英字新聞

読売、毎日、朝日各社英字新聞の主として社説を学習研究します

2015年12月

日豪首脳会談 経済と安保で「特別な関係」に

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Japan, Australia must build ‘special relationship’ on economy, security
日豪首脳会談 経済と安保で「特別な関係」に

Japan and Australia have an important role in promoting peace and prosperity in the Asia-Pacific region. We should build a comprehensive relationship of cooperation.
日本と豪州は、アジア太平洋地域の平和と繁栄を牽引けんいんする重要な役割を担う。包括的な協力関係を構築すべきだ。

Australian Prime Minister Malcolm Turnbull, who took office in September, made his first visit to Japan and held talks with Prime Minister Shinzo Abe. The two leaders issued a joint statement that said Japan and Australia would cooperate in the economic and security fields and deepen the “special relationship” of the two countries that share strategic interests.
9月に就任したターンブル豪首相が初来日し、安倍首相と会談した。経済や安全保障分野で連携し、戦略的利益を共有する日豪の「特別な関係」を深化させるとの共同声明を発表した。

Abe emphasized that both leaders affirmed the “unshakable strategic relationship” between the two countries. “Both countries share the same values,” Turnbull said.
安倍首相は「揺るぎない戦略的関係を確認した」と強調した。ターンブル首相は「両国は共通の価値観を持っている」と語った。

Turnbull, who is known to be acceptive of China, chose Japan for his first visit to East Asia as prime minister. We welcome Turnbull’s posture of attaching weight to bilateral ties with Japan, continuing the policy pursued by his predecessor, Tony Abbott — like Turnbull a member of the Liberal Party — who was close to Abe.
中国通で知られるターンブル首相は、東アジアでの最初の訪問国に日本を選んだ。安倍首相と親密だった同じ自由党のアボット前首相の路線を継承し、対日重視の姿勢を示したことを歓迎したい。

Both leaders agreed on expanding bilateral trade and investment, on the basis of the bilateral Economic Partnership Agreement, which entered into force in January.
両首脳は、今年1月に発効した経済連携協定(EPA)に基づき、貿易・投資を拡大させることで一致した。

Abe and Turnbull also confirmed the importance of technological innovation and agreed on bilateral cooperation in such fields as regenerative medicine.
技術革新の重要性を確認し、再生医療などの分野で協力することでも合意した。

Japan and Australia have a mutually complementary relationship, with Japan importing mainly natural resources and foods from Australia, and exporting automobiles and other products to the country. It is important to promote economic cooperation between the two countries, using the EPA as a tailwind.
日本は、豪州から主に天然資源や食料を輸入し、自動車などを輸出しており、相互補完の関係にある。EPAを追い風に、日豪の経済協力を進めることが大切だ。

The Trans-Pacific Partnership negotiations, with 12 countries including Japan and Australia participating, reached a broad agreement in October. Japan and Australia should further cooperate in putting the accord into force at an early stage.
日豪など12か国が参加する環太平洋経済連携協定(TPP)交渉も10月に大筋合意した。早期発効に向けて連携を強めたい。

Freedom of navigation

With regard to the South China Sea, the joint statement called on “all claimants to halt large-scale land reclamation or construction, and to refrain from using any land features for military purposes.” Needless to say, both have China in mind, as it is building artificial islands and promoting the establishment of military bases there.
共同声明は、南シナ海情勢に関し、「大規模な埋め立てや建設の停止」と「軍事目的での使用の自制」を明記した。無論、南シナ海で人工島造成と軍事拠点化を進める中国が念頭にある。

The U.S. Navy carried out patrols within 12 nautical miles of the artificial islands in October, while an Australian military surveillance plane recently flew near the artificial islands. It is important to take all possible steps to ensure freedom of navigation and flight under international law.
米海軍は10月、人工島の12カイリ内で巡視活動を行った。豪州軍の哨戒機も最近、人工島付近で監視活動を行ったという。国際法に基づく「航行と飛行の自由」の確保へ、手段を尽くすことが重要だ。

Ensuring the safety of sea lanes will serve as a basis for free economic activities. By cooperating closely with other countries, including the United States, Japan and Australia must urge China to abide by international rules.
海上交通路(シーレーン)の安全確保は、自由な経済活動の基盤となる。日豪は米国などと緊密に協調し、中国に国際ルールの順守を働きかけねばならない。

During their talks, Abe and Turnbull agreed to strengthen bilateral cooperation in defense on the basis of the security-related legislation. Japan and Australia intend to expedite concluding a “visiting forces agreement,” which would facilitate joint exercises between the Self-Defense Forces and Australian forces.
首脳会談では、安全保障関連法に基づき、防衛協力を強めることで合意した。自衛隊と豪州軍の共同訓練を円滑にする「訪問部隊地位協定」の締結も急ぐ方針だ。

Japan and Australia should pursue multitiered cooperation, with the United States — an ally of both Japan and Australia — joining in.
日豪両国と同盟関係にある米国を交え、重層的協力を追求したい。

Turnbull expressed Australia’s “deep disappointment” with Japan’s resumption of its research whaling in the Antarctic Ocean. Abe explained the necessity of conducting whaling for research purposes on scientific grounds.
ターンブル首相は、日本が南極海で調査捕鯨を再開したことについて「深い失望」を表明した。安倍首相は、科学的根拠に基づく調査の必要性などを説明した。

The assertions of the two leaders remain far apart on this issue. But it is necessary for this issue not to damage the overall bilateral relationship.
双方の主張の開きは大きいが、この問題が日豪関係全体を損なわないようにする必要がある。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Dec. 21, 2015)

続きを読む

産経記者判決 無分別な訴追終結を

--The Asahi Shimbun, Dec. 18
EDITORIAL: Seoul should end impudent case against Japanese journalist
(社説)産経記者判決 無分別な訴追終結を

A South Korean court on Dec. 17 acquitted Tatsuya Kato, a former Seoul bureau chief for the Sankei Shimbun, who was indicted on a charge of defaming South Korean President Park Geun-hye.
韓国大統領の名誉を傷つけたとして起訴された産経新聞の前ソウル支局長に対し、韓国の裁判所が無罪を言い渡した。

The ruling was all too appropriate considering that South Korean law guarantees freedom of speech.
言論の自由を保障した法に照らし、当然の判決である。

It was extraordinary in the first place for prosecutors, who exercise public authority, to indict a journalist just for writing an article that displeased the president.
そもそも、大統領の気に入らない記事を書いたとしても、検察という公権力が記者を起訴すること自体が異常だった。

The Seoul Central District Court handed down a totally reasonable ruling by saying, “It is clear that freedom of speech should be respected because our nation has adopted a democratic system.”
「わが国が民主主義制度をとっている以上、言論の自由を重視せねばならないのは明らかだ」とする判決は妥当である。

Prosecutors should swiftly accept the court decision without appealing it.
検察当局は控訴せず、速やかに判決を受け入れるべきだ。

The case concerned an article written by Kato that ran on the Sankei website in August 2014. It referred to a “rumor” that Park was with a former male aide and could not be reached for seven hours on April 16, 2014, the day of the Sewol ferry disaster.
問題になったのは前支局長が昨年8月、ネット上に出した記事だ。旅客船沈没事故の際、所在不明になった朴槿恵(パククネ)大統領が男性と会っていたのでは、という「うわさ」を紹介した。

The presidential office reacted angrily to the article, pledging to “pursue the responsibility.” Prosecutors then started an investigation into the defamation allegations in response to a criminal complaint filed by a citizen organization and indicted Kato. He was long banned from leaving the country.
これに大統領府が「責任を追及する」と公然と反発し、市民団体の告発を受ける形で検察が捜査し、起訴した。前支局長は長らく出国を禁じられた。

Under South Korean law, Kato would not have been indicted if President Park, the alleged victim of defamation, had said she didn’t wish for punishment against the Sankei journalist.
韓国の法律では、被害者の朴氏が処罰を望まないと言えば、訴追は免れた。

But the fact is that the trial following the indictment lasted for as long as 14 months, leading to the Dec. 17 ruling. That leaves little doubt that Park herself wanted to see the journalist prosecuted.
起訴から1年2カ月間公判が続き、判決にまで至ったのは、朴氏自身が訴追を求めたからとみるべきだ。

