gross domestic product grew 6.7 percent in the April-June quarter when compared to the same period last year. The growth rate leveled off from the previous quarter, and a downtrend was halted for the first time in four quarters. However, it still marked a seven-year low since the shock that resulted from the collapse of U.S. investment bank Lehman Brothers.
中国の今年4~6月期の実質国内総生産(GDP)は前年同期比6・7%増となった。成長率は前期から横ばいで、4四半期ぶりに下げ止まったが、リーマン・ショック以来7年ぶりの低成長だ。

Given the slackening of investments and exports, it has become clear that China’s “world’s factory” model, used as a driving force for high growth, has reached its limit.
投資や輸出が振るわず、高度成長の原動力だった「世界の工場」モデルの限界が鮮明となった。

The Chinese administration of President Xi Jinping is pursuing a shift from investment-centered high growth to a “new normal” state of consumption-led stable growth. But consumption, which is essential, lacks the power to supplement investments and exports.
習近平政権は、投資中心の高成長から、消費主導で安定成長する「新常態」(ニューノーマル)への転換を目指している。だが、肝心の消費は、投資や輸出を補完するほどの力強さを欠いている。

The switch to expanded growth will require the overproduction of steel and coal to be rectified. However, efforts in this regard are struggling.
成長路線の転換には、鉄鋼、石炭などの過剰生産の是正が求められるが、難航している。

China’s crude steel production has ballooned to about 800 million tons a year due to a large-scale stimulus package adopted in the aftermath of the collapse of Lehman Brothers. China’s share of the global market has swelled to half, causing steel prices to fall.
リーマン・ショック後の大型景気対策で膨張した粗鋼の生産量は年約8億トンと、世界の半分を占め、相場の値崩れを招いている。

The excessive capacities of steel and other industries was mentioned as “a global issue” in the statement issued after a meeting of trade ministers from the Group of 20 major economies, held this month in Shanghai.
上海で今月開かれた主要20か国・地域(G20)貿易相会合の声明でも、鉄鋼などの過剰生産が「世界的な問題だ」と明記された。

Specter of ‘zombie firms’

China has made moves to reduce crude steel output by suspending operations at facilities, including its old blast furnaces. However, this is akin to pouring water on a hot stone. If restructuring is pushed ahead, it is estimated that 1.8 million workers will be rendered jobless in the steelmaking and coal mining industries alone.
旧式の高炉などで操業停止の動きもあるが、焼け石に水だ。強引にリストラを進めると、製鉄と炭鉱だけで180万人の失業者が出るとみられる。

Due to opposition from local governments, which are concerned about employment, curtailing production facilities has progressed little.
雇用を懸念する地方政府などが抵抗するため、生産設備の削減が進まない。

It is necessary to alter the industrial structure by promoting the service and other industries, thereby making it possible for workers who lose their jobs due to structural reforms to be accepted elsewhere.
サービス産業の振興など産業構造の転換を進め、雇用の受け皿の確保につなげる政策が必要だ。

Some state-owned businesses and firms related to local governments have, in effect, gone bust, but survive thanks to public subsidies. These “zombie companies” have become a serious issue.
国有企業や、地方政府の関連企業などで、実質破綻しながら公的補助で生き延びている「ゾンビ企業」問題も深刻化している。

It is worrying that nonperforming loans — made by financial institutions to unprofitable businesses and in connection to investments in excessive facilities and real estate — have become bloated.
気がかりなのは、過大な設備や不動産への投資に絡んで、不採算企業に貸し込んだ金融機関の不良債権が膨らんでいることだ。

According to China’s official statistics, outstanding nonperforming bank loans stand at slightly more than 1 trillion yuan. However, it is strongly believed the actual figure is several times larger.
公式統計では、銀行の不良債権残高は1兆元余だが、実態は数倍に上るという見方も根強い。

The liquidation of zombie companies is indispensable to reforming China’s state-owned firms by shifting their central businesses from the public to private sector. However, if the issue of bad debts surfaces, it could trigger financial unrest.
官から民へ経済活動の主役を移す国有企業改革は、ゾンビ企業の整理が欠かせない。しかし、不良債権問題が表面化すれば、金融不安を招きかねない。

Changes in the Chinese economy, and the issue of Britain’s exit from the European Union, pose a risk to the global economy. How can China maintain the sensitive balance between reform and business?
中国経済の変調は、英国の欧州連合(EU)離脱問題と並ぶ世界経済のリスクとみられている。改革と景気の微妙なバランスをどう図っていくか。

It is essential for the many Japanese firms that conduct business transactions with China to take responsive measures while closely monitoring how the matter evolves.
中国と取引のある多くの日本企業も、その推移を見極めた対応が大切となろう。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, July 18, 2016)

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トルコ軍反乱 鎮圧が国民融和につながるか

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Would suppression of military revolt in Turkey lead to reconciliation?
トルコ軍反乱 鎮圧が国民融和につながるか

The attempt by Turkish forces to use arms and overthrow a government chosen through a democratic process cannot possibly be condoned. There is a pressing need for the interested parties to exercise restraint so further bloodshed will be averted.
民主的な手続きで選ばれた政権を、軍隊が武力で転覆させる行為は到底許されない。当事者が自制し、さらなる流血を回避することが急務だ。

Some military troops attempted a coup through such actions as deploying tanks and occupying broadcasting stations in Turkey’s capital of Ankara and its largest city of Istanbul. There were clashes of arms and explosions, resulting in a large number of casualties. Large bridges connecting Europe and Asia and arterial roads were temporarily closed.
トルコの首都アンカラと最大都市イスタンブールで、軍の一部が戦車を展開し、放送局を占拠するなど、クーデターを企てた。交戦や爆発が発生し、多数の死傷者が出た。アジアと欧州を結ぶ大橋や主要道路が一時閉鎖された。

Military and police forces supporting the government have nearly quelled the rebel troops. The coup attempt ended in failure, with many soldiers killed or detained. President Recep Tayyip Erdogan emphasized that the coup attempt had been quashed, saying he was “in control” of the situation.
政府を支持する軍と警察が、反乱軍をほぼ制圧した。試みは失敗に終わり、多くの兵士が殺害、拘束された。エルドアン大統領は「クーデターを鎮圧した。事態を掌握している」と強調した。

