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2015年11月

一票の不平等 いつまで放置するのか

--The Asahi Shimbun, Nov. 26
EDITORIAL: Vote-value disparity a gross inequality that cannot continue
(社説)一票の不平等 いつまで放置するのか

The Supreme Court’s latest ruling on the issue of vote-value disparity has left us wondering how long it will take until this clear, outrageous inequality is corrected.
It seems that both the judiciary and the legislature lack awareness of the urgent need to fix this unacceptable situation.
国民の間に厳然とある不平等をいつまで放置するのか。司法も立法府も、異常をただす切迫感に欠けるのではないか。

The Supreme Court’s Grand Bench ruled on Nov. 25 that the Lower House election in December last year was held in a “state of unconstitutionality,” citing a huge disparity in the relative vote-value among constituencies.
昨年の衆院選での一票の不平等をめぐり、最高裁が「違憲状態」との判決を出した。

Given that the top court has handed down three similar rulings in the past four years, it has become almost routine to hear it declare that an election was held in a “state of unconstitutionality.”
同様の結論はこの4年間で3回目であり、慣例化した感も漂う。

The Diet has dragged its feet on reforming the electoral system, so a fundamental solution to the problem has yet to be found.
国会では抜本的に身をただす選挙制度改革の動きは遅れたままだ。

We are concerned that the Supreme Court’s tepid ruling on the issue could be used by the Diet as an excuse for its inaction.
最高裁の手ぬるい判決が国会の免罪符にされてしまわないか、懸念が残る。

In its ruling in 2011, the top court argued that the method of first distributing one seat to each of the 47 prefectures before allocating the remaining seats in the single-seat constituency part of the electoral system in proportion to population was the main cause of the vote-value disparity. The court said this approach should be “abolished as soon as possible.”
最高裁は2011年、各都道府県にまず議席一つずつを割り振る1人別枠方式が、不平等を生む要因と断じた。「できるだけ速やかな撤廃」を求めた。

In its 2013 ruling on the Lower House election held in December 2012, however, the court took note of the Diet’s last-minute move to reduce the number of seats slightly as “certain progress,” easing the pressure on the Diet. The court’s latest ruling is in line with the 2013 decision.
ところが13年の判決では、国会が駆け込みで若干の定数削減を決めたことを「一定の前進」とし、手綱を緩めた。今回の判断もこの延長上にある。

In the Nov. 25 ruling, the Supreme Court had encouraging words for work by a Lower House expert committee on the election system to come up with measures to revamp the seat-allocation method, saying efforts to improve the situation are being made in line with the past rulings.
有識者でつくる衆院の選挙制度調査会が見直し策を検討していることにも言及し、これまでの判決に沿って是正が進められていると高く評価している。

Let us ponder this problem from a basic standpoint.
原点に戻って考えたい。

In the Lower House election last December, one vote in the nation’s least populated constituency was worth 2.13 votes in the most heavily populated district. In other words, the weight of one person’s vote in a certain district was less than half of the weight of another person’s vote in a different district.
今回の最大格差は2・13倍。ある選挙区での一票の重みは、別の選挙区での半分にも満たない。

Casting votes in elections is the most important of the few opportunities for the public to exercise their sovereign power that is invested in them by the Constitution.
選挙で票を投じるという行為は、憲法に定められた国民主権を具現化する数少ない、そしてもっとも重要な権利である。

Allowing a situation to continue where a vote in one district is worth less than half of a vote in another represents an egregious inequality among the people that must be redressed immediately.
住む場所によって票の価値が倍以上も違うという不平等はただちに改善されるべき問題だ。

The fact that the flawed seat-allocation method remains basically unchanged four years after the Supreme Court criticized is testimony to the Diet’s gross negligence.
最高裁が1人別枠方式の問題を指摘して4年がたってもなお事実上撤廃されていないのは、国会の怠慢というほかない。

What is notable about the latest Supreme Court ruling is that three of the 14 justices of the Grand Bench criticized the Diet for its failure to tackle the problem, saying sufficient time had passed to realize equality in voting.
注目すべきは、14人中3人の裁判官が、「投票の平等」を実現するのに必要な時間はもう十分あったと批判している点だ。

Two of the three dissenting justices argued for invalidating the Lower House election, and the remaining one called for declaring the election “unconstitutional” in the text of the judgment.
うち2人は選挙の無効を、1人は主文での「違憲」の宣言を、それぞれ主張している。

In the ruling, the top court maintained that the constitutional order should be formed through interactions between the judiciary and the legislature.
最高裁は判決で、憲法の秩序は立法府との相互作用で形成されるとの趣旨を展開している。国会が法をつくる。