Didn’t she give any thought to how badly South Korea’s democracy would be damaged by the prosecution of a reporter for a news organization just because of the wishes of the person in power?
権力者の意向次第で報道機関の記者を訴追することが、韓国の民主主義にどんな禍根を残すか、考えなかったのか。

Unsurprisingly, journalist organizations of not only Japan but also other countries voiced strong concerns about the South Korean government’s legal action against Kato.
日本のみならず、海外のジャーナリスト団体などからも、韓国政府に対し、強い懸念の声が相次いだのも当然だった。

Before the verdict was read out, the presiding judge revealed that the South Korean Ministry of Foreign Affairs had asked the court to give consideration to Japan’s request for “appropriate handling” of the case.
判決公判の冒頭で裁判長は、「善処」を求める日本の要望を考慮するよう、韓国外交省が裁判所に求めていたことを明らかにした。

It was an unusual move that can be interpreted as an attempt by the South Korean government to end the case, which has further strained bilateral relations and provoked international criticism.
異例の措置であり、韓国政府が日韓関係や国際批判などを考えて自ら決着を図ろうとしたとも受け取れる。

The Park administration should do serious soul-searching on its misguided move to prosecute a case that should never have been brought to court in the first place. By doing so, Seoul unnecessarily created a sticky political issue with serious diplomatic consequences.
もともと公訴を提起すべきでない問題を、自ら政治問題化してしまった責任を、韓国政府は反省しなくてはならない。

Even without the case, relations between the Japanese and South Korean governments have soured badly in the past few years, casting dark shadows even on grass-roots exchanges between people of the two neighboring countries.
それでなくとも近年の日韓関係は、政治の関係悪化により、市民交流にも暗い影が落ちている。

Both Tokyo and Seoul should restrain themselves from any action that could generate unnecessary diplomatic friction.
無用ないさかいを生んで外交問題にする振る舞いは、日韓両政府とも慎むべきである。

The court ruling, however, acknowledged that the former Sankei bureau chief was aware that the rumor he wrote about was false.
一方、判決は記事が取り上げた「うわさ」について、虚偽であることを前支局長は認識していたと認定した。

The defense team stopped denying this allegation during the trial. This means the Sankei cannot claim to have fulfilled its responsibility as a news medium.
産経側も裁判の途中からそれに異を唱えなかった。報道機関としての責任をまっとうしたとは言えまい。

South Korea’s legal action against the Sankei reporter has been a festering sore in the relationship between the country and Japan.
いずれにせよ、この問題は、日韓間の懸案の一つだったのは間違いない。

This case should be brought to an end quickly so that the two governments can concentrate on diplomatic efforts to resolve really important issues, like the “comfort women.”
一刻も早く終止符を打ち、両政府は慰安婦問題など大きな課題の解決に全神経を注ぐべきである。

続きを読む

衆院選制度改革 格差の是正へ党利党略を排せ

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Set aside party interests to narrow vote-value disparity in lower house
衆院選制度改革 格差の是正へ党利党略を排せ

Ruling and opposition parties should set aside party interests to narrow the vote-value disparity in the House of Representatives election and tackle the electoral system reform.
衆院選の「1票の格差」の縮小へ、与野党は党利党略を排して、制度改革に取り組むべきだ。

A research panel of experts tasked with reform of the lower house electoral system has compiled a draft proposal for redistributing seats allocated to each prefecture by using the so-called Adams’ method to rectify the vote-value disparity in single-seat constituencies.
衆院の選挙制度改革に関する有識者調査会が答申原案をまとめた。小選挙区の格差是正について、各都道府県の定数を「アダムズ方式」で配分し直すことを提案した。

According to the draft proposal, a total of seven constituency seats should be added in Tokyo and four other prefectures, while 13 other prefectures, including Aomori and Iwate, should lose one seat each. As a result, the maximum vote-value disparity at the prefectural level would be reduced to 1.621-to-1.
定数は、東京都と4県で計7増加し、青森、岩手など13県で1ずつ減る。都道府県間の格差は最大1・621倍となる。

The vote-value disparity in single-seat constituencies would also likely be reduced to less than 2-to-1, as called for by the law concerning the establishment of the council on rezoning the electoral districts of the lower house.
小選挙区間の格差も、衆院選挙区画定審議会設置法の定める2倍未満に収まる見通しである。

The Adams’ method would be used in place of the current seat distribution system [which allots one seat to each prefecture and then decides, in proportion to the population, how many additional seats each prefecture should be allocated in the single-seat constituencies of the election]. The Adams’ method is said to be comparatively favorable to less populous prefectures and able to reduce the increase and decrease in the seats allocated to each prefecture to a narrow range. It also will be able to cope with a population decrease in the future to a certain extent. With the method, even Tottori Prefecture, whose population is the smallest on the prefectural level, would be able to maintain the two-seat allocation for the present.
アダムズ方式は、「1人別枠方式」に代わるものだ。人口の少ない県に比較的有利とされ、都道府県の定数の増減を小幅に抑えられる。将来の人口減にも一定程度対応が可能で、最少の鳥取県も当面、定数2を維持できる。

The Adams’ method is a realistic one in terms of rectifying the vote-value disparity in consideration of local areas.
地方に配慮しつつ、1票の格差を是正する観点で、現実的な方式と言えよう。

The Supreme Court handed down a ruling in late November that the lower house election in December last year, which had a maximum vote-value disparity of 2.13-to-1 in single-seat constituencies, was in a state of unconstitutionality. As the legislative body, the Diet must respond swiftly to the request from the judicial branch of government.
最高裁は先月下旬、1票の格差が最大2・13倍だった昨年12月の衆院選を「違憲状態」と判断した。立法府として、司法の要請に速やかに応えねばなるまい。

Not all will be pleased

What is questionable is that the draft proposed eliminating six seats in the single-seat constituencies and eliminating four in the proportional representation blocks. The proposed reduction would take the number of lower house seats to a postwar low of 465.
疑問なのは、答申原案が定数を小選挙区で6、比例選で4削減したことだ。衆院定数は戦後最少の465となる。

If the number of lower house seats is reduced, even just slightly, it would be difficult to reflect the diversity of public opinions in the election. Diet functions, such as lawmaker-initiated legislation and holding administrations to account through deliberations on bills, could be weaker. Originally, the number of legislators in proportion to the population was smaller in Japan than in the United States and European countries.
小幅とはいえ、定数を減らせば、選挙で多様な民意を反映しにくくなる。議員立法や、法案審議を通じた行政監視など、立法府の能力が低下しかねない。そもそも日本の国会議員は人口比でみれば、欧米諸国より多くない。

Furthermore, the fewer seats there are, the more difficult the correction of the vote-value disparity becomes.
さらに、定数を減らすほど、1票の格差是正が困難になる。

Even within the panel, there were voices pointing out the negative effects of reducing the number of seats. It is regrettable that the panel finally had no choice but to incorporate the assertions of main political parties that seek a drastic reduction in the seats.
調査会内でも、定数削減の弊害を指摘する意見が少なくなかった。最終的に、定数の大幅削減を唱える主要政党の主張を取り入れざるを得なかったのは残念だ。

The panel is scheduled to submit its proposal to lower house Speaker Tadamori Oshima in early January. In June last year, each main party confirmed that they would “respect” the conclusion of the panel. However, some members of the ruling Liberal Democratic Party who were elected from less populated electoral districts have already expressed their opposition to the draft proposal.
調査会は年明けに、大島議長に答申する。主要各党は昨年6月、調査会の結論を「尊重する」ことを確認している。だが、自民党内では早くも、地方選出議員らから答申原案への反発が出ている。

Electoral systems directly lead to the rise and fall of political parties. No plan can avoid every objection. The LDP should not cling to its own interests, but should play a leading role in drawing together the various opinions of each political party to reach a consensus.
選挙制度は各党の消長に直結する。どんな案でも、異論は避けられない。自民党は、自らの利害に拘泥せず、各党の意見集約に主導的な役割を果たすべきだ。

Shifting to a new system requires revision of the Public Offices Election Law so that the content of the proposal can be reflected in the law. It also requires studying a new rezoning process. It will likely take more than a year to do so.
新制度への移行には、答申内容を反映した公職選挙法の改正や区割りの見直し作業などが必要で、最低1年以上かかる見通しだ。