It was only natural for the United States, the European Union, the United Nations and others to express support for the Turkish government and call for the restoration of order. Prime Minister Shinzo Abe said, “I’m concerned about the situation.” The Japanese government must strive to secure the safety of Japanese residents in Turkey in case the turmoil continues for an extended period.
米国や欧州連合(EU)、国連などが政権への支持を表明し、秩序の回復を求めたのは当然である。安倍首相は「事態を憂慮している」と語った。混乱の長期化にも備え、日本政府は在留邦人の安全確保に努めねばならない。

One of the factors behind the latest revolt seems to be that part of the military was dissatisfied with the measures implemented to reduce their power, including constitutional amendment, at a time when the Erdogan administration has become even more religious.
今回の反乱は、政権が宗教色を強め、憲法改正などで軍の権限縮小を断行したことに対する不満が背景にあるのだろう。

Turkey has stood by its national principle of secularism — the separation of religion and politics — since Kemal Ataturk, who hailed from the military, was installed as the first president of the country in 1923.
トルコは、1923年に軍人出身のケマル・アタチュルクが初代大統領に就任して以来、政教分離の世俗主義を国是としてきた。

History of coups

The military see themselves as “the defenders of secularism.” They have staged coups in the past, too, citing the government’s Islamization and political corruption as the reasons for their actions.
軍は「世俗主義の守護者」を自任する。これまでも、政府のイスラム化や政治腐敗を理由にクーデターを起こしている。

At the helm of a moderate Islamic party, Erdogan became prime minister in 2003 and president in 2014. Based on his initiative to achieve economic growth, Erdogan has implemented policy measures marked by a tilt toward Muslims, such as a ban on the sale of alcoholic beverages at night.
エルドアン氏はイスラム穏健政党を率い、2003年から首相、14年から大統領を務める。経済成長を主導した実績を基に、近年は夜間の酒類販売禁止などイスラム教徒寄りの政策を進めた。

The problem is that Erdogan’s iron-fisted approach is heightening friction within the country.
問題なのは、エルドアン氏の強権的な手法によって、国内のあつれきが増していることである。

Antigovernment demonstrations have been cracked down on, and control has been exercised over organs of public opinion critical of the government. Fighting against armed groups of separatist Kurds has turned into a quagmire, and little headway has been made in preventing terrorist attacks by the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) and other militant groups.
反政府デモを弾圧し、政権に批判的な言論機関を管理下に置いた。独立を主張するクルド人武装組織との戦闘が泥沼化し、過激派組織「イスラム国」などによる相次ぐテロを防げずにいる。

There will be no hope of stabilizing the political situation unless Erdogan facilitates reconciliation with secularists.
エルドアン氏が世俗主義者らとの融和を図らなければ、政情の安定は期待できまい。

Turkey has allowed U.S. forces to use military bases for a campaign by the coalition of the willing to uproot the ISIL group. The country also plays an important role in hindering the movement of foreign ISIL fighters.
トルコは、有志連合の「イスラム国」掃討作戦で、米軍に基地を提供している。「イスラム国」の外国人戦闘員の移動を阻止するうえでも重要な役割を担う。

Turkey has also been asked to promote cooperation with the EU in dealing with the issue of Syrian refugees staying in that country despite wanting to leave for Europe.
欧州に向かうシリア難民が滞留している問題では、EUとの協調が求められている。

It is indispensable for the international community, including Japan, to become actively involved in this respect, a task essential for preventing the latest incident from further exacerbating the situation in the Middle East.
今回の事態が中東情勢の一層の悪化につながらないよう、日本をはじめ、国際社会が積極的に関与することが欠かせない。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, July 17, 2016)

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アジア欧州会議 中国は国際法に背を向けるな

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Countries should work together to urge China not to reject international law
アジア欧州会議 中国は国際法に背を向けるな

It cannot be overlooked that China is disregarding the court of arbitration’s decision, which fully dismissed Beijing’s claims regarding its sovereignty over the South China Sea.
南シナ海での中国の主権を全面的に否定した仲裁裁判所の判決を中国が無視していることは、看過できない。

It is crucial for countries concerned to work together to continue to urge Beijing to follow the ruling.
関係国が結束して、中国に判決に従うよう促し続けることが肝要である。

The Asia-Europe Meeting (ASEM) ended its summit by adopting a chairperson’s statement that mentioned the importance of solving disputes based on the U.N. Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS).
アジア欧州会議(ASEM)首脳会議が、国連海洋法条約に則のっとった紛争解決の重要性を明記した議長声明を採択し、閉幕した。

The document refrained from making a direct reference to the South China Sea, in consideration of Beijing. This is in a way unavoidable because documents, in principle, have to be adopted unanimously.
中国への配慮から、南シナ海への直接の言及は避けた。合意文書の採択は全会一致が原則だけに、やむを得ない面もある。

We welcome the fact that many leaders discussed the South China Sea issue during the summit and expressed support for maintaining maritime order based on the rule of law.
会議で、多くの首脳が南シナ海の問題を取り上げ、「法の支配に基づく海洋秩序の維持」を支持したことは評価できよう。

Prime Minister Shinzo Abe emphasized that the ruling was “final and legally binding for countries concerned in the dispute.” We regard his comments as a matter of course.
安倍首相が、判決は「最終的なもので、紛争当事国を法的に拘束する」と強調したのは当然だ。

It was questionable that Chinese Premier Li Keqiang, during a meeting with Abe, said once again that his country rejected the ruling. “Japan should not make a fuss about and intervene in the South China Sea issue,” Li said.
疑問なのは、中国の李克強首相が安倍首相との会談で「日本は南シナ海問題で騒ぎ立て、介入するのをやめるべきだ」と述べ、改めて判決を拒否したことである。

Beijing dismissed the arbitration proceedings as a “political farce” and even described the ruling as “paper waste.” The country has been repeating landing tests by civilian aircraft at airports on artificial islands it has constructed in the Spratly Islands, with the aim of making its effective control over the South China Sea a fait accompli.
中国は仲裁裁判を「政治的な茶番」と決めつけ、判決を「紙くずだ」とも言い放つ。スプラトリー(南沙)諸島の人工島に建設した飛行場では、民間機による着陸テストを繰り返し、実効支配の既成事実化を図っている。

Unworthy of UNSC

Beijing has been heightening regional tensions even further by turning its back on the international court’s decision. Such self-serving actions and statements are unworthy of a permanent member of the U.N. Security Council, which is responsible for regional stability.
国際司法判断に背を向け、一段と緊張を高める中国の独善的な言動は、地域の安定に責任を持つ国連安全保障理事会の常任理事国にあるまじき振る舞いである。