The interactions apparently work as follows. The Diet makes laws, and the Supreme Court sends its messages on certain laws through its rulings. The Diet then reforms the laws in response to the court’s rulings.
最高裁が判決でメッセージを出す。それにもとづいて国会が法を改める。

This seems to mean that the top court puts much importance on “dialogue” between the legislature and the judiciary.
立法府と司法との「対話」を重んじる考え方のようだ。

But history shows the Diet has repeatedly ignored messages from the judiciary or interpreted them in a way convenient to it.
しかし振り返れば、司法のメッセージを国会は繰り返し無視したり、都合よく解釈したりしてきた。

In order to ensure meaningful “dialogue,” the top court should have made more specific demands, such as setting clear deadlines for corrective actions by the Diet.
「対話」を成り立たせるためには、今後の是正期限を明記するなど具体的な求めが必要だったのではないか。

The Supreme Court has repeatedly declared that both the Upper and Lower Houses have been elected in a “state of unconstitutionality.” This is simply an extraordinary situation.
衆参両院が「違憲状態」で選ばれたと再三指摘されているのは異常事態である。

It is unacceptable that the Diet members, who are obliged to respect the Constitution, allow such serious inequality to remain unchanged.
憲法尊重の義務を負う議員が、不平等を野放しにすることは許されない。

This injustice should be rectified immediately.
早急に改めるべきである。

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五輪基本方針 テロ対策にも万全を期したい

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Take every possible antiterror step in preparation for 2020 Tokyo Games
五輪基本方針 テロ対策にも万全を期したい

Preparations for the 2020 Tokyo Olympic and Paralympic Games stumbled significantly due to the withdrawal of plans for a new National Stadium and an emblem design.
新国立競技場の建設計画とエンブレムの白紙撤回により、2020年東京五輪・パラリンピックの開催準備は、大きくつまずいた。

There will soon be 4½ years remaining before the opening of the sports extravaganza. The government must accelerate a diverse range of preparatory work based on the basic policy approved by the Cabinet.
大会まで間もなく4年半となる。政府は、閣議決定した基本方針に基づき、多岐にわたる作業を加速させねばならない。

The basic policy defines the 2020 Games as “an opportunity for Japan to demonstrate to the world an advanced undertaking in a mature society.”
基本方針は、大会を「成熟社会における先進的な取り組みを世界に示す契機」と位置付けた。

Above all, the policy calls for enriching Paralympic programs, saying that it “will contribute greatly to encouraging the impaired to become self-sustaining.” The term Paralympics was first used in the 1964 Tokyo Games. The 2020 Games will mark the first time a city has hosted the Summer Paralympics twice.
中でも、「障害者の自立を促す大きな力となる」として、パラリンピックの充実を掲げた。1964年東京大会で、パラリンピックという用語が初めて使用された。20年大会は、同一都市で2回目の開催という初のケースとなる。

In view of this history, seeking to make the 2020 Paralymics the biggest ever is significant from the viewpoint of promoting the building of a symbiotic society.
こうした経緯を踏まえ、過去最大規模のパラリンピックを目指すことは、共生社会の構築を推進する上で意義があろう。

A noticeable point in connection with the Olympics is that the basic plan set forth a goal of acquiring the highest number of gold medals in the country’s history. The past record of 16 was set at the 1964 Games in Tokyo and the Athens Olympics in 2004.
五輪関連で目を引くのは、過去最多の金メダル獲得という目標を打ち出した点だ。64年東京五輪と04年アテネ五輪の16個がこれまでの最高だった。

As far as public money spent in reinforcing training programs for athletes, it is natural for the government to present a specific target. If Japanese athletes perform spectacularly, it will contribute greatly to generating excitement for the Games.
選手強化に公費を投じる以上、政府が具体的な目標を示すのは、当然だろう。日本選手が活躍すれば、大会は大いに盛り上がる。

A strategic approach is crucial to achieving the goal. It is necessary to make effective use of limited fiscal resources through such means as allocating training expenses to promising athletes on a priority basis in preparation for the 2020 Games. The Sports Agency, which is in charge of fund distribution, has a grave responsibility.
目標達成に重要なのは、戦略的な取り組みだ。20年に向けて、有望選手に強化費を重点配分するなど、限られた財源を有効に使う必要がある。配分を主導するスポーツ庁の責任は重い。