Ruling and opposition parties are urged to realize the electoral system reform with such a time schedule in mind.
与野党は、こうした日程も踏まえて、選挙制度改革を実現することが求められよう。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Dec. 19, 2015)

続きを読む

米ゼロ金利解除 「出口」迎えた異例の危機対応

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Fed’s decision to increase rate ends unprecedented crisis response
米ゼロ金利解除 「出口」迎えた異例の危機対応

The United States has put an end to the situation in which monetary easing on an unprecedented scale was used to deal with the extraordinary financial crisis triggered by the 2008 collapse of Lehman Brothers.
リーマン・ショックに端を発した未曽有の金融危機に、米国が空前の大規模緩和で対処する事態に終止符が打たれた。

We welcome the fact that the United States, the epicenter of the global financial crunch, has successfully met the challenge of reinvigorating its economy, to the point of being able to return to ordinary financial policy.
危機の震源地である米国が、金融政策を平時の状態に戻せるまで、経済再生を果たしたことを歓迎したい。

The U.S. Federal Reserve Board has decided on its first interest rate increase in 9½ years. Lifting the effectively zero-interest rate policy that was in place from the end of 2008, the Fed increased its benchmark interest rate by a quarter of a percentage point to between 0.25 percent and 0.50 percent per year from between zero and 0.25 percent.
米連邦準備制度理事会(FRB)が、9年半ぶりの利上げを決めた。政策金利の誘導目標を年0~0・25%から年0・25~0・50%に上げ、2008年末から続く事実上のゼロ金利政策を解除した。

The expansionary phase of the U.S. economy has been continuing for a little more than six years so far, while the unemployment rate has shrunk to a pre-crisis level. Given the prospects for stability in the U.S. labor market and moderate price rises in the future, it is reasonable for the United States to break off the extraordinary monetary easing.
米国の景気拡大局面は6年強に及び、失業率は危機前の水準に戻った。雇用安定や緩やかな物価上昇も見込める以上、異例の金融緩和を打ち切るのは妥当である。

Emerging economies have served as locomotives for the global economy since the crash, as plenty of funds flowed into them as a result of the easy money policies in Japan, the United States and Europe. Due caution should be exercised about the possibility of the U.S. interest rate raise causing a major transformation of this paradigm.
危機後の世界経済は、日米欧の金融緩和で潤沢な資金が流入した新興国が牽引けんいんしてきた。米国の利上げによって、この構図が大きく転換することに注意が必要だ。

There can be no doubt that the world’s investment funds will lean toward fund management in dollars, expecting higher interest rates. Fears are being noted that the “monetary easing cash” that has flowed into emerging economies will flow backward in large quantities into the United States.
世界の投資資金が、金利上昇を期待できるドルでの運用に傾くのは確実である。新興国に流れていた「緩和マネー」が、大量に米国へ逆流する恐れが指摘される。

Vigilance may be required against the risk of currencies and stock prices plunging precipitously in emerging economies, gravely shaking markets worldwide.
新興国の通貨や株価が急落し、市場に深刻な動揺を招くリスクを十分警戒せねばなるまい。

Dialogue with markets

The continuing drops in crude oil prices are also a matter of concern. Because the finances of oil-producing countries have been increasingly severe, they have been withdrawing oil money from the markets. Should this outflow be coupled with the back-streaming of funds into the United States from emerging economies, the danger of turmoil in the world’s economy could arise.
原油価格の下落も懸念材料だ。産油国の財政逼迫ひっぱくでオイルマネーが市場から引き揚げられている。緩和マネーの逆流が重なれば、混乱に拍車がかかりかねない。

Markets have mostly reacted favorably to the higher U.S. interest rate policy, as shown by sharp rises in stock prices both in Japan and the United States right after the Fed decision.
FRBの決定の直後、日米の株価が大幅に上昇するなど、市場は利上げをおおむね好感した。

While many investors had factored in the U.S. lifting of the zero-interest rate policy in advance, the statement made by Fed Chair Janet Yellen suggesting future hikes will be coming slowly has also had a favorable impact.
投資家の多くが事前にゼロ金利解除を織り込んでいたうえ、FRBのイエレン議長が、今後の利上げを緩やかなペースで進める考えを表明したのも奏功した。

There is no justification for being unprepared for future developments in “exit strategies” out of the monetary easing.
だが、金融緩和の「出口戦略」の今後に、油断は禁物である。

The Fed should be as prudent as possible in steering its monetary policy. By engaging again and again in circumspect dialogues with the markets, it is imperative for the Fed to have the direction of its financial policy gradually spread through market players.
FRBには、繊細な舵かじ取りが求められる。「市場との対話」を慎重に重ねて、金融政策の方向性を市場関係者に徐々に浸透させることが欠かせない。

It is important for emerging economies to redouble their efforts to enhance their attractiveness as investment destinations, to ensure that no excessive outflow of funds takes place. We hope to see them accelerate steps for structural reform, such as easing regulations to encourage the entry of capital from overseas.
新興国側も、過度な資金流出が起きないよう、投資先としての魅力を高める努力が大切になる。外資の参入を促す規制緩和など構造改革を加速してもらいたい。

Regarding the effect the U.S. interest rate hike will have on Japan, Akira Amari, state minister in charge of economic revitalization, has stressed that higher U.S. rates “will be a plus for the Japanese economy in the medium to long term.” Further weakening of the yen and strengthening of the dollar are expected, boosting increases in Japan’s exports.
甘利経済再生相は、利上げの日本への影響について「中長期的にプラスだ」と強調した。円安・ドル高が進み、輸出にさらに勢いがつく効果が期待できよう。

However, we cannot take our eyes off the danger of excessive depreciation of the yen causing import prices to increase so much they adversely affect businesses. The government must be sure to steadily put the economic growth policy into force, wasting no time in bringing about a self-sustained business recovery led by domestic demand.
ただ、過度な円安が輸入物価を高騰させ、景気が悪化する危険性からも目が離せない。成長戦略を着実に実行し、内需主導の自律的な景気回復を急ぐべきである。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Dec. 18, 2015)Speech

続きを読む

与党税制大綱 出版物の「軽減」対象も検討を

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Ruling parties should consider lower consumption tax rate for publications
与党税制大綱 出版物の「軽減」対象も検討を

To boost economic growth, the government should steadily press ahead with tax system revisions that encourage investment and consumption.
成長の拡大へ、投資や消費を促す税制改革を着実に進めるべきだ。

The Liberal Democratic Party and its coalition partner Komeito have formally decided on an outline for tax system revisions for fiscal 2016. A pillar of this outline is the lowering of the effective corporate tax rate from the current 32.11 percent to 29.97 percent in fiscal 2016. This tax rate will be brought below 30 percent one year ahead of the original schedule.
自民、公明両党が2016年度の与党税制改正大綱を決めた。法人税実効税率を今の32・11%から29・97%に引き下げ、従来方針より1年早く20%台とすることが柱だ。

This will be reflected in the government’s budget for fiscal 2016 and bills related to the revisions of the tax system.
政府の16年度予算案と税制改正関連法案に反映される。

Japan’s corporate tax rate is high compared with the rate in some European and Asian nations. We understand the aim of strengthening companies’ international competitiveness by trimming the tax rate and improving the business operating environment.
日本の税率は、欧州・アジア諸国に比べて高い。税率を下げて経営環境を改善し、企業の国際競争力を強める目的は理解できる。

It is important for this to put the brakes on the hollowing-out of domestic industries, and lead to more investment from abroad.
国内の産業空洞化に歯止めをかけ、海外からの投資の呼び込みにつなげることが重要である。

The decision to bring forward the cutting of the corporate tax rate to below 30 percent was based on requests by business organizations and other groups. There will be no point in lessening this tax burden if all it does is inflate the more than ¥350 trillion in internal reserves held by companies. We expect each company to make positive efforts to boost wages and expand investment in plants and equipment.
20%台への引き下げ前倒しは、経済団体などの要望を踏まえたものだ。税負担を軽くしても、350兆円超の企業の内部留保が増えるだけでは意味がない。各社が賃上げや設備投資拡大に前向きに取り組むことを期待したい。