Beijing claimed that it was unfair that Shunji Yanai, then president of the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea, appointed four arbitration court judges in charge of the South China Sea case. However, we regard this as unreasonable.
中国は、当時の柳井俊二国際海洋法裁判所長が仲裁裁判の裁判官4人を選任したことを「公正でない」と主張するが、筋違いだ。

Experts were chosen as judges for the case based on procedures under UNCLOS. It is China’s boycotting of the procedures that is the problem.
裁判官には、国連海洋法条約の手続きに基づき、専門家が選ばれた。裁判への参加を拒否した中国の対応にこそ、問題がある。

China is staging a propaganda campaign to justify itself by claiming that more than 70 countries support its position. We suspect this action indicates how desperate Beijing is about becoming isolated in the international community.
70か国以上が中国の立場を支持していると主張し、自らを正当化する宣伝戦を展開するのは、孤立への危機感の表れではないか。

It is of no small significance that the chairperson’s statement expressed a resolve to prevent violent extremism, following the terrorist attacks in Nice, France, and Bangladesh.
首脳会議が議長声明で、仏ニースやバングラデシュのテロを踏まえ、暴力的過激主義を防ぐ決意を示した意義は小さくない。

Armed groups and others are committing attacks in many parts of the world in response to calls by the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) militant organization. In the medium and long term, it is important to work together in coping with social issues that can serve as hotbeds of extremism, such as employment measures for younger generations.
過激派組織「イスラム国」の呼びかけに応じ、武装集団などが各地で事件を起こしている。中長期的には、若者の就業対策など過激主義の温床となる社会問題への対応でも連携することが大切だ。

In the economic field, the summit focused on stabilizing the global economy, which has been shaken since Britain’s vote to leave the European Union.
経済分野では、英国の欧州連合(EU)離脱問題で揺れる世界経済の安定化が焦点となった。

It is reasonable that the statement confirmed that countries are ready to use all their policy tools: monetary, fiscal and structural reforms.
議長声明で、金融、財政、構造改革の全ての政策手段をとる用意があると確認したのは妥当だ。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, July 17, 2016)

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仏車突入テロ 祝祭を標的にした新手の蛮行

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Using truck as a terror weapon during celebrations a heinous act
仏車突入テロ 祝祭を標的にした新手の蛮行

It was an unforgivable, heinous act of terrorism that targeted people celebrating Bastille Day, which commemorates the French Revolution and is France’s most important holiday.
革命記念日というフランスの最も重要な祝祭を狙った残虐なテロだ。断じて許されない。

A heavy truck drove onto a promenade in Nice, a Mediterranean resort city in southeastern France, traveling about two kilometers while mowing down a crowd of people watching fireworks. The attack took the lives of many people, including children.
地中海に面する仏南東部の保養地ニースで、革命記念日の14日、大型トラックが遊歩道を約2キロ暴走し、花火の見物客をなぎ倒す事件が起きた。子供を含む多数が犠牲になった。

The driver was shot dead after exchanging fire with police officers. According to sources, he was identified as a 31-year-old Tunisian-born Frenchman who lived in Nice. He had a criminal record of theft, but was not under police surveillance.
トラックを運転していた犯人は警官との銃撃戦の末に、死亡した。ニース在住で仏国籍を有する31歳のチュニジア系の男とされる。窃盗の犯罪歴があるが、警察の監視対象ではなかったという。

This attack is categorized as a mass murder on a soft target — the man chose a lightly guarded place where large numbers of the general public gather. What makes the matter even more serious is the fact the incident was caused by a new type of “weapon” — a truck, which is relatively easy to acquire.
警備が手薄で、不特定多数の一般市民が集まる「ソフトターゲット」を襲った大量殺人と言える。深刻なのは、比較的容易に入手できるトラックという新手の「凶器」が使用されたことである。

The French government began investigating the incident after concluding it was a terrorist attack. We hope the government will swiftly discover the overall picture of the situation, including the background and the man’s motive.
仏政府は、事件を「テロ」と断定し、捜査を始めた。犯行の動機や背景など、全体像の解明を急いでもらいたい。

The attack dealt an immeasurable blow to France.
事件がフランスに与えた衝撃は計り知れない。

“France was hit on its National Day, July 14, the symbol of freedom,” French President Francois Hollande said, while expressing his resolve not to succumb to terrorism. We believe he made his remarks with the significance of the French Revolution — the people’s revolution in the 18th century — in mind.
オランド大統領は「自由の象徴である日に、フランスが攻撃された」と語り、テロに屈しない決意を表明した。18世紀の市民革命の意義を踏まえた発言だろう。

Difficulty ensuring security

France had just finished hosting the European Championship soccer tournament under heavy security, and was scheduled to lift a state of emergency late this month, which was imposed after the November coordinated terrorist attacks in Paris.
フランスは、サッカー欧州選手権の開催を厳戒態勢で乗り切り、昨年11月のパリ同時テロの直後に発した非常事態宣言を今月下旬に解除する予定だった。

The fact that a major terrorist attack took place at such a time in a regional city underscored the difficulty of ensuring security.
その矢先に、地方都市で重大なテロが起きたことは、警備の難しさを浮き彫りにした。

“The whole of France is under the threat of Islamist terrorism,” Hollande said.
オランド氏は、「仏全土がイスラム過激派のテロの脅威に直面している」との認識を示した。

The French government will extend the state of emergency for another three months, and tighten its security through such measures as calling up its military reserves. It is also important to review the nation’s program of surveillance of an estimated several thousand potential terrorists.
政府は非常事態宣言をさらに3か月延長し、軍の予備役を招集するなど警戒を強化する。数千人の潜在的なテロリストに対する監視態勢の見直しが欠かせない。

The European Union nations agreed to reinforce their public security cooperation at a summit meeting last month. The aftershock of Britain’s decision to exit from the EU should not stall the organization’s efforts against terrorism.
欧州連合(EU)は先月の首脳会議で、治安分野での協力拡充で一致した。英国のEU離脱決定に伴う動揺で、欧州のテロ対策の取り組みが停滞してはならない。

It was totally appropriate for Prime Minister Shinzo Abe, who is in Mongolia to participate in a summit meeting of the Asia-Europe Meeting (ASEM), to say, “Despicable acts of terrorism that involve innocent people are absolutely unforgivable.” Other world leaders also sent a string of messages expressing their unity with France’s fight against terrorism.
モンゴルでのアジア欧州会議(ASEM)首脳会議に出席した安倍首相が「罪のない人々を巻き込む卑劣なテロを断固非難する」と述べたのは当然である。各国首脳からも、テロと戦うフランスへの連帯を示す発言が相次いだ。