Anti-doping measures critical

Anti-doping measures are important for conducting fair athletic events. Against the background of the doping scandal that has hit the Russian athletics circle, eradication of doping has become a top priority in the sports world.
競技を公正に実施するには、ドーピング対策も大切だ。ロシア陸上界の薬物汚染が問題になる中、ドーピングの撲滅は、スポーツ界の最優先課題である。

The basic policy, however, makes no concrete commitment on the issue, saying only that efforts will be made to “secure a well-prepared system” in cooperation with such organizations as the World Anti-Doping Agency. It is imperative to accelerate the study of specific measures to strengthen the doping test system.
基本方針は、世界反ドーピング機関(WADA)などと連携し、「万全の体制整備を行う」との記述にとどまる。検査体制を強化する具体策の検討を急ぐべきだ。

To ensure the safety of athletes and spectators, utmost attention must be focused on antiterrorism measures.
選手や観客の安全を守るために、最も注力せねばならないのが、テロ対策である。

The basic policy expressed a sense of crisis concerning terrorism, saying, “Terrorist threats are becoming a reality,” and pointed out the need to “ramp up intelligence gathering and analysis, border security and vigilance and security at venues, among others.”
基本方針も「テロの脅威が現実のものになっている」と危機感を示し、「情報収集・分析、水際対策、会場の警戒警備などの強化」を挙げている。

It is indispensable for the private and public sectors to cooperate in enhancing the ability to cope with any possible situation.
官民一体となって対処能力を向上させることが不可欠だ。

The basic policy enumerates various measures, including those on the expansion of roads and transport infrastructure and those to deal with the summer heat. To prevent expenses from swelling, it is necessary to list measures in the order of priority.
道路・交通インフラの整備、暑さ対策など、基本方針には様々な施策が列挙されている。費用の膨張を避けるには、対策に優先順位をつける必要がある。

To smoothly prepare for the Games, the need to clarify the division of the roles and responsibilities to be undertaken by the government, the organizing committee and the Tokyo metropolitan government must not be forgotten.
大会準備を効率的に進めるため、政府と大会組織委員会、東京都の役割分担と責任を明確にすることも忘れてはならない。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Nov. 28, 2015)

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露軍機撃墜 非難合戦を続けている場合か

The Yomiuri Shimbun
It’s not the time for lobbing criticism over downing of Russian warplane
露軍機撃墜 非難合戦を続けている場合か

This situation has poured cold water on the opportunity for cooperation between Russia, the United States and Europe that arose due to the terrorist attacks in Paris earlier this month. Lobbing criticism at each other must not be allowed to derail unity among nations seeking to wipe out the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) extremist group.
パリ同時テロで生まれた米欧とロシアの協調機運に水を差す事態だ。非難合戦で過激派組織「イスラム国」掃討の足並みを乱してはならない。

This week, a Turkish fighter jet shot down a Russian bomber near the Turkey-Syria border. Turkey insists the Russian plane intruded into Turkish territorial airspace and the pilot did not respond to repeated warnings to leave the area. It reportedly had lodged protests against numerous previous violations of its airspace.
トルコ軍機が、シリアとの国境付近で露軍の爆撃機を撃墜した。トルコは、露軍機が領空に侵入し、再三の退去警告にも応じなかった、と主張している。領空侵犯については、これまでも繰り返し抗議してきたという。

Russia, which in late September launched airstrikes in Syria, saying its aim is to stamp out ISIL, is supporting the administration of Syrian President Bashar Assad. Turkey supports Syrian antigovernment groups and gives priority to toppling the Assad administration. The diametrically opposed positions of Moscow and Ankara lurk in the background to the downing of the Russian warplane.
9月末から「イスラム国」掃討を名目にシリアで空爆を始めたロシアは、シリアのアサド政権を擁護する。トルコはアサド政権の打倒を最優先し、反体制派を支援する。今回の撃墜の背景には、両国の立場の根本的な違いがある。

Russian President Vladimir Putin has denied the plane violated Turkish airspace and angrily retorted there would be “serious consequences.” Russian Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov canceled a visit to Turkey, and Moscow has started taking other retaliatory measures such as restricting imports of agricultural products from Turkey.
プーチン露大統領は侵犯を否定し、「重大な結果をもたらす」と強く反発した。ラブロフ外相がトルコ訪問を中止し、トルコ産農作物の輸入を制限するなどの対抗措置も取り始めた。

However, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization has supported Turkey’s side of the story, and the U.S. military also confirmed the Russian aircraft received the warnings. Russia’s assertions seem to lack credibility.
だが、北大西洋条約機構(NATO)はトルコの言い分を支持し、米軍も露軍機が警告を受けていたことを確認した。ロシアの主張は信用性に欠けるのではないか。