One revision, made in preparation for the Trans-Pacific Partnership free trade agreement coming into effect, will halve the fixed asset tax on farmland leased out by farmland intermediary administration institutes created in each prefecture. Conversely, the tax burden imposed on fields and paddies that are no longer cultivated, despite being potentially usable, will be increased about 80 percent.
環太平洋経済連携協定(TPP)の発効を見据えた改正では、都道府県の農地中間管理機構に貸し出された農地の固定資産税を半減する。逆に、利用が可能なのに放置されている耕作放棄地の税負担は約1・8倍に増やす。

We welcome this creative use of the tax system to increase productivity by increasing the size of farms in the country. One issue to be addressed is how to accurately select abandoned farmland that would be subject to the higher tax rate.
農地の大規模化による生産性向上に税制を活用する工夫は、評価できる。課税強化対象となる放棄地を的確に選ぶことが課題だ。

Curbing ‘knowledge tax’

When the consumption tax rate is hiked to 10 percent in April 2017, the existing automobile acquisition tax will be abolished and replaced with a new automobile tax based on fuel efficiency. The more fuel-efficient a vehicle is, the lower the tax rate will be. More than half of all new vehicles are forecast to be exempt from this new tax, which will result in an effective reduction of ¥20 billion in the tax burden shouldered by vehicle owners.
17年4月の消費増税時に自動車取得税を廃止する代わりに、燃費性能の高い車ほど購入時の税率を低くする制度も始める。新車の半分以上が非課税となる見込みで、200億円の実質減税になる。

We think it is appropriate that the ruling parties aim to alleviate the impact of the higher consumption tax rate and beef up measures to help the environment.
増税の影響を和らげつつ、環境対策を拡充する狙いは妥当だ。

According to the outline, a lower consumption tax rate will be applied to food in general, excluding alcohol and eating out. In addition, the ruling parties decided the lower rate would apply to subscribed newspapers that are issued at least twice a week and home-delivered.
消費税の軽減税率は、酒類と外食を除く飲食料品全般に加えて、宅配される週2回以上発行の新聞も新たに対象となった。

Newspapers provide a wide range of information and opinions to the public, so they can be considered social infrastructure that supports democracy and the culture of the printed word.
国民に幅広い情報や意見を提供する新聞は、民主主義や活字文化を支える社会基盤と言える。

The LDP and Komeito attached importance to the benefit newspapers provide to the public, and decided to curb, as much as possible, the imposition of an additional “tax on knowledge.”
自公両党は、新聞の公益性を重視し、「知識課税」をできるだけ抑制することにした。

Newspaper publishers must remain fully aware of the significance of this step, and fulfill their duties as organs of news reporting and public opinion.
新聞社は、その意義を十分自覚し、報道・言論機関としての責務を果たすことが求められよう。

It was unfortunate that the parties decided more discussions are needed on whether the lower rate should be applied to publications such as books and magazines. While we understand it is difficult to draw the cut-off line, it is essential that consideration be given to the social role these publications play in supporting education and culture.
残念なのは、書籍や雑誌など出版物への軽減税率の適用が継続協議となったことだ。対象の線引きが難しいのは分かるが、教育や文化を支える出版物の社会的役割への配慮は欠かせない。

Most European countries impose a lower tax rate on publications as well as newspapers. The same step should be taken in Japan, and we urge the ruling parties to hold discussions on designing such a system.
欧州の大半の国では、新聞とともに、出版物も軽減対象にしている。日本も同様の措置を取るべきであり、与党は制度設計の協議を重ねてもらいたい。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Dec. 17, 2015)

続きを読む

中国軍機構改革 対米挑戦姿勢は緊張を高める

The Yomiuri Shimbun
China’s military reform could lead to heightened tensions with U.S.
中国軍機構改革 対米挑戦姿勢は緊張を高める

China has started a structural reform of its military to enhance its readiness for modern warfare entailing the full use of high-tech weapons.
ハイテク兵器を駆使する現代戦への即応態勢を整えるため、中国が軍の機構改革に着手した。

The latest move can be described as a new phase in China’s drive to build a strong army, the goal pursued by President Xi Jinping through rapid progress in his country’s military build-up. Japan and the United States must closely cooperate to strengthen their guard against China’s continuously evolving military.
軍備増強を急速に進めてきた習近平国家主席の「強軍路線」が新たな段階に入ったと言えよう。日米は緊密に協調し、進化する中国軍への警戒を強めねばならない。

At a recent military conference, Xi emphasized that deepening national defense and military reform are “requirements of the times” to be fulfilled in pursuing “the dream of a strong army.” He also said China would seek to build, by the end of 2020, a structure for the integrated operation of units from its army, navy, air force and 2nd Artillery (strategic missile forces).
習氏は最近、軍の会議で、「国防と軍隊の改革を深めることは、『強軍の夢』を実現する時代の要請だ」と強調した。2020年までに、陸海空3軍と第2砲兵(戦略ミサイル部隊)を統合運用する体制を構築する方針も示した。

The reform drive entails a plan to reorganize the current structure, which divides the whole country into seven major military districts, each mainly controlled by the army. The plan will rearrange these districts into four to five combat zones, followed by a measure to establish a joint operational command organization in each zone. The reform is aimed at ensuring that orders from the nerve center of the military are thoroughly enforced among frontline troops, thereby making it possible to flexibly respond to any situation.
全土を7地域に分けた陸軍主導の7大軍区を、4~5程度の「戦区」に改編した上で、各戦区に「統合作戦指揮機構」を新設するという。軍中央の命令を前線部隊に徹底し、機動的な対応ができるようにする狙いである。

The current military districts are so strongly influenced by the army that there is a serious degree of vertical segmentation in military management there. There is inadequacy of the army’s cooperation with the navy, air force and missile unit. Xi’s reform drive seems to reflect his belief that, if the current situation goes unrectified, his country will not be able to effectively implement its strategy — known as “anti-access area denial (A2/AD)” — for preventing U.S. intervention in a military contingency.
現行の軍区は陸軍の影響力が強く、縦割りが深刻だ。海空軍やミサイル部隊との連携も十分でない。このままでは、米軍の有事介入を阻む「接近阻止・領域拒否(A2AD)」戦略を有効に実施できないと判断しているのだろう。

Xi in command

China’s military reform reflects Xi’s wishes. Since the launch of his administration in the autumn of 2012, he has striven to build “an army that can win a war,” a task necessary for transforming his nation into “a great maritime power.”
軍改革は、12年秋の政権発足以来、「海洋強国」建設に向けて、「戦いに勝てる軍」を目指してきた習氏の意向を反映したものだ。

The prevailing view has been that it will be difficult to reorganize the military districts due to strong resistance from the army. However, Xi’s success in initiating his reform drive means that he has cemented his power base by removing all foes within the military through his policy of clamping down on corrupt practices. He may also have intended to further tighten up the military.
軍区の改編はこれまで、陸軍の抵抗が激しく、難しいとの見方が多かった。今回、習氏が改革を始動できたのは、腐敗摘発で軍内の政敵を完全に排除し、権力基盤を固めたことを意味する。軍をさらに引き締める意図もあろう。

Earlier, the Xi administration said it would slash his country’s 2.3 million soldiers by 300,000. This seems to entail cuts mainly in the number of noncombatants in the army, a task that can be made possible through a reorganization of the military districts. Budgetary resources to be accrued from this will likely be used for selected purposes of high priority, such as those tied to state-of-the-art weapons to be used by the three arms of the military.
習政権は先に、230万人の兵力を30万人削減する計画を表明している。軍区改編に伴い陸軍の非戦闘員らを中心に減らし、その分の予算を海空軍の最新兵器などに重点投入するとみられる。

China is reportedly accelerating efforts to develop a next-generation stealth bomber and a new intercontinental ballistic missile while also building several domestically designed aircraft carriers.
中国は、次世代ステルス戦闘機や新型の大陸間弾道ミサイル(ICBM)の開発、複数の国産空母の建造を急いでいるとされる。

We believe Xi’s decision to unveil his military reform plan at this point in time signifies he was keenly aware of how relevant nations have acted in connection with China’s recent movements. For instance, the United States sent a warship to the South China Sea, and conducted patrol activities in waters near artificial islands reclaimed by China in the region. Japan too has been trying to restrain China.
この時期に軍改革を発表したのは、南シナ海の人工島付近で艦艇による巡視活動を行った米国や、中国を牽制けんせいする日本など関係国の動向を意識したのではないか。