In Bangladesh, the attack by gunmen that took place earlier this month at a restaurant made it clear that terrorism caused by Islamic extremists is also spreading in Asia.
今月のバングラデシュでのレストラン襲撃事件では、イスラム過激派によるテロがアジアにも広がっていることが鮮明になった。

The ASEM meeting should be utilized as an opportunity to deepen cooperation on measures against terrorism between Asia and Europe.
今回の会議を、アジアと欧州のテロ対策での協力を一段と深める機会とせねばならない。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, July 16, 2016)

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Emperor Akihito expresses intention to abdicate: gov't source

July 13, 2016 (Mainichi Japan)
Emperor Akihito expresses intention to abdicate: gov't source
 
Emperor Akihito and Empress Michiko are pictured in Manila in this Jan. 28, 2016 file photo. (Mainichi)

Emperor Akihito has expressed his intention to abdicate, making way for his son Crown Prince Naruhito to ascend the Chrysanthemum throne, a government source has disclosed.

The Emperor conveyed his intention to a person close to the Imperial Household Agency, according to the government source. He is said to have expressed his intention to abdicate within several years.

The Imperial Household Agency is making arrangements for the Emperor to publicly express his intention in the near future. As the Imperial House Law does not contain stipulations on the Emperor's abdication, discussion will likely begin over revisions to the legislation.

Emperor Akihito, 82, is Japan's 125th emperor. After undergoing heart surgery in February 2012, he had his official duties reduced, including Imperial rituals. However, he has continued to perform numerous duties, including matters of state as stipulated in the Constitution, visiting areas affected by earthquakes and other disasters, and meeting with foreign heads of state.

According to informed sources, the Emperor does not wish to have his duties drastically reduced, nor remain in his position while leaving his duties to a substitute. He also believes that a person who can sufficiently perform his duties as a symbol of the state as stipulated in the Constitution should remain on the Chrysanthemum throne. The Emperor is said to have conveyed his intentions to Empress Michiko, Crown Prince Naruhito and Prince Akishino.

Emperor Akihito ascended the throne in 1989 as the first emperor to do so under the post-World War II Constitution, which stipulates that "The Emperor shall be the symbol of the State and of the unity of the people." During a press conference marking his ascension to the throne, which he attended with Empress Michiko, Emperor Akihito said, "I want to fulfill my duties as Emperor that are laid out in the Constitution to work for the happiness of the people and to have a monarchy that is fitting for the present age."

He has continually pursued ways to carry out his role as the symbol of the state including visits to facilities for disabled people and areas affected by the 1995 Great Hanshin Earthquake and other disasters.

At a news conference marking the 10th anniversary of his ascension to the throne, he said, "It is our important duty to empathize with disabled and elderly people, those affected by disasters, as well as those who dedicate themselves to society and the people."

The Imperial Household Agency has pursued ways to reduce the burden on Emperor Akihito as he has grown older. The agency announced in January 2009 that the Emperor would stop issuing statements in a large number of ceremonies after he developed a heartbeat irregularity, and suffered other illnesses apparently caused by mental stress in December 2008.

The Emperor underwent coronary-artery bypass surgery in February 2012. Nevertheless, he attended memorial services for victims of the March 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami held shortly afterwards. At a news conference prior to his 79th birthday, Emperor Akihito said he wanted to stay active for the time being.

At the same time, the Emperor has begun to hand over some duties to Crown Prince Naruhito. His last visits to facilities as part of his official duties were in 2014, on the occasions of Children's Day and Respect-for-the-Aged Day. In May this year, the agency further reviewed Emperor Akihito's official duties, cancelling eight planned meetings with the heads of national and local governments.

It was not unheard-of among the past 124 emperors to abdicate and hand over the Imperial throne to their successors while they were alive, according to the Imperial Household Agency. The last emperor to do so, however, was Emperor Kokaku, who was on the throne from 1780 to 1817 during the late Edo Period.

In royal families in European countries, it is not unusual for the monarch to hand over his or her throne to a successor. In 2013, then Netherlands Queen Beatrix, who has friendly relations with the Japanese Imperial Family, and Pope Benedict XVI abdicated, drawing worldwide attention.

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自公が国政選4連勝 「後出し改憲」に信はない

--The Asahi Shimbun, July 11
EDITORIAL: Election victory is not a mandate to change the Constitution
(社説)自公が国政選4連勝 「後出し改憲」に信はない

The outcome of the July 10 Upper House election has turned out to be a watershed in the nation's postwar politics.
歴史的な選挙となった。

In the 1956 Upper House election, the Socialists, along with other parties, erected a sort of legislative wall by securing more than one-third of the seats to prevent the newly formed Liberal Democratic Party from carrying out its pledge to amend the Constitution.
Six decades on, the wall in the Upper House has now crumbled. It had already gone in the Lower House.
1956年、結党間もない自民党が掲げた憲法改正を阻むため、社会党などが築いた「3分の1」の壁。これが、60年たって参院でも崩れ去った。

The ruling coalition of the Liberal Democratic Party and its junior partner, Komeito, won a crushing victory in the election. The four pro-amendment parties, which include Initiatives from Osaka, together with some independent members who support the idea but didn’t face election this year, now control more than two-thirds of the chamber. The LDP and Komeito already have a two-thirds majority in the Lower House. Constitutional amendments can be initiated by the Diet through a concurring vote of two-thirds or more of all the members of each chamber.
自民、公明の与党が大勝し、おおさか維新なども含めた「改憲4党」、それに改憲に前向きな非改選の無所属議員もあわせれば、憲法改正案の国会発議ができる「3分の2」を超えた。衆院では、自公だけでこの議席を占めている。

Rewriting the Constitution, of course, is a very complicated political challenge, and these numbers don’t mean the process will move forward immediately.
もちろん、これで一気に進むほど憲法改正は容易ではない。

The four pro-amendment parties have widely different political agendas. Komeito, in particular, is increasingly cautious about pushing through any initiative to amend the Constitution.
改憲4党といってもめざすところはバラバラで、とりわけ公明党は慎重論を強めている。

There is, however, no doubt that debate on constitutional amendments will gain traction in the Diet in the coming months as Prime Minister Shinzo Abe has pledged to activate the Commission on the Constitution in both houses during the next Diet session. In the process, the prospects of actual changes in the Constitution will increase gradually.
それでも、安倍首相が「次の国会から憲法審査会をぜひ動かしていきたい」と予告したように、改憲の議論が現実味を帯びながら進められていくのは間違いない。