ISIL is common enemy

It is important that Russia and Turkey stop their tit-for-tat criticism, restore calm to the situation and move toward preventing a recurrence.
重要なのは、ロシアとトルコが批判の応酬をやめ、再発防止と事態の沈静化へ動くことだ。

Russia and a coalition of willing nations led by the United States continue to conduct independent airstrikes in Syria. Setting up lines of communication between these military forces is an urgent task to help prevent unexpected situations like the downing of the Russian plane.
米国を中心とする有志連合とロシアは個別に、シリアで空爆を続けている。今回のような不測の事態を防ぐために、軍同士の連絡体制を整えることが急務である。

The international community should be concentrating on weakening ISIL, which is a common enemy. Countries with a stake in this matter also must avoid discussions that go in circles on ways to end Syria’s civil war and on a transition of political power.
国際社会は、共通の敵である「イスラム国」の弱体化に集中すべきだ。シリア内戦終結と政権移行に向けた関係国の協議の空転も避けねばならない。

The U.N. Security Council recently unanimously adopted a resolution that calls on member states to fight terrorism and newly spells out the council’s determination to crush ISIL. Britain has indicated a plan to expand airstrikes in Syria, and France has strengthened its aggressive stance by deploying an aircraft carrier to the region.
国連安全保障理事会はテロ防止決議を全会一致で採択し、「イスラム国」打倒の決意を新たにしたばかりだ。英国はシリアへの空爆拡大方針を示し、フランスは空母投入で攻撃態勢を強化した。

French President Francois Hollande has embarked on a rapid series of diplomatic summits as he seeks to build a wide-ranging coalition that includes Russia. Hollande and U.S. President Barack Obama held talks in Washington, and they agreed to deepen cooperation to combat ISIL. We attach great important to this chain of international cooperation.
オランド仏大統領は、ロシアも含めた大包囲網の構築を目指し、活発な首脳外交に乗り出している。オバマ米大統領とワシントンで会談し、「イスラム国」対策で協力を深めることで一致した。一連の国際連携を大切にしたい。

Putin considers France to be an antiterrorism “ally” and is taking a cooperative stance on this point. He probably aims to get the United States and European nations to relax sanctions imposed on Russia due to its intervention in Ukraine, and to break Moscow’s international isolation.
プーチン氏は、フランスを対テロの「同盟国」と位置づけ、協調姿勢を見せている。ウクライナ介入に伴う米欧の制裁緩和を実現させ、国際的孤立から脱却する狙いがあるのだろう。

However, Russia’s position does not appear to change with its aim to keep Assad in power while seizing the initiative in the Syrian situation through the use of force. Under these circumstances, it will be difficult for the United States and Europe to “fight together” alongside Russia.
しかし、アサド政権を温存したまま、軍事力に頼ってシリア情勢で主導権を握ろうとする戦略に変化は見られない。これでは、米欧が「共闘」するのは難しい。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Nov. 27, 2015)

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衆院選違憲状態 国会に制度改革促した最高裁

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Top court urges the Diet to reform lower house electoral system further
衆院選違憲状態 国会に制度改革促した最高裁

While respecting the discretionary power of the legislature, the latest ruling can be seen as the judiciary making as much of a request as it can.
立法府の裁量権を尊重する中で、司法として可能な範囲で注文を付けたということだろう。

The Grand Bench of the Supreme Court handed down a ruling Wednesday that the House of Representatives election in December last year, which had a maximum vote-value disparity of 2.13-to-1 in single-seat constituencies, was in a state of unconstitutionality.
「1票の格差」が最大2・13倍だった昨年12月の衆院小選挙区選について、最高裁大法廷は、違憲状態にあったとの判決を言い渡した。

On the grounds that the current state of vote-value disparity runs counter to the vote-value equality called for by the Constitution, the top court told the Diet, “There is a need [for the Diet] to steadily continue improving the electoral system.”
投票価値の平等という憲法の要請に反しているとして、「選挙制度の整備を着実に続ける必要がある」と国会に求めた。

It also acknowledged that a reasonable amount of time to correct the situation has not yet elapsed. The Diet has to make continued efforts to rectify the vote-value disparity.
格差是正に要する合理的な期間は過ぎていないとも認定した。国会は引き続き是正に努めねばならない。

The law concerning the establishment of the council on rezoning the electoral districts of the lower house stipulates the basic principle that the maximum vote-value disparity should not exceed 2-to-1.
1票の格差について、衆院選挙区画定審議会設置法は「2倍以上にならないことを基本とする」と定めている。

