英字新聞

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2016年03月

教科書検定 押しつけは時代遅れだ

--The Asahi Shimbun, March 19
EDITORIAL: Do not impose government’s viewpoints on school textbooks
(社説)教科書検定 押しつけは時代遅れだ

School textbooks are not tools for the government to indoctrinate young people with its views and opinions.
教科書は、時の政権の言い分を教え込む道具ではない。

The education ministry on March 18 announced the results of its screening of new high school textbooks to be used from spring next year.
来年春から高校で使う教科書の検定結果が発表された。

This year, the ministry applied, for the first time, new rules about the authorization of textbooks to those used at high schools.
文部科学省は、新しいルールを高校に初めて適用した。

Besides changing the guidelines for editing textbooks, the ministry also revised its screening standards to require publishers to ensure descriptions on issues about which the government has announced an official position reflect that view.
教科書編集の指針を変え、検定基準も政府見解があれば、それに基づいて記すよう改めた。

These changes were made in response to demands from the ruling Liberal Democratic Party.
自民党の意向に沿ったものだ。

The outcome of the screening of high school textbooks reminds us of what happened last year, when new textbooks for junior high schools underwent the process.
今回も、昨年の中学の検定と同じようなことが起きた。

The ministry instructed the publishers to describe Japan’s territorial disputes with its neighbors in line with the government’s position. In one case, an article in a textbook about war reparations had to be rewritten after the ministry criticized the text for failing to reflect the government’s stance on compensation for wartime forced laborers from China.
領土問題で、日本政府の立場を記すよう意見をつけた。戦後補償のコラムには、政府見解に基づいて書くよう指摘した。

Notably, the ministry demanded that the descriptions on controversial topics, such as the Self-Defense Forces, the Constitution and nuclear power generation, be in line with the positions of the Abe administration.
目立ったのは、自衛隊や憲法、原発など賛否の分かれる問題で、安倍政権の姿勢に沿う記述を求めたことだ。

The ministry, for instance, took issue with one textbook’s description about Prime Minister Shinzo Abe’s “proactive pacifism.” The original text described Abe's foreign policy principle as one that has "changed the government's interpretation of the Constitution" and provides for "the SDF to operate in wider areas."
例えば「現代社会」で、積極的平和主義の記述がある。原本には「憲法解釈を変更し」「広範な地域で自衛隊の活動を認めようという考え方」とあった。

The ministry contended that the passage could cause a misunderstanding. Since proactive pacifism is a doctrine, the ministry said, the goal it is designed to achieve should also be mentioned.
ここに「誤解するおそれがある」と意見がついた。「主義」なので、もとになる目的を書くように、というのだ。

Consequently, the text was revised to say that the doctrine is intended to enable Japan to “make active contribution to ensuring peace, stability and prosperity in international society” by changing the interpretation of the Constitution with regard to the SDF’s activities.
その結果、自衛隊活動をめぐる憲法解釈の変更により、「国際社会の平和と安定および繁栄の確保に、積極的に寄与していこうとするもの」となった。

Acquiring knowledge about the government’s official positions on various issues is not harmful for students. But treating the government’s views as the right answer to think about these issues is tantamount to imposing specific opinions on young people.
政府の立場を知ることは悪いことではない。ただ、それを唯一の正解として扱うのは押しつけだろう。

The administration’s approach to textbook screening is more and more coming to resemble the prewar system of government-designated textbooks.
戦前の国定教科書に近づいていないか。

The government overestimates the influence of textbooks on young people’s thinking, in the first place.
国はそもそも教科書の影響力を大きく考えすぎている。

Textbooks are not the only sources of knowledge for children. By visiting a library, for instance, they can easily find written works presenting different opinions and viewpoints from those of the government.
子どもは教科書だけで学んでいるのではない。図書館で調べれば、反対の見方や違った視点の本を知ることができる。

The education ministry is now working on new official curriculum guidelines.
文科省は、次の学習指導要領の議論を進めている。

It is planning to create new subjects, including a comprehensive study of modern world history and civics education about the rights and obligations of citizens and voters.
These subjects will be aimed at helping students develop the ability to think about things from diverse viewpoints and angles, according to the ministry.
高校で「歴史総合」「公共」(ともに仮称)などの科目をつくり、多面的、多角的に考える力を育てようというのだ。

Textbooks for these subjects should be designed to show that the government’s views and opinions are relative to the standpoints of various players, including opposition parties, citizens and other countries.
こうした科目では、政権の見方、考え方を相対化し、野党や市民、他国など様々な立場を伝える教科書が求められよう。

It is questionable whether the current textbook screening system will be suitable for the goals of the new subjects.
いまのままの検定の姿勢で、果たして対応できるだろうか。

The current system is based on the assumption that textbooks are traditional printed books.
現在の検定制度は、紙の教科書を前提にしている。

But an increasing number of textbooks show the addresses of websites that offer good reference materials.
だが、参考になるサイトのアドレスを書く教科書が増えてきた。

The ministry checks the content in these websites during its textbook screening, but the pages of a website are updated constantly. It is impossible for the government to keep track of all changes in the content of the websites mentioned in textbooks.
検定でもその内容を確認しているが、ページの内容はどんどん変わる。国が中身を吟味し切れるものではない。

The current textbook screening system, which tends to nitpick over specific terms and phrases in the text, is already outdated.
教科書の一言一句に目くじらを立てる検定は、もはや時代遅れではないか。

The government should shift its education policy to allow a wider range of teaching materials, expand the discretion of teachers in how to teach classes and increase opportunities for children to think from diverse viewpoints. The government should start taking steps to reinvent the textbook screening system in line with these principles.
幅広い教材を認め、教師の指導の裁量を広げ、子どもが多角的に考える機会を増やす。検定も、その方向に踏み出してもらいたい。

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北ミサイル発射 国際社会で孤立深める軽挙だ

The Yomiuri Shimbun
North Korea’s missile launch a rash act that increases its isolation
北ミサイル発射 国際社会で孤立深める軽挙だ

North Korea apparently wants to flaunt the enhancement of its nuclear capability, but in reality, the country is just intensifying its international isolation.
「核戦力」の増強を誇示したいのだろうが、実際は国際的な孤立を深めるだけである。

Pyongyang launched a missile believed to be a Nodong medium-range ballistic missile from around Sukchon in the western part of the country. It flew a distance of about 800 kilometers and fell into the Sea of Japan.
北朝鮮が中距離弾道ミサイル「ノドン」とみられるミサイルを、西部粛川付近から発射した。約800キロ飛行して、日本海に落下した。

According to the South Korean military, North Korea fired another missile, but it immediately disappeared from radar. It is possible that it exploded in the air.
韓国軍によると、もう1発発射したが、直後にレーダーから消えた。空中爆発の可能性がある。

In response to North Korea’s nuclear testing and other incidents, the U.N. Security Council early this month adopted a resolution anew that bans the country from firing ballistic missiles.
北朝鮮の核実験などを受けて、国連安全保障理事会は今月初旬、改めて弾道ミサイルの発射を禁じる決議を採択している。

Following the launch of short-range ballistic missiles a week ago, North Korea’s latest action clearly violates the resolution.
北朝鮮の行動は、1週間前の短距離弾道ミサイル発射に続き、明白に決議に違反している。

It was reasonable that Prime Minister Shinzo Abe condemned North Korea and said Japan would respond decisively while working closely with the international community.
安倍首相が「国際社会と緊密に連携し、毅然きぜんとして対応する」と非難したのは、当然である。

North Korea is reacting more and more furiously against the Security Council’s resolution and U.S.-South Korean joint military exercises that started this month.
北朝鮮は、安保理決議と、今月始まった米韓合同軍事演習に対して、反発を強めている。