This is the first time that the postwar Constitution faces a realistic possibility of amendments being made. It’s nothing less than a critical turning point for Japan’s postwar politics.
いまの憲法のもとでは初めての政治状況だ。まさに戦後政治の分岐点である。

CAMPAIGN DEBATE DEVOID OF KEY ELEMENTS
■判断材料欠けた論戦

Before the election campaign kicked off, Abe expressed his desire to carry out constitutional amendments while he was in office. But he avoided addressing the issue head-on during the campaign.
首相は憲法改正について、選挙前は「自分の在任中には成し遂げたい」とまで語っていたのに、選挙が始まったとたん、積極的な発言を封印した。

The election is now over, and Abe is again ratcheting up his rhetoric about constitutional change.
We have to say Abe's approach to realize his long-held political aspiration is insincere.
それでいて選挙が終われば、再び改憲へのアクセルをふかす――。首相は自らの悲願を、こんな不誠実な「後出し」で実現しようというのだろうか。

Exactly what kind of message did Japanese voters send out in the poll?
有権者がこの選挙で示した民意をどう読み解くべきか。

Abe said the key election issues were the appropriateness of his decision to again postpone a rise in the consumption tax rate and whether his economic policy, known as "Abenomics," should be promoted further.
首相が掲げたのは、消費税率引き上げ先送りの是非と、「アベノミクス」をさらに進めるかどうかだった。

As for the consumption tax rate increase, Katsuya Okada, president of the main opposition Democratic Party, had already called for it to be delayed before Abe announced his decision. The party pointed to the limitations of Abenomics but failed to offer a convincing alternative.
消費税率引き上げについては、民進党の岡田代表が先んじて先送りを表明した。一方、民進党はアベノミクスの限界を指摘したが、それに代わりうる説得力ある案は示せなかった。

The LDP, on the other hand, promised to achieve a “virtuous cycle of growth and distribution,” a slogan that is reminiscent of the Democratic Party’s pledge to pursue both “distribution and growth.”
逆に自民党は、民進党が掲げた「分配と成長の両立」をなぞるように「成長と分配の好循環」と訴えた。

The opposition parties focused their campaigning on blocking the Abe administration’s bid to amend the Constitution. But the prime minister did not respond to their challenge.
野党側は安倍政権による改憲阻止を訴えたが、首相はこれにはこたえない。

There was no detailed debate on energy policy, which is facing the crucial decision of whether to promote or phase out nuclear power generation.
また、推進か脱却かの岐路にある原発政策は、多くは語られなかった。

All in all, the election campaign was short on vital elements that could strongly affect voters’ decisions at the ballot box.
結局、有権者には判断材料が乏しいままだった。

Abe argued that his efforts to revitalize the economy through Abenomics have not been a failure, but still have a long way to go. Many voters may have cast ballots for the status quo in a “wait-and-see” stance even though they were not fully sold on Abe’s argument.
「アベノミクスは失敗していないが、道半ばだ」という首相の説明には首をかしげても、「しばらく様子を見よう」と有権者の多くは現状維持を選んだと見ることもできよう。

ESCHEWING CONSTITUTIONAL REVISION TO PREVENT BACKLASH
■反発恐れ「改憲隠し」

Why did Abe not talk much about his desire to amend the Constitution?
安倍首相が今回、憲法改正への意欲を積極的に語らなかったのはなぜか。

He has probably learned a lesson from his bitter experience with regard to the 2007 Upper House election, when he campaigned on a pledge to seek the initiation of constitutional amendments in 2010. He resigned after the ruling party took a drubbing in the poll.
「2010年に憲法改正案の発議をめざす」。公約にこう掲げながら惨敗し、退陣につながった07年参院選の苦い教訓があったのは想像に難くない。

Abe apparently thought that the more he talked eagerly about his wish to rewrite the Constitution in specific terms the more likely the public would react negatively to his case.
憲法改正を具体的に語れば語るほど、世論の反発が大きくなるとの判断もあっただろう。

Abe also pointed out that any proposal to amend the Constitution has to be approved by the public through a national referendum and said it was not vital to discuss the issue in an election campaign.
首相はまた、改憲案を最終的に承認するのは国民投票であることなどを指摘して「選挙で争点とすることは必ずしも必要ない」と説明した。

But he is wrong. The due process of amending the Constitution should be composed of three stages. First, a specific proposal to change the Constitution should be made a key topic for an election. Then, the elected representatives of the people should have mature debate on the proposal at the Diet for the purpose of building broad consensus. And finally, the proposal should be put to a national referendum for public approval.
それは違う。改正の論点を選挙で問い、そのうえで選ばれた議員によって幅広い合意形成を図る熟議があり、最終的に国民投票で承認する。これがあるべきプロセスだ。

If he really believes it is not necessary to listen to the people’s opinions about a proposal to amend the Constitution until the Diet initiates the amendment, Abe has the wrong idea about to whom the Constitution belongs.
国会が発議するまで国民の意見は聞かなくていいというのであれば、やはり憲法は誰のものであるのかという根本をはき違えている。

Abe himself has admitted that there is no agreement on which provision should be amended first. This is clear evidence that there is no urgent need to change the Constitution.
「どの条項から改正すべきか議論が収斂(しゅうれん)していない」と首相がいうのも、改憲に差し迫った必要性がないことの証左だ。

The outcome of the election doesn’t at all mean Abe has a public mandate to amend the Constitution.
この選挙結果で、憲法改正に国民からゴーサインが出たとは決していえない。

OPPOSITION ALLIANCE SHOULD CONTINUE
■次への野党共闘は

Whether he will immediately start taking steps toward constitutional amendments or not, it is certain that Abe now has a very strong power base after four consecutive wins in national elections.
憲法改正に直ちに進むかどうかは別にしても、国政選挙で4連勝した安倍首相が、当面、極めて強固な権力基盤を手にしたのは間違いない。

This is not simply about the ruling camp’s overwhelming majority in both houses. Since he returned to power in December 2012, Abe has appointed individuals he favors for posts that should be independent of political power, such as the Bank of Japan governor, the chief of the Cabinet Legislation Bureau and the governors of Japan Broadcasting Corp. (NHK).
単に国会の勢力だけの話ではない。安倍氏は首相に返り咲いてから、日銀総裁、内閣法制局長官、NHK経営委員と、本来は政治権力から距離を置くべきポストを自分の色に染めてきた。