Prior to last year’s poll, the Diet cut the number of lower house seats by five in single-seat constituencies to reduce the disparity to less than 2-to-1. When the election was held, however, the disparity exceeded 2-to-1 in some constituencies, due to demographic change.
昨年の衆院選に先立ち、国会は選挙区定数の「0増5減」で、2倍未満に抑えた。
人口変動で選挙の時点では2倍を上回った。

Yet the top court acknowledged the Diet’s effort, calling it “a certain amount of progress toward realizing the correction.” It is a realistic view that takes into consideration the fact that it requires time to rectify the disparity.
だが、最高裁は、国会の取り組みを「是正実現に向けた一定の前進」と評価した。格差是正には時間がかかることを踏まえた現実的な見解と言えよう。

Imprudent court decisions have become conspicuous in recent years, with some high courts ruling, for instance, that the 2012 lower house election was “unconstitutional” and the results of the election were “invalid.”
2012年の衆院選について、一部の高裁が「違憲・無効」とするなど、近年は行き過ぎた判決も目立っていた。

Self-restraint shown

The top court reiterated its view that “even if the court judges that there is a problem under the Constitution, it cannot establish any specific systems on its own.” This is a reasonable judgment showing the top court has restrained itself in its consideration of the role of the judicature.
最高裁は今回、「裁判所は憲法上問題があると判断したとしても、自ら具体的な制度を定め得るものではない」との考え方を改めて示した。司法の役割を抑制的に捉えた妥当な判断である。

The Supreme Court has been saying the vote-value disparity primarily stems from the current seat-distribution system, which allots one seat to each prefecture and then decides, in proportion to the population, how many additional seats each prefecture should be allocated in the single-seat section of the election.
最高裁は、各都道府県に1議席を割り振ったうえで定数配分する「1人別枠方式」を格差の主因と指摘してきた。

In response, the Diet has already revised a related law to abolish the provision concerning the seat-distribution system.
これを受け、国会は、別枠方式の規定を廃止する関連法改正を既に行っている。

The top court again said in its latest ruling that the vote-value disparity exceeds 2-to-1 due to the fact that the allotment of seats based on the seat-distribution system was kept in place in single-seat constituencies in Tokyo and other prefectures, which were not included in the prefectures where a combined total of five seats were reduced.
今回も、0増5減の対象外だった都道府県で、別枠方式に基づく配分が残存することを、格差が2倍を超えた要因に挙げている。

A research panel of experts tasked with reform of the lower house electoral system is studying the possibility of adopting, in place of the current system, the so-called Adams’ method, which would better reflect the population ratio than the current one. With this method, the vote-value disparity is expected to be held to less than 2-to-1, at least for the time being.
衆院選挙制度改革に関する有識者調査会は、別枠方式に代えて、より人口に比例する「アダムズ方式」の採用を検討している。この方式なら、当面、格差を2倍未満に抑えられるとみられる。

The discussion concerning the reduction of the overall number of lower house seats is worrying. Takeshi Sasaki, chairman of the research panel, has said that in light of the fact that political parties are calling for reducing lower house seats in their public pledges and otherwise, we “cannot ignore political promises.”
気がかりなのは、定数削減の議論だ。調査会の佐々木毅座長は、各党が公約などで定数削減を唱えていることを踏まえ、「政治的な約束を無視できない」と語る。

Should the overall number of lower house seats be reduced, however, it would become more difficult for diverse public opinions to be reflected in the election.
だが、定数を減らせば、選挙で多様な民意を反映しにくくなる。

It may also scale down the Diet’s primary functions of making laws and overseeing the administration through the deliberation of bills.
法律を作り、法案審議を通じて行政を監視するという国会本来の機能も低下しかねない。

When looking at the number of seats compared to the population, the number of Diet members is not as large as in European countries.
人口比でみれば、日本の国会議員は欧州諸国などより多くはない。

The research panel may also need to seriously consider the negative aspects of reducing the number of seats.
調査会は、定数削減の負の面も真剣に考慮すべきではないか。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Nov. 26, 2015)

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韓国朴教授起訴 自由な歴史研究を封じるのか

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Isn’t South Korea repressing free research on history with indictment?
韓国朴教授起訴 自由な歴史研究を封じるのか

The latest action taken against a South Korean scholar constitutes an attempt to negate free and calm research activities and discussions on history.
これでは、歴史を巡る自由で冷静な研究活動や議論が成り立たない。