According to the Korean Central News Agency, North Korean leader Kim Jong Un declared that he will soon conduct a test explosion of a nuclear warhead and test-fire several types of ballistic missiles that can carry nuclear warheads.
朝鮮中央通信によると、金正恩第1書記は、「核弾頭の爆発実験」と「核弾頭搭載可能な様々な弾道ミサイルの発射実験」を早期に行うと言い放った。

He also claimed that his country has succeeded in reducing the weight of nuclear warheads, and even suggested the country would become able to make a “preemptive nuclear attack” to counter the United States.
核弾頭の軽量化に成功したとも主張し、米国に対抗する「核先制攻撃」までも示唆している。

Security concern for Japan

Kim apparently wants to strengthen his leadership in the run-up to the Congress of the Workers’ Party of Korea, which is to be convened in May. However, many observers doubt that North Korea has advanced its miniaturization of nuclear warheads enough to load them on missiles.
金第1書記は、5月の朝鮮労働党大会に向けて、自らの求心力を高めたいのだろう。しかし、核弾頭の小型化が、ミサイルに搭載できるレベルにまで進んだのは疑わしいとの見方が一般的である。

“If the latest missile launch leads to enhancement of North Korea’s ballistic missile capabilities, it will be a source of strong national security concern for Japan,” said Defense Minister Gen Nakatani.
中谷防衛相は発射について、「弾道ミサイルの能力増強につながるとすれば、我が国の安全保障上、強く懸念する」と語った。

Pyongyang is said to have already deployed many Nodong missiles that could reach Japan. Because the missiles use mobile launchers, it is difficult to detect advance signs of launches. It remains necessary to keep an eye on North Korea’s attempts to improve the accuracy of its missiles by repeatedly conducting test-firings.
日本を射程に収めるノドンは多数、実戦配備されているといわれる。移動式発射台を使うため、事前に発射の兆候をつかみにくい。発射を重ねて精度を高めることには警戒が怠れない。

Also, preparations must be made to deal with further military provocations North Korea might engage in to heighten tensions on the Korean Peninsula.
北朝鮮が朝鮮半島の緊張を高めようと、さらなる軍事的挑発に出ることにも備える必要がある。

The international community must not overlook the reckless attitude of Kim, who does not try to hide his ambition to possess nuclear-armed missiles.
国際社会は、核ミサイル保有の野心を隠さない金第1書記の暴走を看過してはなるまい。

First, sanctions resolutions adopted by the U.N. Security Council should be strictly implemented. It is essential to enhance an international coalition that is working to shut down the flow of funds and materials necessary for development of nuclear missiles to North Korea.
まずは、安保理制裁決議を厳格に履行すべきだ。核ミサイル開発の資金や物資を遮断する包囲網を強化することが欠かせない。

The tripartite security partnership of Japan, the United States and South Korea has become even more important for inhibiting North Korea’s reckless actions without being intimidated by its threats.
北朝鮮の脅しに動じず、その暴発を抑止するには、日米韓3か国の安全保障面での連携がますます重要になっている。

Japan, the United States and South Korea are trying to organize summit talks of their leaders on the sidelines of a Nuclear Security Summit to be held in the United States late this month. We hope concrete measures that would improve the efficacy of sanctions will be discussed while obtaining China’s cooperation.
今月末に米国で行われる核安全サミットに合わせて、日米韓は首脳会談を開催する方向だ。中国の協力を得つつ、制裁の実効性を高める具体策を協議したい。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, March 19, 2016)

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中国全人代閉幕 「独善」と「強権」が進む一方だ

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Chinese govt continues headlong with self-serving, authoritarian approach
中国全人代閉幕 「独善」と「強権」が進む一方だ

It appears the administration of Chinese President Xi Jinping has further strengthened its self-serving approach to foreign policy, and its authoritarian governance over domestic matters.
中国の習近平政権の独善的な対外姿勢と内政面の強権統治が一段と強まったと言えよう。

China’s National People’s Congress, its equivalent of the Diet, has closed its annual meeting.
中国の全国人民代表大会(全人代=国会)が閉幕した。

At a press conference after the Congress closed, Chinese Premier Li Keqiang was asked about Japan-China ties. He said, “There have been some signs of an improvement in Sino-Japanese ties, but it is not fully established and still fragile.” On issues related to perceptions of history, Li made a request to Japan, saying: “It is important to match one’s words with concrete actions. What I don’t want to see is [the issues] going backwards.”
李克強首相は記者会見で、日中関係について、「改善の勢いはあるが、強固ではなく、脆弱ぜいじゃくだ」と強調した。歴史問題でも、「言行を一致させるべきだ。元の道に戻るのを目にしたくない」と述べ、日本の対応に注文を付けた。

Earlier this month, Chinese Foreign Minister Wang Yi also displayed his distrust of Japan when he said: “On the one hand, the Japanese government and leaders say nice things about wanting to improve relations. On the other hand, they are making trouble for China at every turn.” He then criticized Japan by saying, “This is a typical case of double-dealing.”
王毅外相も先に、「日本の政府と指導者は関係改善が必要と言う一方で、絶えず中国に対し、面倒を起こしている」と、不信感を示した。日本を「裏表のある人のやり方だ」とも批判していた。

These comments probably stemmed from resentment at such factors as Japan’s moves, in tandem with the United States, to check the expansion of China’s effective control of the South China Sea.
日本が米国と歩調を合わせて、中国による南シナ海での実効支配の拡大を牽制けんせいすることなどに反発しているのだろう。

However, we think it is China that is being Janus-faced, as it advocates “peaceful development” even while its actions heighten regional tensions. The point China argues is absurd.
だが、二面性があるのは、「平和発展」を標榜ひょうぼうしながら、地域の緊張を高める中国の言動ではないか。中国の指摘は筋違いだ。

According to the U.S. government, Beijing is expected to complete the establishment of military facilities on manmade islands in the South China Sea at the end of this year or early next year.
米政府によると、南シナ海の人工島の軍事拠点化は年末か来年初めに完成する見通しだという。

In a swipe aimed at the United States, Wang said: “China cannot be accused of ‘militarization.’ The label is more suited to some other countries.” But no matter how much the Xi administration uses sophistry, it cannot cover up its military expansion.
王氏は米国を念頭に、「軍事化のレッテルは中国には貼れない。ぴったりの国がある」とも語った。習政権がいくら詭弁きべんを弄しても、軍拡の実態は糊塗ことできまい。

Senkaku ruling inappropriate

It is unacceptable that the Supreme People’s Court (China’s Supreme Court), in a report to the Congress, insisted China had demonstrated “jurisdiction” over waters around the Senkaku Islands in Okinawa Prefecture. It said a Chinese maritime court had mediated a case involving a collision between a Chinese fishing vessel and a Panama-registered freighter in September 2014.
最高人民法院(最高裁)が全人代の報告で、沖縄県の尖閣諸島海域で「司法管轄権」を示したと主張したことも受け入れられない。一昨年9月の中国漁船とパナマ船籍貨物船の衝突事故を中国の海事裁判所が調停したとしている。

While this aimed to raise the issue of territorial sovereignty over the Senkaku Islands, the collision actually happened outside the territorial waters of the islands, so China’s standpoint has no foundation. The Japanese government rightly lodged a protest.
尖閣諸島に対する領土主権を訴える狙いだろうが、そもそも発生場所は尖閣諸島の領域外であり、中国の見解に根拠はない。日本政府が抗議したのは当然である。

The National People’s Congress also adopted a new five-year plan for economic and social development. Worryingly, a chapter titled “building a national security system” that was added to this blueprint included steps to strengthen the monitoring of opinions expressed on the Internet.
全人代では、経済・社会政策に関する新5か年計画が採択された。懸念されるのは、「国家安全体制の構築」という項目が計画に追加され、ネット世論の管理強化などが盛り込まれたことだ。