Abe is also putting unprecedented political pressure on appointments to senior posts at ministries and agencies through the Cabinet bureau of personnel affairs.
内閣人事局を通じ、各省幹部人事にもこれまでにないにらみをきかせている。

There is no political force in the nation’s governing system that can counter or check the huge political power Abe has amassed.
「安倍1強」に対抗できる、あるいは歯止めとなりうる力が統治機構の中に見あたらない。

Meanwhile, four opposition parties, including the Democratic Party and the Japanese Communist Party, fielded their unified candidates for all of the 32 single-seat constituencies in the election. They formed an electoral alliance for the common goals of repealing the national security legislation and thwarting Abe’s attempt to amend the Constitution.
The opposition alliance has proved effective, at least to a certain degree. But it has failed to shape up as a powerful national movement that can give a unified voice to public criticism about the Abe administration.
一方、民進、共産など野党4党は、安全保障関連法廃止や改憲阻止を旗印に、32の1人区すべてで候補を統一し、一定の結果を残した。ただ、全国的に政権批判の受け皿になるには力強さを欠いた。

As the election campaigning entered its final stage, the opposition coalition came under fierce attack from the ruling camp, which denounced their partnership as an unprincipled coalition for political convenience. In particular, the ruling camp roundly criticized the Democratic Party and its non-communist allies for campaigning with the JCP, which regards the existence of the Self-Defense Forces as unconstitutional.
終盤になると、与党側から野合批判、とりわけ自衛隊を違憲とする共産党との共闘への激しい攻撃を浴びた。

If they hadn’t formed the alliance, however, they would have lost in even more of the single-seat constituencies. Their electoral cooperation has been meaningful from this point of view.
もっとも、共闘していなければ、1人区の当選者はさらに限られただろうことを考えれば、共闘の試みに意味はあった。

Under the current election system, nearly 300 of the 475 Lower House seats are contested in single-seat constituencies. Single-seat constituencies are also vital for the overall outcomes of Upper House elections.
An electoral alliance is undoubtedly the most effective way for smaller opposition parties to fight against the dominant ruling camp under this system.
小選挙区制の衆院、1人区が全体の結果を左右する参院のいまの選挙制度では、巨大与党に対抗するには野党共闘が最も有効であるのは間違いない。

The opposition parties need to figure out an effective formula for their alliance for the next Lower House election, which will enable voters to choose their government.
If they fail to do so, the LDP is likely to continue winning overwhelming election victories.
政権選択を問う次の衆院選に向けて、どのような共闘ができるか。野党側が戦える態勢をととのえられなければ、自民ひとり勝ちの選挙がさらに続きかねない。

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1st typhoon of season expected to bring heavy winds, rain to southwestern Japan

July 7, 2016 (Mainichi Japan)
1st typhoon of season expected to bring heavy winds, rain to southwestern Japan

Nepartak, a fierce typhoon and the first of the season, was moving northwest south of the Sakishima islands in Okinawa Prefecture as of the morning of July 7.

According to the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), the powerful storm has a central pressure of 900 hectopascals and winds gusting up to 60 meters per second near the core. The typhoon will probably bring winds of at least 15 meters per second to the Sakishima islands, and make landfall on Taiwan on the morning of July 8.

The storm is expected to draw closest to the Sakishima islands between the evening of July 7 and the pre-dawn hours of July 8. It is predicted that waves will reach around 9 meters high and winds will hit speeds of up to 25 meters per second by the morning of July 8.

The JMA is calling on residents not to go near the ocean.

Okinawa's main island, meanwhile, has been covered in clouds from the outer rim of the typhoon, and is likely to see heavy rains of up to 50 millimeters per hour through the evening of July 7. Damp air has made its way to southern Kyushu as well, bringing unstable weather to the region. The Amami region is expected to see rain until July 8.

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Victim of Dhaka terror attack volunteered in Japan and abroad

July 5, 2016 (Mainichi Japan)
Victim of Dhaka terror attack volunteered in Japan and abroad

As a government plane carrying the bodies of seven Japanese hostages killed in a terrorist attack in Dhaka, Bangladesh, arrived at Haneda Airport on the morning of July 5, among the white-draped coffins it carried was the body of 27-year-old Rui Shimodaira, who had been an active volunteer both in Japan and abroad since she was a student.

Shimodaira graduated from Shibaura Institute of Technology's School of Architecture and went on to study social engineering in graduate school at the Tokyo Institute of Technology, during which time she studied abroad in Thailand. She was involved with the activities of the NPO Japan team of young Human Power since when she was a second-year university student. In March 2009 she was part of a group of about 20 people from this NPO who went to the Cambodian capital of Phnom Penh and to the country's northwest city of Battambang, where together with her fellow volunteers she built swings for elementary schools.

The head of the NPO's secretariat, Masayoshi Kiyokuni, 45, who also took part in these activities, remembers well how amid scorching temperatures of around 40 degrees Celsius Shimodaira still stepped forward to engage in physical labor.

"During breaks she was friendly with the children, and she was mindful of those around her," he recalls.

After returning to Japan, Shimodaira reportedly said of her volunteer experience, "I got back more than I gave." After the Great East Japan Earthquake, from April to May of 2011 she did volunteer work in the town of Minamisanriku, Miyagi Prefecture, to clean photographs pulled from the tsunami rubble so they could be returned to their owners.

Shimodaira gained employment at Almec Corp., an architectural consultant company, in order to help the progress of developing countries. When Kiyokuni learned that Shimodaira had gotten this job, he says he felt, "Her volunteer activities until now and her research at university and graduate school will all prove useful. This is a job that she chose of her own desire."

Kiyokuni mourned Shimodaira's death in the Dhaka attack, saying, "She must have still had many things she wanted to do in her life."

Professor Hideaki Shimura at Shibaura Institute of Technology, who gave Shimodaira guidance for her graduation research, says, "She was a brave student of action. She had a clear goal of wanting to work in developing countries."

Even after graduating, Shimodaira would give undergraduates advice on studying abroad and finding work, says Shimura.

"I had been looking forward to what she could accomplish in the future. We lost a precious, capable person," he says.

The 69-year-old owner of a dry cleaning shop in the city of Fujimi, Saitama Prefecture, near the home where Shimodaira grew up who knew Shimodaira since she was a child says, "When she was little she would often bring laundry here. She was a very cheerful and modest child."

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Bodies of Dhaka terrorist attack victims arrive in Japan

July 5, 2016 (Mainichi Japan)
Bodies of Dhaka terrorist attack victims arrive in Japan

TOKYO (Kyodo) -- A government plane carrying the bodies of seven Japanese victims of the terror attack in Bangladesh returned to Japan on Tuesday morning, with the victims' relatives also aboard the aircraft.