China is also increasing the frequency of naval exercises in the Western Pacific, with a view to advancing into the so-called Second Island Chain, which extends from the Izu Islands to Guam. China’s maritime activities have also been noticeable in waters around the Senkaku Islands. The country’s undisguised provocative acts against the Japan-U.S. alliance will only add to tensions in the region.
伊豆諸島からグアムに至る「第2列島線」まで進出するため、西太平洋で海軍の訓練も増やしている。尖閣諸島周辺での活動も目立つ。日米同盟に露骨に対抗する動きは地域の緊張を招くだけだ。

However, it should be noted that even the U.S. forces required many years to achieve integrated military operation. Our nation’s Self-Defense Forces are still halfway there in pursuit of a similar goal. China’s neighboring countries need to closely watch whether Xi’s military reform drive will proceed as he calculated.
ただ、統合運用は米軍でさえ、実現に長年を費やした。自衛隊もまだ途上にある。周辺国は、中国軍の改革が習氏の計算通りに進むのか、注視する必要がある。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Dec. 16, 2015)

続きを読む

パリ協定採択 世界全体で目標を達成しよう

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Close global cooperation needed to achieve Paris accord emissions targets
パリ協定採択 世界全体で目標を達成しよう

The agreement by all participating countries to work toward reducing greenhouse gas emissions is a significant step forward in dealing with global warming.
全ての国が温室効果ガスの排出削減に努める体制に合意できたのは、地球温暖化対策の重要な前進である。

The 21st Session of the Conference of the Parties to the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change (COP21) ended in Paris on Saturday after adopting the Paris agreement, a framework designed to take effect in 2020.
パリで開かれていた国連気候変動枠組み条約の第21回締約国会議(COP21)が、2020年からの新たな枠組みとなる「パリ協定」を採択した。

The Kyoto Protocol adopted in 1997 called only on developed countries to carry out emissions cuts, but this time all parties are obliged to make efforts to curtail emissions in line with nationally determined goals. The new framework does not make it mandatory to achieve targets and is a loose structure, but calls for reexamining them every five years to make further efforts to cut emissions.
1997年採択の京都議定書では、先進国のみが削減義務を負ったが、今回は全締約国が自主目標を基に削減を図る。目標達成を義務づけない緩やかな枠組みとする一方で、各国は5年ごとに目標を見直し、一層の削減を進める。

The Paris agreement aims to hold the rise of the world’s average temperature to “well below 2 C above preindustrial levels.” It also mentioned a commitment to “below 1.5 C above preindustrial levels,” which was demanded by island countries, as a target for which efforts must be made. Both these goals will be hard to achieve.
平均気温の上昇は、産業革命前に比べて「2度を十分下回る」ことを目指す。温暖化の影響が大きい島嶼とうしょ国が求めた「1・5度未満」も努力目標として言及した。いずれも高いハードルだ。

The effectiveness of the agreement will be put to the test with regard to how each country can achieve its target and whether it can raise its target further.
各国が目標をどれだけ達成し、さらに引き上げられるか。パリ協定の実効性が問われる。

Endeavors by emerging countries are key to cutting global emissions as a whole. China and India, among other nations, argued that “our per capita energy consumption is small and we are developing countries.”
世界全体の排出量を減らすカギとなるのは、新興国の取り組みだ。中国やインドなどは「1人当たりのエネルギー消費は少なく、我々は途上国だ」と主張した。

The fact remains, however, that China and India are the world’s top and the third-largest emitters of greenhouse gases, respectively. To fulfill their responsibilities, the two countries must make greater efforts to curb emissions without limiting their efforts to nationally determined contributions.
だが、中印両国は既に世界1、3位の排出大国だ。相応の責任を果たすため、自主目標の達成にとどまらず、一層の削減に努力することが求められる。

Realistic choice

During the Paris conference, developing nations called on developed countries to increase their financial assistance and technological transfers, arguing that they “became rich as a result of consuming huge quantities of fossil fuels.”
会議で、途上国は「先進国が化石燃料を大量に消費して豊かになった」として、資金援助や技術移転の強化を求めた。

The agreement made it mandatory for developed nations to assist developing countries but did not put a monetary value on such assistance. Annual assistance of ¥100 billion in 2020 and onward was incorporated in a separate document of a nonbinding agreement. A realistic judgment by developing nations that placed priority on the conclusion of an agreement is laudable.
協定は、途上国支援を先進国の義務としたが、額の明示は見送った。年1000億ドルの支援を20年以降、上積みすることは、拘束力のない別の文書に盛り込まれた。合意を優先した途上国の現実的な判断は評価できる。

Using such assistance to carry out measures to fight global warming is important. It also is necessary to ensure transparency of this assistance and work out a system to verify its effectiveness.
大切なのは、支援を温暖化対策に確実につなげることだ。透明性を確保し、効果を検証できるシステムを構築する必要がある。

Japan proposed a “bilateral credit system” under which Japan would assist in the energy-saving measures of developing countries, with portions of emissions curbed calculated as its own. The scheme, adopted as part of the agreement, was the outcome of diplomatic efforts by Japanese officials.
日本は、途上国の省エネ策を支援し、削減された排出量の一部を自国分に算入できる「2国間クレジット制度」を提唱した。この制度が協定に採用されたのは、日本の外交努力の成果だ。

Japan has already agreed to apply the bilateral credit system to 16 countries, including Mongolia and Bangladesh. Assistance in the energy-saving efforts of developing countries has greater cost-effectiveness than measures taken domestically. The application of the system must be expanded positively.
日本は既に、モンゴル、バングラデシュなど16か国と提携している。途上国の省エネ支援は、国内対策よりも費用対効果が大きい。積極的に拡大するべきだ。

Japan’s target is to reduce emissions by 26 percent in fiscal 2030 from the levels in fiscal 2013. Reliance on coal and other fossil fuels must be corrected. It is essential to promote the reactivation and new construction of nuclear power plants to lower the cost of renewable energy generation.
日本の削減目標は、30年度に13年度比で26%減だ。石炭など化石燃料への依存を改めねばならない。原発の再稼働と新増設を進め、再生可能エネルギーの発電コストを下げることが重要である。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Dec. 15, 2015)

続きを読む

軽減税率 円滑導入で増税の備え万全に

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Launch lower rate smoothly to prepare for sales tax hike
軽減税率 円滑導入で増税の備え万全に

◆安定財源確保へ検討を深めよ◆

All possible measures should be taken to prepare for future tax hikes by ensuring that the new system is put into practice smoothly.
新制度の円滑な導入を図り、増税の備えに万全を期さねばならない。

The ruling Liberal Democratic Party and its junior coalition partner Komeito have reached a broad agreement on formulating a reduced tax rate system. The lower tax rate is to be put into effect at the same time as the scheduled hike in the consumption tax from the current 8 percent to 10 percent in April 2017.
自民、公明両党が、軽減税率の制度設計で大筋合意した。2017年4月に消費税率を10%へ引き上げる際、同時に導入する。

Both fresh and processed food and drinks, excluding alcohol and eating out, are eligible for tax relief by keeping the rate unchanged at 8 percent. The reduced tax rate plan will lower the government’s annual tax revenue by an estimated ¥1 trillion. The lower rate measure is expected to alleviate the pain felt by the public, especially low-income earners, due to the higher tax rate, thereby helping household budgets.
酒類・外食を除く生鮮食品と加工食品を対象とし、税率は8%に据え置く。軽減規模は年1兆円に上る。軽減税率には、低所得者を中心に痛税感を和らげ、家計を支える効果が期待される。

The ruling coalition parties should be praised for clinching the tax relief deal by putting their differences behind them.
与党が意見対立を収め、合意に漕こぎ着けたことは評価できる。

Bridging the gap
◆首相官邸が公明に配慮

The additional revenue resulting from the planned consumption tax markup is to be used solely to cover social security costs. Budgetary appropriations for social security are bound to continue to grow rapidly with the graying of the country and the low birthrate.
消費税の増収分は全額、社会保障費の財源に充てられる。少子高齢化の進行で、予算規模がこれからも増え続けるのは必至だ。