Since the Xi administration was launched, it has stepped up its oppression of human rights lawyers and nongovernmental organizations. It is certain that censorship, such as tighter controls on the media, will be further strengthened in the name of this “national security system.”
習政権は発足以来、人権派弁護士や民間活動団体(NGO)に対する抑圧をエスカレートさせてきた。「国家安全体制」を名目に、メディアの締め付けなど言論弾圧をさらに強めるのは確実だ。

The ruling administration’s anxiety over the economic slowdown also is behind its moves to strengthen its control. The string of speakers at the Congress voicing concern over overseas shopping sprees by Chinese was probably another indication of this.
統制強化の背景には、政権の経済減速への危機感もあろう。中国人による外国での「爆買い」を憂慮する声が全人代で相次いだのは、その表れではないか。

Even if China tries to suppress dissenting opinions by force, its image as an anachronism will only spread through the international community.
中国が力で異論を抑え込もうとしても、時代錯誤とのイメージが国際社会で広がるだけだ。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, March 18, 2016)

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米大統領選 煽動的言辞が招く社会の亀裂

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Incendiary language by a presidential candidate invites divisiveness in U.S.
米大統領選 煽動的言辞が招く社会の亀裂

Primary elections were held in five U.S. states, including Florida, as candidates from the Republican and Democratic parties chase the nomination to contest the presidential election in November. More than 60 percent of Republican Party delegates have been decided. The party’s race has passed the halfway mark.
11月の米大統領選に向けた共和、民主両党の指名候補争いで、フロリダなど5州の予備選が行われた。共和党では、累積代議員数が6割に達し、折り返し点を過ぎた。

Real estate mogul Donald Trump maintained the lead for the Republican nomination. Hard-line conservative Sen. Ted Cruz remains behind in second place. While Trump has kept his dominance in the race, some forecasts suggest he will fall short of the majority of delegates needed to assure him the nomination. It is too early to tell what will happen.
不動産王ドナルド・トランプ氏が首位を堅持した。保守強硬派のテッド・クルーズ上院議員が2位で追う展開が続く。トランプ氏の優位は揺るがないが、過半数の代議員を獲得できないとの観測もあり、予断を許さない。

Mainstream candidate Sen. Marco Rubio lost in his home state of Florida and announced his withdrawal from the race. John Kasich picked up his first victory in Ohio, where he is the governor. Some pundits believe “anti-Trump” votes flocked to him.
主流派では、マルコ・ルビオ上院議員が地元フロリダ州で敗れ、撤退を表明した。ジョン・ケーシック氏は知事を務めるオハイオ州で初の勝利を収めた。「反トランプ票」が集まったとみられる。

This likely reflected widening efforts among mainstream Republicans to cooperate to halt Trump’s momentum. They have been concerned by Trump’s frequent off-color remarks.
トランプ氏の過激な発言への懸念から、党主流派の間で勢いを止めようとする連帯の動きが広がっていることの表れだろう。

Some prominent figures responsible for policies within the Republican Party have even suggested a preference for former U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton, who is increasingly likely to be the Democratic nominee.
共和党内の政策を担う有識者には、民主党候補指名の公算が大きくなったヒラリー・クリントン前国務長官を推す声も出始めた。

Disturbingly, violent incidents have been occurring at Trump’s rallies. As a black audience member who had criticized Trump was being led from a venue, he was punched by a white man in the crowd. Trump himself has ordered protesters to be removed, and lashed out with comments such as they “should have been roughed up.”
深刻なのは、トランプ氏の集会でトラブルが相次いでいる事態だ。批判した黒人の聴衆が退場させられる際に、客席の白人に殴られた。トランプ氏自ら、抗議者の退場を命じ、「殴られて当然だ」などと暴言も吐いてきた。

A Trump campaign rally was even canceled due to the impact of protest activities by African-Americans and Latinos.
アフリカ系や中南米系の人たちによる抗議活動の影響で、演説が中止されることもあった。

Japan under fire

The main cause of these confrontations has been Trump’s “pledges,” which could be interpreted as racial discrimination. These include his call to deport all illegal immigrants living in the United States, and to ban all Muslims from entering the country.
原因は、すべての不法移民の強制送還やイスラム教徒の入国禁止など、人種差別と取られかねないトランプ氏の「公約」にある。

There are a myriad of problems with Trump’s method of boosting his support by branding opposition forces as the enemy to stir up confrontation. People from a diverse variety of races, religions and beliefs coexist in the United States. His comments are fueling feuds between these groups and deepening divisiveness in U.S. society.
反対勢力に敵のレッテルを貼って対立を煽動せんどうし、支持を高める手法には問題が多い。米国には人種や宗教、信条などの異なる人々が混在する。それらをいがみ合わせ、社会の亀裂を深めている。

The senior leadership of the Republican Party bears a heavy responsibility for these developments. Within the party, a conservative hard-line element, which seeks to minimize the role of the government by largely reducing tax for the wealthy and cutting social security spending, is gaining strength. The mainstream element has been unable to stop this movement, and what is effectively a split inside the party has been left as it is.
共和党指導部の責任も大きい。党内では、富裕層の大型減税、社会保障費のカットなど政府の役割の最小化を目指す保守強硬派の勢いが増す。主流派は制御できず、事実上の分裂を放置してきた。

By painting himself as an outsider, Trump has exploited this confusion and broadened his support among the moderate element of the party and political independents. He has suggested policies including limiting the scope of tax cuts for the wealthy to make his candidacy more acceptable to middle-income earners.
アウトサイダーのトランプ氏はこうした混乱に乗じて、党内の穏健派や無党派層にも支持を広げた側面がある。富裕層の減税規模を抑えるなど、中間所得層が受け入れやすい政策も掲げている。

Regarding the Japan-U.S. Security Treaty, Trump has declared it is unfair that the pact unilaterally obliges the United States to defend Japan and also calls on Japan to accept more of the burden. On the North Korea’s nuclear issue, he stated Washington does not need to lead.
トランプ氏は、日米安保条約について、米国が日本防衛義務を一方的に課せられるのは不平等だと主張し、日本の負担増を求める。北朝鮮の核問題でも、米国が先頭に立つ必要はないと訴える。

For Japan, Trump-mania cannot be simply overlooked.
日本にとっても、トランプ旋風は見過ごせない。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, March 17, 2016)

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人工知能 上手に使って住み良い社会に

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Artificial intelligence: Use it well for a society where humans can thrive
人工知能 上手に使って住み良い社会に

The recent feat achieved by AlphaGo was a marvel of striking progress in artificial intelligence (AI) technology.
AlphaGo, an AI-based computer program developed by a British corporation under the umbrella of Google Inc. of the United States, has won against the world’s top Go player, South Korea’s Lee Se Dol, 4-1.
人工知能の技術が目覚ましい進化を遂げていることに驚かされた。
米グーグル傘下の英企業が開発した人工知能の「アルファ碁」が、韓国棋院の世界トップ棋士、李世●九段に4勝1敗で勝ち越した。(●=「石」の下に「乙」)

Previously, AI programs had defeated skilled human players in the fields of chess and shogi. However, it was said that it would take 10 years to see an AI system win against human players in the world of Go.
チェスや将棋では、人工知能が実力者を破っている。だが、囲碁で勝つには、この先10年を要すると言われていた。

It was cited as a high hurdle that the surface of a Go board is broad, and that there are an immeasurable number of choices for moves to be made in playing a match.
盤面が広く、着手の選択肢が桁違いに多いことが、高いハードルとされた。

No wonder Japan’s top master of Go, Yuta Iyama, described AlphaGo’s victory as “shocking.”
日本の第一人者である井山裕太棋聖が「衝撃的」と語ったのも、無理はない。

AlphaGo is able to learn on its own which are the best moves to make in playing a game. The program has read about 30 million images depicting the stages of development in games played by professional and other players. Then it has learned what kinds of patterns are preferred at which stages of development in a game, giving itself a better chance of winning. This has made AlphaGo ever more highly skilled in playing a match.
アルファ碁は、より良い一手を自ら学ぶ能力を備えている。プロらによる対局の盤面の画像を3000万枚も読み込み、どのようなパターンになれば勝ちやすいかを学習し、棋力を高めた。