The move to build a criminal case against an academic study could amount to an abuse of public authority. The recent action, taken by a South Korean district prosecutors office, has also cast a shadow on Japan-South Korea relations.
学術研究を立件するのは、公権力の乱用になりかねず、日韓関係に微妙な影も落としている。

Park Yu Ha, a professor at Sejong University in Seoul, has been indicted, without being detained, on charges of defamation. According to her indictment, Park damaged the honor of former so-called comfort women in her book called “Teikoku no Ianfu” (Comfort women of the empire), in which she denied their forcible recruitment.
韓国の地検が、朴裕河・世宗大教授を名誉毀損きそんの罪で在宅起訴した。著書「帝国の慰安婦」で、慰安婦の強制連行を否定し、元慰安婦の名誉を傷つけたという。

The prosecutors office dismissed as untrue her assertion that “forcible recruitment, which consists of a violence committed by a state, has never been used against Korean comfort women.” The indictment also regarded as problematic her statement in the book: “Basically, Korean comfort women had a comradely relationship with soldiers.”
「『強制連行』という国家暴力が朝鮮人慰安婦に関して行われたことはない」とする朴教授の主張を「虚偽」だと決めつけた。朝鮮人慰安婦が「基本的に軍人と『同志』的な関係を結んでいた」とする記述なども問題視した。

In stating the reason for Park’s indictment, the prosecutors office said that these descriptions had infringed on the personal rights of the former comfort women, adding that her book deviates from the constitutional guarantee of academic freedom.
これらの表現が、元慰安婦の人格権を侵害し、憲法が保障する「学問の自由」を逸脱している、と起訴理由に示している。

The latest action came after 11 people, including former comfort women, filed a complaint against Park in June last year, followed by investigations into the case by the Seoul Eastern Prosecutors Office. Questions can be raised about the prosecutors’ action taken to pass judgment on historical facts about which even experts have divergent views.
昨年6月に元慰安婦ら11人が告訴し、ソウル東部地検が捜査していた。検察が、専門家でも見解が分かれる史実の中身にまで立ち入って判断を下すのは疑問だ。

Park has refuted the prosecutors’ assertion, calling it “a distorted interpretation.” Her argument goes that the circumstances surrounding comfort women were varied, and that it is impossible to generalize them as “sex slaves,” “prostitutes” or otherwise.
朴教授は、「曲解だ」と反論している。慰安婦の境遇は多様で、「性奴隷」「売春婦」などと一括くくりにはできないと主張する。

Her book points to some other problems involved in the matter, saying that the corps of women mobilized for wartime labor services are confused with comfort women even today.
著書では、戦時勤労動員だった挺身ていしん隊と慰安婦が今も混同されているという問題点も指摘した。

Unreasonable basis

What cannot be overlooked is that the documents cited by the prosecutors office as the basis for branding Park’s assertion as false included a statement issued by then Chief Cabinet Secretary Yohei Kono and the U.N. Human Rights Commission’s Coomaraswamy Report.
看過できないのは、地検が朴教授の主張を虚偽と断じた根拠として、河野官房長官談話や国連人権委員会のクマラスワミ報告なども挙げていることだ。

During the process of preparing the Kono statement, no document that proved the “forcible recruitment” of comfort women by the wartime Imperial Japanese Army was discovered. The statement was a result of political compromise between Japan and South Korea, according to a report issued in June last year by the Japanese government after months of examining the process in question.
河野談話の作成過程では、旧日本軍による慰安婦の「強制連行」を裏付ける文書は見つかっていない。談話は日韓の政治的妥協の産物であったことが、昨年6月の日本政府の検証で判明している。

The Coomaraswamy Report included a number of unfounded descriptions. For instance, it stated that 200,000 Korean women had been forced to work as “sex slaves,” and that most of them had been killed later. The document also quotes false statements by Seiji Yoshida, who claimed women on South Korea’s Jeju Island had been forcibly recruited as comfort women.
クマラスワミ報告には、20万人の朝鮮人女性が「性奴隷」となり、その後、大半が殺されたといった、根拠に乏しい記述が多数、含まれる。韓国の済州島で慰安婦を強制連行したという吉田清治氏の虚偽の証言も引用されている。

It is unreasonable to use these statements as a basis for the assertion that women were forcibly recruited as comfort women.
いずれも、慰安婦強制連行説の根拠とするには無理がある。

A Japanese-language version of Park’s “Teikoku no Ianfu” has been published, with some modifications made to its contents. The book has been chosen as the winner of Waseda University’s Journalism Award.
「帝国の慰安婦」は、一部修正された日本語版も刊行され、早稲田大主催のジャーナリズム大賞の受賞が決まっている。