If the government’s stringent fiscal conditions is taken into account, we cannot help but feel that further consumption tax hikes are likely in the future. It is significant that the introduction of the reduced tax rate system agreed on this time means that daily necessities will be exempt from the hike, so it will become simpler to make preparations for possible additional tax increases in the future.
厳しい財政事情を考慮すれば、一層の消費税率の引き上げを視野に入れざるを得ない。軽減税率の導入で、生活必需品を増税から切り離し、将来の再増税に備えられる制度となる意義は大きい。

Talks between the LDP and Komeito experienced rough going because of the difficulty in bridging the gap between the two parties on what items should be eligible for the lower tax rate.
協議の難航は、対象の線引きを巡る溝が深かったためだ。

Although earlier calling for limiting the scope of the lower tax rate to fresh food, the LDP made a concession by accepting Komeito’s demand that processed foodstuffs should be made eligible for the reduced tax rate. The LDP even went so far as to propose that the reduced tax rate cover eating out, a suggestion that led to confusion.
当初、生鮮食品に限ると主張していた自民党は、途中から公明党の加工食品を含める案をのんだ。さらに外食も加えるよう求め、混乱が生じた。

The two parties eventually agreed to exclude dining out from the list of the eligible items, because of objections that it would be unduly generous to people in high-income brackets as they have many opportunities to enjoy meals at luxury restaurants.
外食を含めると、高級飲食店などの利用が多い高所得者への恩恵が手厚くなりすぎるとの異論も出て、外食を除く案で決着した。

The concession made by the LDP in the final phase of the talks is due to the strong determination on the part of Prime Minister Shinzo Abe and his close aides who placed priority on cooperation with Komeito in the electoral campaign for the House of Councillors election scheduled for next summer.
最終的に自民党が歩み寄ったのは、来年夏に参院選を控え、公明党との選挙協力を重視する首相官邸の意向が働いたからだ。

Processed food includes bread, noodles and others that are indispensable in people’s daily diet. We welcome the two parties’ broad agreement that makes the foodstuffs people purchase every day eligible for the lower tax rate.
加工食品には、パンや麺類など食生活に不可欠な商品が含まれる。日常的に購入する食品を対象とする大筋合意を歓迎したい。

The ruling coalition parties will now focus their talks on whether to apply the lower rate to items other than food.
与党は今後、食品以外の対象品目の協議を続ける考えだ。

Most countries with the reduced tax rate arrangements have made newspapers and other publications eligible for the tax relief along with food.
海外では、軽減税率を採用する大半の国が、食品と並んで新聞や出版物を対象にしている。

They have contributed to the development of democracy and the promotion of reading culture. They should not be simply considered consumption commodities, but public goods that enrich the lives of the people.
新聞と出版物は、民主主義の発展や活字文化の振興に貢献してきた。単なる消費財でなく、豊かな国民生活を維持するのに欠かせない公共財と言える。

In light of their roles in society, newspapers and other publications should be covered by the reduced tax rate in Japan.
こうした社会的役割を踏まえ、日本でも、新聞と出版物に軽減税率を適用すべきである。

The ruling coalition parties also decided to make it mandatory for business operators to adopt an invoice system in which the amounts of tax and tax rates would be included in their bill, effective from fiscal 2021.
与党は、請求書に税額や税率を記入するインボイス(税額票)の採用を、21年度から事業者に義務づける方針も決定した。

Invoices good idea
◆税額票の採用は当然だ

With multiple tax rates, there is a possibility of operators engaging in a rash of fraudulent practices, such as by disguising sales actually made under the standard tax rate as having been made under the reduced tax rate, thereby allowing them to retain part of the tax as profit.
税率が複数になると、標準税率の売り上げを軽減税率の取引だと偽り、事業者が税金の一部を手元に残す行為が頻発しかねない。

In preventing such fraud, the adoption of invoices is deemed reasonable.
こうした不正を防ぐうえで、インボイスの採用は当然だろう。

Now that the ruling parties have reached an agreement, the government needs to steadily move ahead with preparatory work to introduce the reduced tax rate.
与党合意を受けて政府は、軽減税率の導入に向けた準備作業を着実に進める必要がある。

To prevent confusion among consumers and business operators at stores over the multiple tax rates, the government should make a clear distinction between items subject to the reduced tax rate and those that are not, come up with ways to deal with problematic cases and spare no effort to disseminate the multiple tax rates as widely as possible.
店頭で消費者や事業者が戸惑うことのないよう、対象の線引きや様々な事例への対処法を明示し、周知徹底を図らねばならない。

The reduced tax rate is not applied to dining in restaurants but a question arises as to how to distinguish between eating inside a fast-food restaurant and taking out food. It is important to establish precise guidelines.
外食は対象外だが、ファストフード店内での食事と持ち帰りをどう区別するかといった疑問が生じかねない。簡明なガイドラインなどを設けることが大切だ。

It is also vital for the government to help small stores deal with the multiple tax rates by, for instance, financially assisting them in having their cash registers modified and by holding instruction courses for them to learn the new accounting system.
レジの改修費補助や新たな会計方式を習得するための研修など、中小・零細店の対応を支援する取り組みも重要になる。

A major worry is that there are no prospects at present in securing the necessary financial sources to make up for the revenue shortfall when the reduced tax rate is introduced.
気がかりなのは、軽減税率導入の財源をどのような手段で手当てするか、まだ目処めどが立っていないことだ。

Currently, the government has decided only on a policy of allocating ¥400 billion that had originally been earmarked to assist low-income people when the tax is raised.
今は、増税時の低所得者対策に回す予定だった4000億円を充てる方針だけが決まっている。

The LDP has been saying that the necessary financial sources should be managed within the framework of social security expenses. But it is undesirable to put an excessive burden on health care and nursing care programs. The party should deepen its discussions on whether the government can hold down expenditures in areas other than social security spending or make use of other tax revenues.
自民党は社会保障費の枠内でのやり繰りを主張してきたが、医療や介護などに過度な影響を及ぼすのは望ましくない。社会保障以外の歳出抑制や他の税収を活用できないか、議論を深めるべきだ。

LDP Secretary General Sadakazu Tanigaki emphasized: “We will uphold the government’s plan to restore its fiscal health. We will take responsibility for securing stable and permanent fiscal resources.” We hope the LDP will continue studying ideas such as raising the tobacco tax as advocated by Komeito.
自民党の谷垣幹事長は「財政健全化目標を堅持する。安定的な恒久財源の確保に責任をもって対応する」と強調した。公明党が提唱する、たばこ増税案などの検討も続けてもらいたい。

Reduce ‘tax profits’
◆益税拡大は許されない

Also remaining to be worked out is the issue of what to do with “tax profits” as some business operators pocket part of the consumption tax, rather than turn it over to the government.
消費者が支払った税金が事業者の手元に残る「益税」の取り扱いも、残された課題である。

It has been decided that even after the reduced tax rate is introduced, the current consumption tax exemption system for small-business operators and the simplified tax system that makes tax calculations easier are to be kept in place.
軽減税率の導入後も、現行の小規模事業者の免税制度や、納税の計算を簡単にする簡易課税制度は存続することが決まった。

At present, tax profits are estimated to amount to ¥600 billion a year. It will be unavoidable that tax gains will grow following the tax hike.
現在の益税規模は年6000億円にも上ると試算される。税率引き上げで、さらに規模が膨らむ事態は避けられない。

As the government will make consumers pay a higher tax, it is logical to reduce such tax profits. Should the government allow such profits to expand instead, the public would not understand.
消費者に増税を強いる以上、益税は縮小するのが筋である。逆に拡大を許してしまうのでは、国民の納得は得られまい。

The ruling parties must examine this issue in a much more sincere manner.
与党は益税の見直しについて、より真剣に検討すべきだ。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Dec. 13, 2015)

続きを読む

香山リカのココロの万華鏡 がまんせず助け求めて /東京

December 13, 2015 (Mainichi Japan)
Kaleidoscope of the Heart: Don't hesitate to seek help
香山リカのココロの万華鏡 がまんせず助け求めて /東京

One thing I often hear from patients in my consultation room is, "Why did this have to happen to me?"
  診察室でよく聞く言葉に「なぜ私がこんな目にあわなければならないのか」というものがある。