That approach, called “deep learning,” is one of the state-of-the-art AI theories. To put its victory in a human context, AlphaGo has developed “taikyokukan” (broad-based perspective).
「ディープ・ラーニング(深層学習)」という最新理論だ。人間で言えば、「大局観」を養ったことが勝因だろう。

AI technology has already been put to practical use, such as in image searches. It may be possible that the spread of more advanced AI technology could greatly change our day-to-day life. There also are concerns that the technology could take over clerical work carried out by humans.
人工知能は、画像検索などで既に実用化されている。より高度な人工知能が普及することで、日常生活が大きく変化する可能性がある。事務などの仕事が取って代わられるといった懸念もある。

It is necessary to live with AI technology and make good use of it.
人工知能と共存し、活用していくことが求められる。

Myriad potential benefits

The self-driving car system is designed to prevent accidents by perceiving vehicles and pedestrians around an autonomous car and predicting how they would move.
車の自動運転では、周辺の車両や歩行者を察知し、動きを予測することで、事故を防ぐ。

The use of diagnostic imaging technology will increase the probability of detecting cancer cells. It will also make it possible to predict how the condition of a cancer patient would develop, thereby enabling the patient to receive appropriate treatment.
画像診断では、がん細胞を発見する確率が高まろう。病状の進行を予測して、適切な治療に結び付けることも可能になる。

Progress is being made in developing the technology to instantly distribute to smartphones information about which route should be taken in evacuating at the time of tsunami and other disasters.
津波などの災害時に、どのルートで避難すれば安全か、という情報を瞬時にスマートフォンへ配信するための技術開発が進む。

We hope the public and private sectors will join hands in fully tapping into the advantages of AI technology.
官民が連携し、人工知能のメリットを最大限に引き出したい。

In the United States, Google, IBM and others are fiercely competing with each other in applying AI technology to the analysis of big data, the development of pharmaceutical products and for other purposes.
米国では、グーグルやIBMなどが、ビッグデータの解析や医薬品開発などへの応用で激しい競争を繰り広げている。

It is disturbing to see that the presence of Japanese corporations is weak in this respect. Because of budgetary constraints and other reasons, these companies have hardly been able to apply their research results to the commercialization of products. Research papers originating in Japan account for a slumping 2 percent to 3 percent of those submitted from around the world.
これに対し、国内企業の存在感が薄いのが気がかりだ。予算の制約などで、研究成果が、ほとんど製品化につながっていない。世界の中で日本発の論文が占める割合は、2~3%と低迷している。

It is necessary to quickly nurture young researchers and engineers in this country.
若手の研究者や技術者の育成を急ぐ必要がある。

The main pillar of the 5th Science and Technology Basic Plan, finalized by the government at a Cabinet meeting in January, is to realize “a supersmart society” through the use of AI technology.
政府は、1月に閣議決定した第5期科学技術基本計画の柱に、人工知能による「超スマート社会」の実現を据えている。

If robotics technology, Japan’s field of expertise, is combined with AI, a mix of these technologies could be expected to make up for labor shortages in a society whose population is decreasing.
日本の得意分野であるロボット技術に人工知能を組み合わせれば、人口減社会での労働力不足を補う役割も期待できるだろう。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, March 16, 2016)

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福島の住民帰還 人口減に備える地域再生策を

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Plans to revive areas hit by N-disaster must cover population decline problem
福島の住民帰還 人口減に備える地域再生策を

Even though five years have passed since the disaster at Tokyo Electric Power Co.’s Fukushima No. 1 nuclear power plant occurred, nearly 100,000 people from Fukushima Prefecture continue to live as evacuees both in and outside the prefecture.
東京電力福島第一原子力発電所の事故から5年を経た今も、10万人近くの福島県民が県内外で避難生活を続けている。

The government plans to lift by March 2017 the evacuation orders for areas where residence is restricted — excluding those that are designated as difficult-to-return zones because of extremely high levels of radiation — as well as areas where preparations are being made for the lifting of evacuation orders.
政府は、放射線量が極めて高い帰還困難区域以外の居住制限区域と避難指示解除準備区域について、2017年3月までの解除を目指す方針だ。

How the blueprints for regional rejuvenation should be drawn up with evacuees’ return home in mind is a major challenge facing the municipalities concerned.
避難住民の帰還を見据え、いかに地域再生への青写真を描くか。各自治体の重い課題である。

One headache in this regard is that lifting the evacuation orders will not necessarily lead to the return of evacuees. In the case of Naraha, from which the entire population was evacuated, only 6 percent of the town’s former residents have returned their home bases since the orders were lifted last September.
難しいのは、避難指示の解除が必ずしも住民の帰還につながらない点だ。自治体ぐるみで移転した楢葉町では、昨年9月に解除されたものの、町に生活の拠点を戻した人は6%に過ぎない。

According to a survey of the residents’ opinions conducted in January by the Reconstruction Agency and other entities, those who said they would resume living in the town totaled slightly more than 50 percent of respondents, including those who have already returned.
復興庁などが1月に実施した住民意向調査によると、既に町に戻った人を含め、今後の帰還に前向きな回答をした町民は、50%余りにとどまっている。

In regard to the towns of Futaba and Okuma, most of which are in difficult-to-return zones where the prospects for lifting the evacuation orders are not in sight, only around 10 percent of respondents expressed intentions to return. Those who answered “not returning” accounted for 50 percent to 60 percent.
解除時期が見通せない帰還困難区域が大半を占める双葉、大熊両町では、帰還する意思のある人は1割程度だ。「戻らない」が5~6割を占めている。

Population declines in every municipality will be unavoidable even after the evacuation orders are lifted.
各自治体とも、避難指示解除後も人口減は避けられない。

The percentage of those who want to return is higher among elderly people. First of all, preparations to resume operations at core hospitals must be accelerated. Four of these hospitals located in Futaba county, comprising Naraha and seven other municipalities, have had their operations suspended.
帰還の意向は、高齢者ほど強い。まずは、拠点病院の整備を急ぎたい。楢葉町など8町村で構成される双葉郡内にあった四つの拠点病院は、休止したままだ。

Wider cooperation crucial

It is also essential to improve public transportation systems, which are needed for hospital visits and shopping.
通院や買い物の足となる公共交通機関の整備も欠かせない。

Service continues to be partially suspended on the JR Joban Line. Bus services remain suspended on many regular routes in disaster-affected areas. It will also be necessary to restructure the traffic network connecting municipalities around the Fukushima No. 1 nuclear power plant with other cities in the prefecture, including Fukushima, Koriyama and Iwaki.
JR常磐線は一部区間で不通が続く。運休したままの路線バスも多い。第一原発周辺の自治体と福島、郡山、いわき各市などを結ぶ交通ネットワークを再構築する必要もあるだろう。

If regional revival is undertaken by each municipality on an individual basis, there are limits to what can be achieved. The municipalities should push ahead with reconstructing the entire region through efforts that reach beyond the boundaries of municipalities.
自治体ごとに地域再生に取り組んでも、やれることには限界がある。自治体の枠を超え、地域全体で復興を進めるという発想が求められるのではないか。

Many disaster-affected municipalities are aiming to establish compact towns where administrative offices and commercial, medical and welfare facilities are concentrated. It may be an idea for municipalities to cooperate in working out plans on community building.
行政機関や商業施設、医療・福祉施設を集約したコンパクトな街づくりを目指す自治体は多い。この計画の策定を各自治体が連携して進めるのも方策の一つだ。

If functions necessary to improve residents’ livelihoods are provided through the cooperation of municipalities, their fiscal burdens will be reduced. It is also important for the national and prefectural governments to coordinate measures adequately.
自治体間で住民生活に必要な機能を補完し合えば、財政負担は軽減されよう。政府と県が適切に調整することも大切である。