In her book, Park states that the Korean comfort women were collaborators for the wartime Imperial Japanese Army, while at the same time criticizing the prewar “Empire of Japan” for being responsible for creating severe circumstances for these women.
朴教授は、朝鮮人慰安婦は旧日本軍の協力者でもあったと指摘する一方で、その過酷な境遇を作り出した責任は「大日本帝国」にあったと厳しく批判している。

We must say that imposing restrictions on expressing such an objective view will make it difficult to facilitate constructive dialogue between Japan and South Korea regarding the issue of comfort women.
こうした客観的な見解の表明さえも制約するようなら、慰安婦問題を巡る日韓の建設的な対話は困難と言わざるを得ない。

(The Yomiuri Shimbun, Nov. 25, 2015)

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日豪2プラス2 安保協力を重層的に進めたい

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Japan-Australia security relationship must be enhanced on multiple layers
日豪2プラス2 安保協力を重層的に進めたい

Security cooperation between Japan and Australia is an important foundation for peace and stability in the Asia-Pacific region. The collaboration must be deepened multilaterally by promoting bilateral communications.
日本と豪州の安全保障協力は、アジア太平洋地域の平和と安定への重要な基盤である。意思疎通を図り、多角的に連携を深化させるべきだ。

After the so-called two-plus-two meeting of their foreign and defense ministers in Sydney, the two countries issued a joint statement calling for strengthening defense cooperation through joint military exercises and exchange between troops, among other things.
日豪両政府はシドニーで外務・防衛閣僚会合(2プラス2)を開き、共同訓練や部隊交流など、両国の防衛協力を強化するとの共同声明を発表した。

Foreign Minister Fumio Kishida said the Japan-Australia relationship is “a special one sharing fundamental values and strategic interests.” His Australian counterpart, Julie Bishop, responded by saying the bilateral relationship is more important than ever.
岸田外相は、日豪関係について「基本的な価値、戦略的利益を共有する特別な関係だ」と強調した。ビショップ豪外相は、「かつてないほど重要だ」と指摘した。

Former Australian Prime Minister Tony Abbott, who had built a close relationship with Prime Minister Shinzo Abe, resigned in September over an economic slump and other matters. As his successor, Malcolm Turnbull, who belongs to the same Liberal Party as Abbott, attaches more importance to relations with China, there was concern in some quarters before the two-plus-two meeting that Tokyo-Canberra relations would regress under his administration.
安倍首相と親密だったアボット豪前首相は9月、経済不振などで退任した。同じ自由党のターンブル首相は、対中関係を重視しており、対日関係が後退することへの懸念が一部にあった。

Abe and Turnbull held their first conference in mid-November in Turkey. With the holding of the recent two-plus-two meeting, Tokyo-Canberra relations seem to be on track. The two governments must continue political dialogue as they work toward building confidence.
安倍、ターンブル両氏は今月中旬、トルコで初めて会談した。今回の2プラス2開催で、両政権の関係は軌道に乗った、と評価できる。今後も、政治対話を重ね、信頼醸成を図ることが大切だ。

Defense Minister Gen Nakatani explained the security-related laws enacted in September. Bishop welcomed the security legislation, saying that it would allow Japan to make a greater contribution to peacekeeping activities, humanitarian assistance and disaster relief.
中谷防衛相は、9月に成立した安全保障関連法を説明した。ビショップ氏は「平和維持活動、人道支援、災害救援でより多くの貢献をしてもらえる」と歓迎した。

The security legislation is primarily aimed at solidifying the Japan-U.S. alliance and international cooperation, thereby ensuring security for Japan and the world.
安保関連法は日米同盟と国際連携を強化し、日本と世界の安全を確保することが主眼である。

Trilateral cooperation

The scope of Japan’s logistic support has been expanded to include troops other than those of the United States based on the assumption that Australian troops would be mobilized in case of emergencies around Japan.
後方支援の対象を米軍以外にも拡大したのは、日本周辺での緊急事態に豪州軍が駆けつけるケースなどを想定している。

A multilayered cooperative relationship must be built through such efforts as joint drills between Self-Defense Forces and the Australian military and trilateral exercises involving U.S. troops.
自衛隊と豪州軍、さらに米軍を交えた共同訓練などを通じ、重層的な協力関係を構築したい。

Australia will select a partner for joint development of its next-generation submarine from among Japan, France and Germany.
豪州は、次期潜水艦の共同開発の相手について、日仏独の3か国の中から選定する。