Depression is said to be more common among people who are devoted.
たとえば、うつ病はまじめな人に多いといわれる。

They work past their natural limits, or don't say when they are tired, not wanting to impose on those around them.
自分の限界を超えて仕事をしたり、疲れていてもまわりに悪いからと言い出せなかったりするからだ。

When I say, "Your devotion backfired," and they reply back softly, "Is it wrong to be devoted?"
「まじめすぎたのがあだになりましたね」と患者さんに言い、小さな声で「まじめはだめですか」と問い返されると、

I always regret what I said.
いつも「そんなことを言うべきではなかった」と反省する。

Devotion is a strong point of such people, and we shouldn't say, "If you were less hard-working, you would have gotten by without getting depression."
まじめなのはその人の長所であり、「もっと不まじめに生きてきたら、うつ病なんかにならないですんだのですよ」などと言うのは間違っている。

In other cases, they say, "I was betrayed by my colleagues," or "I was diagnosed with cancer." Having fallen into low spirits and been recommended to see a psychiatrist, they visit my clinic and say, "Why me?"
ほかにも「仕事の仲間に裏切られた」「健康診断でがんが見つかった」などの理由で深く落ち込み、精神科の受診を勧められてやって来て「なぜ私が」とため息をつく人たちは大勢いる。

"Is there no God, no Buddha?" I then give a muddied response.
「神も仏もないのでしょうか」と問われ、言葉を濁したこともあった。

When I see these people, I wonder whether, even without an unequal society, life is simply unfair and absurd from the start.
こういう人たちを見ていると「格差社会」でなくても人生はもともと不公平で理不尽なのか、と考えてしまう。

Not everyone who works hard is rewarded like in "The Ant and the Grasshopper."
「アリとキリギリス」の物語のように、努力した人が報われるとは限らないからだ。

Before I resign myself to believing that life is unfair, some people come to my mind.
しかし、「人間は不平等」とあきらめる前に、私はいつも何人かの顔を思い出す。

One of them, after suffering from a disaster in their life, began working to help society because they "wanted to help people suffering in the same way."
わが身に起きた不幸なできごとに泣き暮らした後、「同じ苦しみにある人を救いたい」と社会活動を始めた人がいた。

Another person had struggled against a string of unfortunate incidents, saying, "Still, I don't want to become someone who is jealous of others." 気の毒になるくらい不運続きの人生で、「それでもほかの人たちをねたむ自分になりたくない」と必死に歯を食いしばっている人もいた。

Another person said, "I can't fully recover, but I want to live out this life I was given," and continued living out their days with care, cooking and cleaning.
「立ち直ることなんてできないけれど、とりあえず与えられた生はまっとうしたい」と丁寧に食事を作り、掃除をし、日々の暮らしを大切にしている人に会ったこともある。

So many times, I have been shown by my patients how dignified humans can act.
人間って気高いものだな、と診察室で何度、教えられたことか。

Of course, we should do what we can to avoid meeting unfortunate events in our lives.
もちろん、不幸なできごと、不運なできごとは避けられるなら避けたほうがいいし、そのための準備や対策なども怠らずにおきたい。

But there will still be some probability that problems will occur.
それでも、一定の確率でいろいろなことが私たちの人生には起きる。

Sometimes we will be visited with multiple bad things in a row.
ときには続けざまに悪いことが降りかかってくることもある。

It's normal at those times to feel down, or to curse one's fate, and we needn't overly restrain our feelings.
そんなときに落ち込んだり運命を呪ったりするのは当然で、がまんしすぎる必要はない。

At the same time, we shouldn't completely give up, and as long as we have a means of recovery left at our disposal, we have the ability to pull ourselves back up.
しかし、完全にあきらめるのはまだ早く、打てる手もあれば立ち上がる力も備わっている。

It's OK to ask for help from experts or friends, too, and this is what I want to say to people who feel that this year has been an unlucky one for them.
専門家や友人の助けを借りたってよいのだ。「今年一年、運が悪かったな」となげいている人に伝えたい。

(By Rika Kayama, psychiatrist) (精神科医)
毎日新聞2015年12月8日 地方版

続きを読む

中国の原発増設 世界を席巻する日が来るのか

The Yomiuri Shimbun
China’s ambition to sweep the world with nuclear technology concerning
中国の原発増設 世界を席巻する日が来るのか

We cannot afford to be unconcerned about China’s moves to accelerate construction of nuclear power plants. Is the safety of these facilities ensured?
中国が原子力発電所の建設を加速している。安全性は確保されているのか。不安を拭えない。

According to the World Nuclear Association, 30 nuclear reactors are currently operating in China. Japan has 43, but as the restart of the nation’s idled reactors is lagging, China is effectively fourth on the list of nations with the most nuclear power plants — behind the United States, France and Russia.
世界原子力協会によると、中国で運転中の原発は30基に上る。43基を有しながら再稼働が進まない日本を除くと、米国、フランス、ロシアに次ぎ、実質4位の原発国だ。

The administration of Chinese President Xi Jinping is planning to further increase the number of nuclear power plants to cope with the nation’s serious air pollution, which stems from coal-fired power generation, and increasing energy demand.
習近平政権は、さらなる増設を計画している。石炭火力発電に伴う深刻な大気汚染や、エネルギー需要の増大に対応するためだ。

According to local media reports, Beijing will build six to eight nuclear reactors annually in the next five years. By 2030, the number is set to reach 110, surpassing the 99 in the United States.
現地の報道では、来年以降5年間は年6~8基を増設し、2030年には、米国の99基を上回る110基にまで増やす方針だ。

One major concern is that information about nuclear power plants in China is extremely limited.
問題なのは、原発に関する情報が極めて少ないことだ。

China’s nuclear power operations began in 1994, and the number of nuclear reactors has increased rapidly since then.
中国の原発は、1994年から運転を開始し、その後、急ピッチで増設が進んできた。

However, the details of regulatory standards are not disclosed — it is quite obscure what kind of safety measures China is currently taking. There are limited examples of the Chinese government officially disclosing troubles with the nation’s nuclear power plants to the public, such as leaks of radioactive material or mechanical problems caused by accidents.
ただし、規制基準の詳細は公表されておらず、安全確保策の現状には不明な点が多い。放射能漏れや事故故障などのトラブルが公式に開示された例は少ない。

The less information available, the more concern there is. The Japanese government must reinforce its measures to collect information on China’s nuclear power plants.
情報が乏しいと、不安は増幅する。日本政府は、情報収集を強化する必要がある。

Impact on Japan

Prevailing westerlies bring yellow sand and air pollutants to Japan from China. If serious nuclear accidents occur in China, there could be serious repercussions for Japan.
中国からは、偏西風に乗って黄砂や大気汚染物質が飛来する。深刻な原発事故が起これば、日本に甚大な影響が及ぶ恐れがある。

It cannot be overlooked the fact that China’s nuclear power plants are concentrated in coastal areas. After the nuclear accident at Tokyo Electric Power Co.’s Fukushima No. 1 nuclear power plant, Beijing has put restrictions on the construction of nuclear power plants in inland areas. We assume Beijing is wary of the domestic impact from accidents if they occur inland.
沿岸部に原発が偏在している現状は軽視できない。中国政府は、東京電力福島第一原発の事故以降、内陸部での原発建設を制限している。事故時に国内に影響が及ぶのを警戒しているのだろう。

China’s nuclear reactors rarely use technologies developed in the country — they are basically an amalgamation of technologies imported from European countries, the United States and Japan.
元々、中国の原発は独自技術に乏しい。欧米や日本の技術を導入し、組み合わせたものだ。

Japan provides core parts, such as reactor pressure vessels.
日本は原子炉の圧力容器など、中核となる部品を供給している。

In recent years, China’s export drive on nuclear power plants has received worldwide attention. During his visit to Britain in October, Xi agreed with British Prime Minister David Cameron to build a Chinese Hualong One reactor, which is an improved version of a French reactor, in Britain.
近年は輸出攻勢が目立つ。習国家主席が10月に訪英した際には、仏の原子炉を改良した中国炉「華竜1号」を建設することで、キャメロン英首相と合意した。