To entice younger generations to return, job opportunities must be available. Government support is needed to attract businesses to the region.
若い世代を呼び戻すために、欠かせないのが、働き口の確保だ。企業誘致には、政府の後押しが求められる。

The envisaged “Innovation Coast” — to concentrate research facilities and corporate entities related to the decommissioning of damaged reactors along the coastal area — is expected to lead to job creation and an inflow of new residents. We want to see this innovation steadily put into place with the government taking the initiative.
廃炉作業などに関連する研究施設や企業を沿岸部に集積する「イノベーション・コースト構想」は、雇用創出や新住民の流入につながると期待される。政府主導で着実に進めてもらいたい。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, March 15, 2016)

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女性の活躍 現実に目を向けてこそ

--The Asahi Shimbun, March 13
EDITORIAL: Take a close look at reality before touting ‘women’s active roles’
(社説)女性の活躍 現実に目を向けてこそ

One anonymous blog has underscored the serious issue of children on waiting lists for nursery schools, along with the lack of understanding on the part of political leaders.
Titled “Hoikuen Ochita Nihon Shine!!!” (My kid was rejected by a nursery school. Go to hell, Japan!!!), the blog was posted in mid-February by a mother whose child had failed to gain admission into a nursery school.
「保育園落ちた日本死ね!!!」と題した匿名のブログが待機児童問題の深刻さとともに、為政者の無理解を浮き彫りにする事態となっている。
投稿があったのは先月中旬。

She used harsh language to vent her anger, saying things such as, “What about a ‘society in which all citizens are dynamically engaged?’” and "I’ll have to quit my job.”
A “society in which all citizens are dynamically engaged” is one of the key slogans of the Abe administration.
保育園の選考に落ちた母親が「一億総活躍社会じゃねーのかよ」「会社やめなくちゃならねーだろ」と、激しい言葉で怒りをぶつけた。

When an opposition lawmaker raised the subject during Diet debate, Prime Minister Shinzo Abe cited the anonymity of the posting in replying to her and said, “I have no way to confirm the story, including whether it really took place.”
国会で野党が取り上げたところ、安倍首相は書き込みが匿名であることを理由に「実際にそれが本当かどうかも含めて、私は確かめようがない」と答弁。

Lawmakers of the ruling bloc heckled the opposition lawmaker, with one shouting, “Bring the one who wrote it!”
与党の議員からは「本人を出せ」などのヤジも飛んだ。

Members of the public who shared similar problems and anxieties reacted furiously to these verbal exchanges. They staged protests in front of the Diet building and collected signatures for a petition calling for a more extensive child-care system.
こうしたやりとりに、同じような悩みや不安を抱える人たちが強く反発。国会前での抗議活動や、保育制度の充実を求める署名活動へ広がった。

The government and the ruling parties were taken aback by the development, and began hastily discussing new measures for reducing the number of children on waiting lists--so goes, in brief, the story to date.
政府・与党は慌てて、待機児童解消に向けた新たな対策の検討を始めたというのがあらましの経緯だ。

The response of political leaders has been particularly poor. While one ruling Liberal Democratic Party official has stated that the initial response was wrong, the story is much more than that of a “wrong” reaction. One has to say that a lack of understanding of how serious the current situation is has come to light.
あまりにお粗末だ。自民党内には「初動ミス」との声もあるが、ミスにとどまる話ではない。深刻な現状に対する認識を欠いていることが露呈した、と言わざるを得ない。

The question of children on waiting lists is posing a serious problem for every household facing it, as mothers in some families are eager to stay in their current jobs, whereas other families need dual incomes to maintain their standards of living. The blog caught on with a broad audience, and many citizens lashed out against the administration, probably out of a strong resentment of the issue that has failed to improve over the years.
今の仕事を何とか続けたい、共働きで働かないと生活が苦しい……。どの家庭にとっても待機児童の問題は切実だ。ブログへの共感と、政権への市民の反発がここまで広がったのは、長年の課題がいっこうに改善されない現状への強い怒りだろう。

The government and the ruling parties should take that squarely to heart.
政府・与党はそこをしっかり受け止めるべきだ。

Abe has formulated such slogans as “women’s active roles” and a “society where all women shine.” One has to ask, however, if there really is an environment for making that happen. The dearth of child-care services is not the only factor that is keeping women from playing “active roles.”
安倍首相は「女性活躍」「すべての女性が輝く社会」を掲げている。しかし、その環境は本当に整っているだろうか。活躍を阻害しているものは、保育サービスの不足にとどまらない。

The U.N. Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women issued a recommendation earlier this month to the Japanese government.
国連の女子差別撤廃委員会は今月、日本政府に勧告をした。

The unflattering document, which said, “The committee’s previous recommendations have not been fully implemented,” once again urged Tokyo, among other things, to develop legal measures for banning and preventing discrimination in employment and to increase the number of women in decision-making positions, such as lawmakers and corporate workers in senior management posts.
「過去の勧告が十分に実行されていない」とする厳しい内容で、雇用差別を禁じ、防止する法的措置を整えることや、国会議員や企業の管理職など指導的地位を占める女性を増やすことなどを改めて迫った。

Japan ratified the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women in 1985. The Basic Law for Gender-Equal Society took effect in 1999. More women are working, but wage gaps between men and women are continuing to widen, in part because many female workers are employed on a nonregular basis.
日本が女子差別撤廃条約を批准したのは1985年。99年には男女共同参画社会基本法が施行された。働く女性は増えているものの、非正社員が多いこともあり、男女の賃金格差はむしろ広がる傾向。

Men’s participation in child care and in nursing care for the elderly is still low, and there remains a deep-rooted perception among the public that men and women are supposed to assume different roles. The latest Gender Gap Index report of the World Economic Forum put Japan in 101st place, in the lower rung of the ranking, as usual.
男性の育児や介護への参加もいまだ低水準で、性別による役割分担の意識は根強く残る。世界経済フォーラムの最新の男女格差指数でも日本は101位と低迷したままだ。

Political leaders should first look squarely at reality if they are to ever talk of “women’s active roles.”
「女性活躍」を言うのなら、まず現実を直視することから始めてほしい。

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ECB追加緩和 金融政策頼みだけでは危うい

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Eurozone economic recovery based just on monetary easing will be fragile
ECB追加緩和 金融政策頼みだけでは危うい

Monetary easing alone will not be able to eradicate concerns about deflation and realize a full economic recovery in the eurozone. Other steps will be essential, including expanding public investment and undertaking structural reforms to boost the economy’s growth potential.
デフレ懸念の払拭と景気の本格回復を実現するには、金融緩和だけでなく、成長力を高める構造改革や公共投資の拡大などが不可欠である。

The European Central Bank has decided on a comprehensive, additional monetary-easing policy that exceeded market expectations.
欧州中央銀行(ECB)が、市場の予想を上回る包括的な追加金融緩和策を決定した。

The ECB will lower the rate of interest paid when private banks deposit surplus funds at the central bank from the current minus 0.3 percent to minus 0.4 percent.
民間銀行がECBに余剰資金を預けた際に適用する金利を、今の「マイナス0・3%」から「マイナス0・4%」に引き下げる。

In addition, the ECB will expand its quantitative easing program, which pours capital into the markets. This program, which includes buying government bonds, will be boosted from €60 billion a month to €80 billion (about ¥10 trillion) a month.
市中に資金を流し込む量的緩和策も拡充する。国債などの買い取りを現在の月600億ユーロから800億ユーロ(約10兆円)に増やす。

The eurozone is on the brink of tumbling into deflation. Sluggish crude oil prices and other factors pushed the single-currency bloc’s February rate of consumer price increases into negative territory for the first time in five months.
ユーロ圏は、デフレ転落の瀬戸際にある。原油価格の低迷などで、2月の消費者物価上昇率は5か月ぶりのマイナスになった。