The Air Self-Defense Force jet landed at Tokyo's Haneda airport shortly before 6 a.m., after leaving Bangladesh's capital Dhaka on Monday evening.

Foreign Minister Fumio Kishida and Deputy Chief Cabinet Secretary Koichi Hagiuda laid flowers and held a moment of silence in front of the caskets unloaded onto the tarmac.

"It is extremely regrettable that precious lives were lost in a savage and heinous terrorist attack," Kishida told reporters afterward. "I felt deep sorrow and strong indignation."

The victims were Makoto Okamura, 32, Yuko Sakai, 42, and Rui Shimodaira, 27, all of whom worked for Tokyo-based construction consulting company Almec Corp.; Hideki Hashimoto, 65, Nobuhiro Kurosaki, 48, and Hiroshi Tanaka, 80, who worked for Tokyo-based consulting firm Oriental Consultants Global Co.; and Koyo Ogasawara, 56, an employee of Katahira & Engineers International.

Tamaoki Watanabe, who was among the 13 people rescued when police stormed the restaurant, is recovering from a gunshot wound. The sole Japanese survivor of the attack, who is in his 40s, returned to Tokyo on a small jet early Tuesday morning.

Police are planning to conduct postmortems on the victims to ascertain the precise cause of death as they launch a murder investigation.

The government will hold a meeting of Cabinet ministers in the morning to discuss the case.

Twenty hostages including nine Italians and one person each from the United States and India as well as the seven Japanese were killed after heavily armed Islamist militants attacked a restaurant frequented by expatriates in Dhaka on Friday evening.

Six attackers were shot dead and one captured when police stormed the restaurant on Saturday. Two police officers were also killed, while 13 hostages were rescued.

The relatives of the Japanese victims and survivor left for Dhaka on the government plane on Saturday evening.

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香山リカのココロの万華鏡 : 選挙で大人の階段上る /東京

July 3, 2016 (Mainichi Japan)
Kaleidoscope of the Heart: Voting is Japanese youths' new rite of passage
香山リカのココロの万華鏡 : 選挙で大人の階段上る /東京

Revisions to the Public Offices Election Law lowering the legal voting age to 18 from 20 came into effect this year, just in time for the July 10 House of Councillors election.
公職選挙法が変わり今度の参院選から選挙権の年齢が「20歳以上」から「18歳以上」に引き下げになった。

There are some people who wonder if 18-year-olds, most of whom are still in high school, are capable of choosing a candidate and voting properly, but I for one am in favor of the new voting age. I think it's excellent that young people now have the chance to express their strong opinions about our society.
「18歳の多くはまだ高校生、候補者を選んできちんと投票なんてできるの?」という疑問の声もあるが、私は個人的には賛成だ。若い人にも積極的に社会に対して自分の意見を表明できるチャンスがあるのは、とてもいいことだと思うからだ。

However, to the question, "Is an 18-year-old really an adult who can formulate a solid opinion?" I would have to answer "no." Until the present era, the psychology community considered 18 to be the age when a person had more or less got a good grasp on what kind of person they were. They were ready to start work, or go onto more specific study in university, or to begin looking for their life partner.
しかし「18歳は自分の意見をはっきり決められるおとなか」と言われると、「それは違う」と答えたほうがよさそうだ。従来の心理学の考え方だと、人は18歳くらいまでに「自分とはどんな人間か」がだいたい見えてきて、そのあと就職したり、より専門的な勉強のために大学に行ったり、パートナーを求めて恋愛をする、ということになっていた。

But what about now? I believe that there are very few 18-year-olds now who have a firm idea of who they are, or who can make solid decisions grounded in their own will about study and work. From this perspective, it's understandable to think that 18 is too early an age to start voting.
いまはどうだろう。18歳で「自分は何者か」がはっきりわかっていて、仕事や専門を自分の意志でしっかり決められるという人は少ないと思う。そう考えれば、たしかに「18歳での選挙権は早すぎる」となるのかもしれない。

However, that begs the question: "How old does a person need to be to make their own decisions?" There are more and more people these days who declare that, though they are legal adults, they are still "searching" for themselves. There are ever more people in their 30s, 40s or even 50s who come to my practice and tell me, "I can't find myself. I've tried a lot of different things, but I just can't think of a job or a lifestyle that's really me."
しかし、ではいったい何歳なら自分で決められるのか。最近は、「年齢は成人だがまだまだ“自分さがし中”」という人も増えている。30代どころか40代、50代になっても「自分が見つからない。いろいろトライしてもどれも自分らしい仕事、生き方と考えられない」と悩み、診察室にやって来る人たちも増えている。

There are others whose sons or daughters have started their adult lives, and the parents ask me, "Will my kids be OK?" Some admit to being so concerned they call the companies their children work for.
また、社会人になった息子や娘が心配で「ウチの子、大丈夫でしょうか」と診察室について来たり、勤め先の会社に電話したりして尋ねる親もいる。

That being the case, I think we ought to give 18-year-olds -- many of them nearing graduation from high school -- the vote, simply to say to them, "All right, now is the time to use your head. You ought to be able to make a choice for now (in an election)." This will usher them into adulthood, a full member of adult society, hopefully sparking a new self-awareness. Then parents, too, may be able to tell themselves that their teenage child, heading out to vote, has become an independent individual.
だとしたら、と私は思うのだ。高校を卒業する年齢に近づく18歳になったら、「もうあなたは自分の頭で考え、とりあえずの選択ができるはず」ということにして、選挙権を与えてよいはずだ、と。そうやって「おとなの一員」に若者を迎え入れることで、若者も自覚が生まれると期待できるし、その親たちも「わが子は選挙に行くひとりの独立した人間なのだ」と自分に言い聞かせることができるかもしれない。

I'd like to add that today's young people have spent their entire lives in a Japan that is struggling economically, and have a pretty good idea of what the world has in store for them. As the world goes through its upheavals, there are many young people who have used the free flow of information across our planet to develop a real globalist sense.
それに、いまの若者たちは生まれたときから不況という状況の中で、かなり世の中の状況がしっかり見えている。世界が激動する中で、ネットを駆使しながらグローバルな感覚を身につけている若者も多い。

I have high expectations of the coming upper house election and its newly enfranchised 18- and 19-year-old voters. We have to somehow get adults who say they have "no interest in politics or elections" involved again, too.
18歳、19歳が参加する今度の選挙にとても期待している。おとなも「政治や選挙には関心ないんだよね」などとうかうかしていられない。