Britain was once an advanced nuclear nation, but its technology declined after the nation stopped building new reactors. Under the current circumstances, it was unavoidable for Britain to rely on the technology of China, a nation that is rapidly gaining experience by building new reactors and has the advantage of cheap construction costs.
英国はかつて、原発の先進国だったが、増設がストップし、技術力が衰退した。建設費が安く、増設で経験を積む中国に頼らざるを得なかったと言えよう。

Beijing is also constructing Hualong One reactors in Pakistan, and is seeking to launch a promotion drive in South American and African countries.
中国はパキスタンでも、華竜1号を建設中だ。南米やアフリカ諸国にも売り込みを図っている。

However, we must point out that Hualong One is a model still under construction even in China itself. It is problematic that a model without sufficient operation records has begun sweeping the whole world.
華竜1号は、おひざ元の中国でも建設の途上だ。運転実績のない原子炉が世界を席巻しつつある現状には、問題が多い。

For Japan, the export of nuclear power technologies is a pillar of the nation’s infrastructure export drive. It is crucial to further polish the nation’s technological capability and produce tangible results. We also urge the government to start discussions about constructing new reactors in Japan.
日本にとっても、原発はインフラ輸出の柱の一つだ。技術力をさらに向上させ、実績を積み重ねることが重要である。国内での新増設も検討せねばならない。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Dec. 12, 2015)

続きを読む
プロフィール

srachai

自己紹介・リンク

■近況

2009年の9月15日に脳梗塞を発症、右手が少し不自由になりました。
MRAで脳梗塞の部位を特定でき、素早い処置をとれたので大事に至りませんでした。
快復にむけてリハビリ中です。
(2011/01/01更新)

■自己紹介・リンク

[ はじめに ]
タイのスラチャイです。
英語学習に王道はありません。
毎日毎日の地道な努力の積み重ねが必要です。
スラチャイはNHKのラジオ英語会話で現在の英語力を身につけました。
一日僅か15分の学習でも数年間継続すれば相当な学習効果が期待できます。

[ 名前 ]
松井 清 (スラチャイ)

[ 略歴 ]
・福岡県出身
・国立高知大学卒業
・準大手建設会社に就職
・50歳で会社を早期退職
・99/10 タイ全土を旅行
・00/10 タイに移住
・03/07 カイちゃん誕生
・07/06 シーファーちゃん誕生
・現在タイ国コンケン在住

[ 座右の銘 ]
Slow and steady wins the race.
遅くとも着実な者が勝利する
(NHK基礎英語芹沢栄先生)

[ 学習の手引き ]
・音読して耳から英語を吸収
・Think in English.
・ネイティブ発音付辞書活用
・英英辞典を活用(英和も)
・翻訳和文で専門用語確認

[ English Newspapers ]
Yomiuri
Mainichi
Asahi
Japan Times
Washington Post
Newyork Times
Bangkok Post
The Nations
Phuket Gazette

[ 英字新聞の英和対訳学習 ]
英字新聞(読売)
英字新聞(毎日)
英字新聞(朝日)
英字新聞(朝日2)

[ スラチャイ編集の辞書 ]
タイ日辞書(改訂版)
日タイ辞書(改訂版)
ラオ日辞書
日ラオ辞書

[ 英字新聞リンク ]
ocn cafe
fc2
goo
yahoo
ameba

オンラインカジノ

[ 32レッドカジノ ]



[ online casino ]
オンラインカジノとは

[ 32red casino mobile ]
for iPhone, Android
Roulette Game
Blackjack Game
Slots Game

[ my favorite way ]
Earning some money on the commuting train is fantastic.
roulette game
通勤電車の中で稼ぐ(ルーレット)^^
ルーレットで遊ぶ

[ 32red casino iPhone & Android ]
Mermaids Millions
Royal Derby
Tomb Raider
Blackjack Game
Major Millions

Tomb Raider iTunes App
Blackjack iTunes App
Roulette Game
Android & iPhone Direct Registration

[ sellection for mobile ]
32Red Web App (iPhone & Android) Casino - Homepage

[ 32red download for PC ]


[ online casino for PC ]
Roulette
Blackjack
Online Slots

[ zipang casino ]
in english

最新コメント
記事検索
seesaa100 英字新聞s HPs

スラチャイの家族紹介
私の家族

スラチャイの手作りリンク集
スラチャイタイ在住14年目
New!中国語会話基礎(北京語)他
タイ日辞典(単語帳)
タイ語の子音
タイ語の母音
スラチャイ編曲のmidiのギター曲
スラチャイ編曲のJ.S.Bachです

スラチャイの多国言語学習
初歩のタイ語
初歩の中国語
初歩のラオス語
初歩のビルマ語
初歩のシンハリ語
初歩のタガログ語

タイ語の基礎
タイ文字
タイ日辞書
タイ語の副詞
タイ語の前置詞
タイ語の助動詞
タイ語の接続詞

基礎タイ語一覧(タイ文字、ローマ字)
seesaaサイト内リンク一覧:
01 あいさつ
02 別れのあいさつ
03 声をかけるとき
04 感謝の言葉と答え方
05 謝罪の言葉と答え方
06 聞き直すとき
07 相手の言うことがわからないとき
08 うまく言えないとき
09 一般的なあいづち
10 よくわからないときの返事
11 強めのあいづち
12 自分について述べるとき
13 相手のことを尋ねるとき
14 頼みごとをするとき
15 申し出・依頼を断るとき
16 許可を求めるとき
17 説明してもらうとき
18 確認を求めるとき
19 状況を知りたいとき
20 値段の尋ね方と断り方
21 急いでもらいたいとき
22 待ってもらいたいとき
23 日時・場所・天候を尋ねるとき
24 その他

基礎タイ語一覧(タイ文字、音声付き)
サイト外HPリンク一覧:
01 あいさつ
02 別れのあいさつ
03 声をかけるとき
04 感謝の言葉と答え方
05 謝罪の言葉と答え方
06 聞き直すとき
07 相手の言うことがわからないとき
08 うまく言えないとき
09 一般的なあいづち
10 よくわからないときの返事
11 強めのあいづち
12 自分について述べるとき
13 相手のことを尋ねるとき
14 頼みごとをするとき
15 申し出・依頼を断るとき
16 許可を求めるとき
17 説明してもらうとき
18 確認を求めるとき
19 状況を知りたいとき
20 値段の尋ね方と断り方
21 急いでもらいたいとき
22 待ってもらいたいとき
23 日時・場所・天候を尋ねるとき
24 その他

タイの文化一覧:
01 雨の日にも傘をささないタイ人
02 勉強熱心なタイ人女性たち
03 タイ人は敬謙な仏教徒
04 タイの市場
05 タイの食堂
06 タイ人は外食が大好き
07 果物王国タイランド
08 タイ人の誕生日
09 タイの電話代は高い
10 微笑みの国タイランド

14の戒律(テラワーダ仏教戒律)
seesaaサイト内リンク一覧:
第01番目の戒律
第02番目の戒律
第03番目の戒律
第04番目の戒律
第05番目の戒律
第06番目の戒律
第07番目の戒律
第08番目の戒律
第09番目の戒律
第10番目の戒律
第11番目の戒律
第12番目の戒律
第13番目の戒律
第14番目の戒律

14の戒律(テラワーダ仏教戒律)
サイト外HPリンク一覧:
14の戒律解説
第01番目の戒律
第02番目の戒律
第03番目の戒律
第04番目の戒律
第05番目の戒律
第06番目の戒律
第07番目の戒律
第08番目の戒律
第09番目の戒律
第10番目の戒律
第11番目の戒律
第12番目の戒律
第13番目の戒律
第14番目の戒律


[ 英字新聞リンク ]
yahoo geolog
yaplog
worldpress
teacup
jugem
hatena
@word
blogger
biglobe
excite
a8
so-net
ameblo
wox
rakuten
ninja
seesaa
goo
fc2
yahoo
livedoor
dreamlog

[ HPリンク ]
cocolog 家族のアルバム
fc2 家族のアルバム
初歩の日本語(タイ人学生向け)
タイの小学三年生数学学力テスト(国家試験)
タイ語、中国語、ビルマ語
Preliminary Japanese lessons for Thai students
旅行のタイ語学習サイト
ラオ日・日老辞書
妻はタイ人/タイの文化/タイの仏教戒律

  • ライブドアブログ