Concerns are growing that the eurozone could see low economic growth over an extended period due to a decline in production and exports accompanying a slowdown in China and other emerging economies.
中国など新興国経済の減速に伴う輸出や生産の減退で、低成長が長期化する不安もくすぶる。

The ECB’s aim of attempting to underpin the economy by launching another wave of monetary easing to dig up demand for capital among companies and individuals is appropriate.
もう一段の金融緩和を敢行し、企業や個人の資金需要を掘り起こして、経済を下支えしようとするECBの狙いは適切である。

In the markets, the additional easing was welcomed in some quarters, which sent shares up and the euro down against the dollar. However, before long, share prices dipped and the euro strengthened again.
ただ、市場では、いったんは追加緩和が好感され、株高・ユーロ安が進んだが、まもなく株安・ユーロ高に転じた。

Risks of easy money

At a press conference, ECB President Mario Draghi stated, “We don’t expect that it will be necessary to reduce rates further.” This comment was made to dash market expectations for further easing.
ECBのドラギ総裁が記者会見で「更なる利下げは想定していない」と明言し、一層の緩和を期待する市場を失望させたためだ。

We think this symbolizes the extent to which the eurozone economy has become dependent on monetary easing.
ユーロ圏経済が、いかに「金融緩和頼み」の状態にあるかを象徴していると言える。

If the ECB continues to push interest rates deeper into negative territory, it runs the risk of worsening side effects such as weakening banks’ earnings and causing real estate prices to soar as money freed up by the easing pours into this sector.
マイナス金利を拡大し続ければ、銀行の収益悪化や、緩和マネーが流れ込む不動産の価格高騰など副作用が深刻化しかねない。

Germany and other nations that oppose purchasing massive volumes of government bonds may strengthen their opposition to the plan, leading to the unraveling of the unity among euro nations and heightening the risk of sparking turmoil in the markets.
国債の大量購入に否定的なドイツなどが緩和策への反発を強め、ユーロ圏の結束が乱れて、市場を動揺させるリスクも高まろう。

A recovery of Europe’s economy that relies only on monetary policies will be fragile. As was confirmed during February’s meeting of finance ministers and central bank governors of the Group of 20 major economies, each European country should be using every policy at its disposal, such as devising growth strategies and fiscal stimulus packages.
金融政策だけに依存する欧州経済の再生は危うい。2月の主要20か国・地域(G20)財務相・中央銀行総裁会議で確認したように、欧州各国は成長戦略や財政出動など他の政策も総動員すべきだ。

In southern European nations, where unemployment levels remain high, labor market reforms and other steps to improve mobility in employment will be vital.
失業率が高止まりする南欧諸国では、雇用の流動性を高める労働市場改革などが重要となる。

We hope Germany, which has the financial wherewithal to do so, will embark on a program to increase government expenditures to stimulate the economy and pull growth along.
財政余力のあるドイツは、景気を刺激する歳出拡大に乗り出し、成長を牽引けんいんしてもらいたい。

Another urgent task is restoring the health of the financial system by accelerating efforts by each bank in Europe to dispose of nonperforming loans.
欧州の各銀行の不良債権処理を加速し、金融システムの健全性を取り戻すことも急務である。

While Europe and Japan continue their monetary easing, the United States is searching for an opportunity to raise interest rates again. Financial authorities in each nation must exercise great care to ensure sudden currency flows seeking to take advantage of differences in the direction of their policies do not throw the markets into confusion.
欧州と日本が緩和を続ける一方で、米国は追加利上げの時機を探っている。政策の方向性の違いを突く急激な資金移動が市場を攪乱かくらんしないよう、各国の金融当局は細心の注意を払わねばならない。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, March 13, 2016)

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巨人野球賭博 選手の規律順守を徹底したい

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Giants must work toward ensuring self-discipline on part of players
巨人野球賭博 選手の規律順守を徹底したい

Pitcher Kyosuke Takagi of the Yomiuri Giants has admitted his involvement in gambling on Nippon Professional Baseball (NPB) games. He is the latest Giants player to admit betting on ball games, following three other pitchers who were suspended by NPB last November for an indefinite period.
読売巨人軍の高木京介投手が野球賭博に関与していたことを認めた。日本プロフェッショナル野球組織(NPB)から昨年11月に無期失格処分を受けた3投手に続く不祥事だ。

The Giants have made all-out efforts to regain confidence lost over the gambling scandal. It is extremely regrettable that the latest revelation came out shortly before the pennant race begins, betraying baseball fans again. The club’s president, Hiroshi Kubo, apologized at a news conference, saying, “I couldn’t regret this any more than I do.”
巨人軍は、球団を挙げて信頼回復に取り組んできた。プロ野球の開幕間近に、ファンを再び裏切ることになったのは、極めて残念な事態である。巨人軍の久保博社長は記者会見で、「重ね重ね、痛恨の極みです」と謝罪した。

The club has filed a complaint against Takagi with NPB Commissioner Katsuhiko Kumazaki. Appropriate disciplinary action will be handed down following the NPB’s investigations.
巨人軍は、高木選手をNPBの熊崎勝彦コミッショナーに告発した。NPBの調査を経て、厳正な処分が下されよう。

To take the responsibility for a series of gambling scandals, Giants owner Kojiro Shiraishi, Chairman Tsunekazu Momoi and Executive Adviser Tsuneo Watanabe have resigned. Shoichi Oikawa, executive adviser of The Yomiuri Shimbun Holdings, will succeed Shiraishi as the club’s owner.
一連の問題の責任を取り、巨人軍の白石興二郎オーナー、桃井恒和会長、渡辺恒雄最高顧問が辞任した。後任のオーナーには、老川祥一・読売新聞グループ本社最高顧問が就いた。

“I deeply apologize to all baseball fans,” Oikawa said. “I would like to regain the trust of the public as soon as possible.”
老川新オーナーは、「すべての野球ファンに深くお詫わびを申し上げます。一刻も早く信頼を回復したい」と語った。

Lawyer Noboru Matsuda, who has served in such positions as chief of the special investigation squad of the Tokyo District Public Prosecutors Office, has assumed the post of acting owner. We want him to help the team strengthen its discipline.
オーナー代行には、東京地検特捜部長などを歴任した弁護士の松田昇氏が就任した。巨人軍の綱紀粛正に力を注いでもらいたい。

Bolster instruction programs

Takagi bet on eight or nine professional baseball games from April to May in 2014 at the inducement of Shoki Kasahara, who was disqualified indefinitely. Takagi bet against a restaurateur who is an acquaintance of Kasahara. NPB investigations determined that the man habitually bets on baseball games.
高木選手は2014年4~5月に、無期失格となった笠原将生元選手に誘われて、プロ野球の8~9試合を対象に賭けをした。相手は、笠原元選手の知人の飲食店経営者だ。NPBの調査で野球賭博常習者と認定されている。

Takagi’s acts obviously violate the article of the Nippon Professional Baseball Agreement that bans betting on baseball games. He bowed at a press conference, saying, “I am very sorry for betraying the confidence of the people concerned.”
高木選手の行為は、試合を対象にした賭けを禁じた野球協約に明らかに違反する。記者会見で「関係者の皆さんを裏切ってしまい、本当に申し訳ありませんでした」と頭を下げた。

In hearings conducted by the club, questioning all Giants players, Takagi denied involvement in gambling on ball games. The restaurateur in question did not comply with the club’s request for cooperation in the investigation.
巨人軍が全選手を対象に実施したヒアリング調査で、高木選手は野球賭博への関与を否定していた。飲食店経営者は、巨人軍の調査協力要請に応じなかった。