(By Rika Kayama, psychiatrist) (精神科医)

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クリック募金^^
プロフィール
自己紹介・リンク

■近況

2009年の9月15日に脳梗塞を発症、右手が少し不自由になりました。
MRAで脳梗塞の部位を特定でき、素早い処置をとれたので大事に至りませんでした。
快復にむけてリハビリ中です。
(2011/01/01更新)

■自己紹介・リンク

[ はじめに ]
タイのスラチャイです。
英語学習に王道はありません。
毎日毎日の地道な努力の積み重ねが必要です。
スラチャイはNHKのラジオ英語会話で現在の英語力を身につけました。
一日僅か15分の学習でも数年間継続すれば相当な学習効果が期待できます。

[ 名前 ]
松井 清 (スラチャイ)

[ 略歴 ]
・福岡県出身
・国立高知大学卒業
・準大手建設会社に就職
・50歳で会社を早期退職
・99/10 タイ全土を旅行
・00/10 タイに移住
・03/07 カイちゃん誕生
・07/06 シーファーちゃん誕生
・現在タイ国コンケン在住

[ 座右の銘 ]
Slow and steady wins the race.
遅くとも着実な者が勝利する
(NHK基礎英語芹沢栄先生)

[ 学習の手引き ]
・音読して耳から英語を吸収
・Think in English.
・ネイティブ発音付辞書活用
・英英辞典を活用(英和も)
・翻訳和文で専門用語確認

[ English Newspapers ]
Yomiuri
Mainichi
Asahi
Japan Times
Washington Post
Newyork Times
Bangkok Post
The Nations
Phuket Gazette

[ 英字新聞の英和対訳学習 ]
英字新聞(読売)
英字新聞(毎日)
英字新聞(朝日)
英字新聞(朝日2)

[ スラチャイ編集の辞書 ]
タイ日辞書(改訂版)
日タイ辞書(改訂版)
ラオ日辞書
日ラオ辞書

[ 英字新聞リンク ]
ocn cafe
fc2
goo
yahoo
ameba

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オンラインカジノとは

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roulette game
通勤電車の中で稼ぐ(ルーレット)^^
ルーレットで遊ぶ

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最新コメント
記事検索
seesaa100 英字新聞s HPs

スラチャイの家族紹介
私の家族

スラチャイの手作りリンク集
スラチャイタイ在住14年目
New!中国語会話基礎(北京語)他
タイ日辞典(単語帳)
タイ語の子音
タイ語の母音
スラチャイ編曲のmidiのギター曲
スラチャイ編曲のJ.S.Bachです

スラチャイの多国言語学習
初歩のタイ語
初歩の中国語
初歩のラオス語
初歩のビルマ語
初歩のシンハリ語
初歩のタガログ語

タイ語の基礎
タイ文字
タイ日辞書
タイ語の副詞
タイ語の前置詞
タイ語の助動詞
タイ語の接続詞

基礎タイ語一覧(タイ文字、ローマ字)
seesaaサイト内リンク一覧:
01 あいさつ
02 別れのあいさつ
03 声をかけるとき
04 感謝の言葉と答え方
05 謝罪の言葉と答え方
06 聞き直すとき
07 相手の言うことがわからないとき
08 うまく言えないとき
09 一般的なあいづち
10 よくわからないときの返事
11 強めのあいづち
12 自分について述べるとき
13 相手のことを尋ねるとき
14 頼みごとをするとき
15 申し出・依頼を断るとき
16 許可を求めるとき
17 説明してもらうとき
18 確認を求めるとき
19 状況を知りたいとき
20 値段の尋ね方と断り方
21 急いでもらいたいとき
22 待ってもらいたいとき
23 日時・場所・天候を尋ねるとき
24 その他

基礎タイ語一覧(タイ文字、音声付き)
サイト外HPリンク一覧:
01 あいさつ
02 別れのあいさつ
03 声をかけるとき
04 感謝の言葉と答え方
05 謝罪の言葉と答え方
06 聞き直すとき
07 相手の言うことがわからないとき
08 うまく言えないとき
09 一般的なあいづち
10 よくわからないときの返事
11 強めのあいづち
12 自分について述べるとき
13 相手のことを尋ねるとき
14 頼みごとをするとき
15 申し出・依頼を断るとき
16 許可を求めるとき
17 説明してもらうとき
18 確認を求めるとき
19 状況を知りたいとき
20 値段の尋ね方と断り方
21 急いでもらいたいとき
22 待ってもらいたいとき
23 日時・場所・天候を尋ねるとき
24 その他

タイの文化一覧:
01 雨の日にも傘をささないタイ人
02 勉強熱心なタイ人女性たち
03 タイ人は敬謙な仏教徒
04 タイの市場
05 タイの食堂
06 タイ人は外食が大好き
07 果物王国タイランド
08 タイ人の誕生日
09 タイの電話代は高い
10 微笑みの国タイランド

14の戒律(テラワーダ仏教戒律)
seesaaサイト内リンク一覧:
第01番目の戒律
第02番目の戒律
第03番目の戒律
第04番目の戒律
第05番目の戒律
第06番目の戒律
第07番目の戒律
第08番目の戒律
第09番目の戒律
第10番目の戒律
第11番目の戒律
第12番目の戒律
第13番目の戒律
第14番目の戒律

14の戒律(テラワーダ仏教戒律)
サイト外HPリンク一覧:
14の戒律解説
第01番目の戒律
第02番目の戒律
第03番目の戒律
第04番目の戒律
第05番目の戒律
第06番目の戒律
第07番目の戒律
第08番目の戒律
第09番目の戒律
第10番目の戒律
第11番目の戒律
第12番目の戒律
第13番目の戒律
第14番目の戒律


[ 英字新聞リンク ]
yahoo geolog
yaplog
worldpress
teacup
jugem
hatena
@word
blogger
biglobe
excite
a8
so-net
ameblo
wox
rakuten
ninja
seesaa
goo
fc2
yahoo
livedoor
dreamlog

[ HPリンク ]
cocolog 家族のアルバム
fc2 家族のアルバム
初歩の日本語(タイ人学生向け)
タイの小学三年生数学学力テスト(国家試験)
タイ語、中国語、ビルマ語
Preliminary Japanese lessons for Thai students
旅行のタイ語学習サイト
ラオ日・日老辞書
妻はタイ人/タイの文化/タイの仏教戒律

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