The probe by the club, which has no investigatory power, could have its own limits. But the fact remains that the club could not uncover Takagi’s involvement when the wrongdoing by the other three players came to light. It cannot be helped if the club is criticized, in hindsight, for failing to conduct a thorough probe.
捜査権を持たない球団の調査には、限界があるだろう。だが、3選手の不祥事が明らかになった際、高木選手の関与をあぶり出せなかったことは事実だ。結果として、調査を尽くさなかったと批判されても、仕方あるまい。

Kazuhiro Kiyohara, who once played with the Giants, has been indicted on charges of possessing stimulant drugs.
かつて巨人軍に在籍した清原和博元選手は、覚醒剤取締法違反(所持)で起訴された。

Children look up to pro baseball players. If they commit wrongdoing, it will have a big social impact. Fully aware of the heavy responsibility they bear, they need to exercise self-discipline throughout their careers and even after retirement.
プロ野球選手は、子供たちのあこがれの存在だ。不祥事を起こせば、社会的影響が大きい。重い責任を背負っているという自覚を持ち、現役中はもちろん、引退後も身を律することが求められる。

The Giants must bolster instruction of their players through seminars and other programs.
巨人軍は、研修などで選手教育を強化しなければならない。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, March 12, 2016)

続きを読む

震災から5年 心は一つ、じゃない世界で

--The Asahi Shimbun, March 11
EDITORIAL: The voices from Tohoku must be heard 5 years after the disaster
(社説)震災から5年 心は一つ、じゃない世界で

Exactly five years have passed since March 11, 2011, when Japan was struck by what has been described as the biggest postwar national crisis.
On that day, the Great East Japan Earthquake and subsequent tsunami ravaged wide areas in the northeastern Tohoku region and triggered the meltdowns at the Fukushima No. 1 nuclear power plant.
戦後最大の国難といわれた東日本大震災と福島第一原発の事故が起きた「3・11」から、5年がたつ。

Reconstruction work is continuing in coastal areas of Miyagi and Iwate prefectures. Many residents are still struggling to rebuild their shattered livelihoods.
宮城県や岩手県の海沿いでは工事の音が鳴り響く。だが、暮らしの再建はこれからだ。

Around 170,000 people, mainly residents in Fukushima Prefecture, are living away from their homes as evacuees.
福島県をはじめ、約17万人が避難先での生活を強いられている。

People in the affected areas are still reeling from the aftermath and fallout of the devastating natural disasters and the harrowing nuclear accident.
震災と原発事故は、今もなお続いている。

But how many people in other parts of the nation far from the stricken areas truly understand the harsh realities in communities battered by the disasters?
被災地から離れた全国で、その現実感を保つ人はどれだけいるだろう。

GAP WIDENS BETWEEN AFFECTED AREAS, OUTSIDE WORLD
■深まる「外」との分断

Immediately after the disasters occurred, everybody’s heart went out to people in the affected areas. Many Japanese talked about “mutual support” and the “ties” that bound them with the victims. The kanji for “kizuna,” meaning “human bonds,” was chosen as the Chinese character that most powerfully symbolized the year.
直後は、だれもが被災地のことを思い、「支え合い」「つながろう」の言葉を口にした。年の世相を表す「今年の漢字」に、「絆」が選ばれもした。

But we now wonder if all of the sympathetic feelings expressed back then were genuine. In the disaster-stricken areas, many people are lamenting the growing psychological distance with the rest of Japan.
Various emotionally charged issues have divided communities in the affected areas.
あの意識ははたして本物だったろうか。被災地の間ではむしろ、距離が開いていく「分断」を憂える声が聞こえてくる。

They include forcing residents to leave the places where they have lived for a long time, and constructing levees that separate the land from the sea, which has supported their livelihoods.
住み慣れた土地を離れる住宅移転。生活の場である海と陸とを隔てる防潮堤。

Debates over whether to preserve or remove remnants of buildings destroyed by the disasters have raised complicated feelings: a desire to forget what happened mixed with a determination to never forget.
「忘れたい」と「忘れまい」が同居する震災遺構。それぞれの問題をめぐり地元の意見は割れてきた。

Such divisions threaten to destroy harmony among community members. The problem is most acutely felt in Fukushima Prefecture.
人間と地域の和が壊れる。その痛みがもっとも深刻なのは、福島県だ。

Disputes over the effects of radiation have shaken residents’ values and judgments. The problem has been compounded by the fact that Tokyo Electric Power Co., operator of the Fukushima No. 1 plant, paid different amounts of compensation to victims based on radiation levels in their areas.
Families and communities have been split into opposing groups.
放射線の影響をめぐり、住民の価値観や判断は揺れた。線量による区域割りで東京電力からの賠償額が違ったことも絡み、家族や地域は切り刻まれた。

Some residents are working hard to repair the severed ties, and a variety of efforts are under way to heal wounded communities. They include a program to guide visitors to deserted towns and a project to provide information about Fukushima to people who voluntarily fled their communities in the prefecture.
ささくれだつ空気の中で、修復を求めて奔走する人たちはいた。無人の町を訪問者に案内したり、自主避難者向けに福島からの情報発信を始めたり。さまざまな活動が生まれた。

Sachiko Bamba, a resident of Minami-Soma city, has worked with doctors to organize more than 80 study sessions to help citizens learn about radiation.
南相馬市の番場さち子さんもその一人だ。医師と一緒に放射線についての市民向け勉強会を80回以上重ねた。

Her project is driven by the belief that acquiring accurate knowledge about radiation helps people make educated decisions about their futures and assume a positive attitude toward life.
まずは正しい知識を得る。それが今後の生活の方針を納得して選び、前向きになる支えになると考えた。

Bamba and other like-minded people are concerned that residents’ struggles to overcome the huge challenges over the past five years remain largely unknown to people in other parts of the nation, creating widening perception gaps.
番場さんらがいま懸念するのは、5年にわたる苦悩と克服の歩みが、被災地の「外」に伝わらず、認識のギャップが広がっていることだ。

They still receive questions from people outside Fukushima Prefecture on whether local residents must wear masks when they go out or whether rice produced in Fukushima Prefecture is safe for eating.
「福島県では外出時にマスクは必要か」「福島産の米は食べられるのか」。県外から、そんな質問が今も続く。

The safety of various farm products from Fukushima Prefecture has been confirmed through constant measurements of airborne radiation and human exposure doses as well as continuous efforts to decontaminate polluted areas and check radiation in all foodstuffs.
空間線量や体内の被曝(ひばく)の継続的な測定、食材の全量検査、除染作業などさまざまな努力を重ねた結果、安全が確かめられたものは少なくない。

But people outside the prefecture are not receiving much information about such improvements and progress.
だが、そうした正常化された部分は、県外になかなか伝わらない。

Last year, a man outside Fukushima Prefecture who called himself an anti-nuclear activist criticized a mother for remaining in Koriyama and supposedly exposing her child to health risks. She was deeply disheartened by the simple, inconsiderate and ill-founded argument against living in Fukushima that was based on his opposition to nuclear power.
郡山市に住む母親は昨年、県外の反原発活動家を名乗る男性から「子供が病気になる」と非難された。原発への否定を無頓着に福島への忌避に重ねる口調に落胆した。

“How long will this kind of nonsense continue?” she uttered to herself.
「まだこんなことが続くのか」

STUDENTS SEEKING WORDS FOR COMMUNICATION
■「言葉」を探す高校生

It is probably inevitable that differences in perceptions will appear over time between people in the disaster areas and those in the rest of the nation.
時がたてば、被災地とほかとの間に意識の違いが生じるのは仕方のないことでもある。

To make our society less vulnerable to disasters, however, it is vital to constantly narrow such perception gaps. The positions of people currently struggling with hardships and those who are not may be reversed at any time.
だが、災害に強い社会を築くには、その溝を埋める不断の努力が欠かせない。いま苦境と闘う人と、そうでない人とは、いつ立場が変わるかも知れない。

People in Fukushima Prefecture want to share their experiences over the past five years with the outside world. They believe the facts about the divisions caused by the nuclear disaster and their efforts to overcome them should be part of the lessons learned by the entire nation.
福島の人びとが「この5年」を外に知ってほしいと思うのは、原発事故がもたらす分断の実相と克服の努力を全国の教訓として共有すべきだと考えるからでもある。

People in the prefecture are continuing their quest to find ways to achieve this goal.
模索は続いている。

At Futaba Future School, a prefectural high school that opened last spring in the town of Hirono, Fukushima Prefecture, theater is a required course.
福島県広野町に昨春開校した県立ふたば未来学園高校では必修科目に演劇を組み入れる。

The course is taught by reputed playwright Oriza Hirata, who has instructed his students to “express as they are the discrepancies in feelings due to different positions and unsolvable issues.”
指導する劇作家の平田オリザ氏が生徒たちに課したのは、「立場の違いによるすれ違いや解決できない課題をそのまま表現する」こと。

At the outset of the course, Hirata told the students: “Let me tell you something. Nobody in the world understands things about Fukushima and you.”
授業の冒頭、平田氏は言う。「言っとくけど、福島や君たちのことなんて世界の誰も理解なんてしてないからね」

The challenge facing the students is how to communicate their feelings to indifferent people. Tackling this challenge requires them to ask themselves whether they can really imagine the feelings of others.
関心のない人に、どうやったら自分の思いが伝わるか。それは同時に、自分が他者の思いを想像できているかを自問することにもなる。

Bamba of Minami-Soma has also set up a study group to learn from TEPCO executives. She decided to stay in contact with the operator of the crippled nuclear plant to learn more about the company, which is responsible for rebuilding the devastated communities in the prefecture.
番場さんは、福島担当の東電役員を招いた勉強会も始めた。事故を起こした東電とあえて交流するのは、最後まで福島の再生に努める責任を負っている相手のことを知るためだ。

In this world, people’s hearts are not one. History is littered with many examples of painful divisions among people, including the cases of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the only cities to suffer a nuclear attack, communities afflicted by pollution-caused diseases like Minamata disease, and Okinawa Prefecture, which has been forced to bear an excessive burden of hosting U.S. military bases.
この世は、「心は一つ」ではない。歴史をみれば、分断はいくつも存在した。原爆に苦しんだ広島と長崎、水俣病など公害に侵された町、過大な米軍基地を押しつけられた沖縄――。

Various areas around this nation have been suffering on their own and fighting the pain caused by misunderstandings and perception gaps. Exchanges are growing between Fukushima Prefecture and other areas grappling with these problems.
重い痛みを背負い、他者との意識差に傷つき悩みながら闘ってきた全国の地域がある。いま、そうした地域と福島とで交流する催しが増えている。

START WITH THINGS THAT CANNOT BE EASILY SHARED
■伝わらないことから

If people living in different places and thinking about different issues want to connect with each other, they need to start talking about things that they both do not understand and continue their dialogue.
住む場所も考える問題も違う人間同士が「つながる」ためには、「互いにわからない」ことから出発し、対話を重ねていくしかない。

“A desire to communicate is only born out of an experience of being unable to communicate,” Hirata says. “From this point of view, children in the stricken areas who have experienced the disaster, the mutual help and the divisions have the potential to play leading roles in reconstruction efforts and open up a new future for our society.”
「伝えたい気持ちは、伝わらない経験があって初めて生まれる。その点で、震災と助け合いと分断とを経験した被災地の子どもたちには、復興を担い、世の中を切りひらく潜在的な力がある」と平田氏は言う。

Every Japanese should pay fresh and serious attention--and respond--to the messages people in the affected areas are sending out.
被災地からの発信を一人ひとりが受け止め、返していくことから、もう一度始めたい。

続きを読む
プロフィール

srachai

自己紹介・リンク

■近況

2009年の9月15日に脳梗塞を発症、右手が少し不自由になりました。
MRAで脳梗塞の部位を特定でき、素早い処置をとれたので大事に至りませんでした。
快復にむけてリハビリ中です。
(2011/01/01更新)

■自己紹介・リンク

[ はじめに ]
タイのスラチャイです。
英語学習に王道はありません。
毎日毎日の地道な努力の積み重ねが必要です。
スラチャイはNHKのラジオ英語会話で現在の英語力を身につけました。
一日僅か15分の学習でも数年間継続すれば相当な学習効果が期待できます。

[ 名前 ]
松井 清 (スラチャイ)

[ 略歴 ]
・福岡県出身
・国立高知大学卒業
・準大手建設会社に就職
・50歳で会社を早期退職
・99/10 タイ全土を旅行
・00/10 タイに移住
・03/07 カイちゃん誕生
・07/06 シーファーちゃん誕生
・現在タイ国コンケン在住

[ 座右の銘 ]
Slow and steady wins the race.
遅くとも着実な者が勝利する
(NHK基礎英語芹沢栄先生)

[ 学習の手引き ]
・音読して耳から英語を吸収
・Think in English.
・ネイティブ発音付辞書活用
・英英辞典を活用(英和も)
・翻訳和文で専門用語確認

[ English Newspapers ]
Yomiuri
Mainichi
Asahi
Japan Times
Washington Post
Newyork Times
Bangkok Post
The Nations
Phuket Gazette

[ 英字新聞の英和対訳学習 ]
英字新聞(読売)
英字新聞(毎日)
英字新聞(朝日)
英字新聞(朝日2)

[ スラチャイ編集の辞書 ]
タイ日辞書(改訂版)
日タイ辞書(改訂版)
ラオ日辞書
日ラオ辞書

[ 英字新聞リンク ]
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基礎タイ語一覧(タイ文字、ローマ字)
seesaaサイト内リンク一覧:
01 あいさつ
02 別れのあいさつ
03 声をかけるとき
04 感謝の言葉と答え方
05 謝罪の言葉と答え方
06 聞き直すとき
07 相手の言うことがわからないとき
08 うまく言えないとき
09 一般的なあいづち
10 よくわからないときの返事
11 強めのあいづち
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14 頼みごとをするとき
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17 説明してもらうとき
18 確認を求めるとき
19 状況を知りたいとき
20 値段の尋ね方と断り方
21 急いでもらいたいとき
22 待ってもらいたいとき
23 日時・場所・天候を尋ねるとき
24 その他

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サイト外HPリンク一覧:
01 あいさつ
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03 声をかけるとき
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05 謝罪の言葉と答え方
06 聞き直すとき
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08 うまく言えないとき
09 一般的なあいづち
10 よくわからないときの返事
11 強めのあいづち
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13 相手のことを尋ねるとき
14 頼みごとをするとき
15 申し出・依頼を断るとき
16 許可を求めるとき
17 説明してもらうとき
18 確認を求めるとき
19 状況を知りたいとき
20 値段の尋ね方と断り方
21 急いでもらいたいとき
22 待ってもらいたいとき
23 日時・場所・天候を尋ねるとき
24 その他

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02 勉強熱心なタイ人女性たち
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04 タイの市場
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第08番目の戒律
第09番目の戒律
第10番目の戒律
第11番目の戒律
第12番目の戒律
第13番目の戒律
第14番目の戒律


[ 英字新聞リンク ]
yahoo geolog
yaplog
worldpress
teacup
jugem
hatena
@word
blogger
biglobe
excite
a8
so-net
ameblo
wox
rakuten
ninja
seesaa
goo
fc2
yahoo
livedoor
dreamlog

[ HPリンク ]
cocolog 家族のアルバム
fc2 家族のアルバム
初歩の日本語(タイ人学生向け)
タイの小学三年生数学学力テスト(国家試験)
タイ語、中国語、ビルマ語
Preliminary Japanese lessons for Thai students
旅行のタイ語学習サイト
ラオ日・日老辞書
妻はタイ人/タイの文化/タイの仏教戒律

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