Japan’s submarine manufacturing technology is said to be among the best in the world. In this connection, the government needs to hold sufficient talks with Australia to prevent the leak of technologies to third-party countries.
日本の潜水艦製造技術は世界最高水準とされる。政府は、第三国への技術流出防止について、豪州側と十分協議する必要がある。

With China’s maritime advances in the East and South China Seas and construction of artificial islands in the South China Sea in mind, the joint statement expressed “strong opposition to any coercive and unilateral actions.” The statement also said all nations have the freedom of navigation and flight under international law.
共同声明は、中国の東・南シナ海での海洋進出や人工島造成を念頭に、「あらゆる威圧的、一方的な行動に強く反対する」と表明した。すべての国が、国際法に基づいて「航行と飛行の自由」を持つとも明記している。

The U.S. Navy’s patrols within 12 nautical miles of the reclaimed islands embody the principle of international law. Japan and Australia need to support the United States through every possible means.
人工島の12カイリ内での米軍の巡視活動は、国際法の原則を体現するものだ。日豪は、様々な手段で米国を後押しする必要がある。

Japan and Australia plan to provide assistance measures for Papua New Guinea and other island countries in the Pacific, such as enhancing the capabilities of ensuring maritime security and improving social infrastructure.
日豪は、パプアニューギニアなど太平洋の島嶼とうしょ国に対し、海上保安能力の向上や社会基盤整備などを支援する方針だ。

Ensuring the safety of sea-lanes in the Western Pacific is of common interest to all the nations concerned. Japan should make a proactive commitment in this regard.
西太平洋の海上交通路(シーレーン)の安全確保は、各国共通の利益だ。積極的に寄与したい。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Nov. 24, 2015)

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東アジア会議 南シナ海で対中圧力を強めよ

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Nations must pressure China to conform to intl law in S. China Sea
東アジア会議 南シナ海で対中圧力を強めよ

China’s words and deeds to justify its own behavior while threatening freedom of navigation, which is based on international law, can never be tolerated. It is important to repeatedly voice to the international community over the menace and self-righteousness of the country.
国際法に基づく「航行の自由」を揺るがしながら、自らの行為を正当化する中国の言動は容認できない。その脅威と独善性を国際社会に繰り返し訴えることが重要である。

The leaders of 18 countries, including Japan, the United States, China and Russia plus members of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, gathered in Malaysia on Sunday at a meeting of the East Asia Summit. China on the one hand and such countries as Japan and U.S. on the other exchanged at the meeting over China’s building artificial islands and promoting the establishment of military strongholds in the South China Sea.
日米中露などと東南アジア諸国連合(ASEAN)の計18か国による東アジア首脳会議が、マレーシアで開かれた。中国が南シナ海で人工島造成と軍事拠点化を進めている問題を巡って、日米などとの間で応酬が繰り広げられた。

At the meeting, Prime Minister Shinzo Abe stressed the need to thoroughly preserve the rule of law on the seas. With China in mind, Abe said, “A large-scale and rapid reclamation project aimed at creating a base for military purposes is under way” in the South China Sea, and The prime minister expressed “serious concern.”
安倍首相は、海洋での「法の支配」を徹底するよう訴えた。中国を念頭に、「大規模かつ急速な埋め立てや拠点構築、軍事目的での利用が継続している」と指摘し、「深刻な懸念」を表明した。

U.S. President Barack Obama, speaking in light of U.S. plans to continue patrol operations by its warships within 12 nautical miles of the artificial islands, emphasized the importance of the “freedom of navigation and overflight.” Philippine President Benigno Aquino and others agreed with Obama.
オバマ米大統領は、人工島の12カイリ内を米艦艇が巡視する作戦の継続を前提に、「航行と飛行の自由」の重要性を力説した。フィリピンのアキノ大統領らも同調した。

Japanese-U.S. joint endeavors in cooperation with other countries concerned to beef up pressure on China are indispensable for maintaining regional stability.
日米が共同で関係国と連携して中国への圧力を強めることは、地域の安定維持に欠かせない。

it must not be overlooked that China has been criticizing Japan and the United States for their involvement in the South China Sea issue, labeling the two as “countries from outside the region.”
看過できないのは、中国が日米を南シナ海の「域外国」とし、その関与を批判していることだ。

China’s deception politics

Chinese Premier Li Keqiang called for “countries outside the region” to “refrain from taking actions that may cause tensions in the region.” His statement is apparently aimed at stopping the U.S. military’s patrol activities.
李克強首相は「域外国」に対し、「地域情勢を緊張させる行動をとらない」ことを求めた。米軍の巡視活動を牽制けんせいする狙いだろう。

The task of ensuring safety in the key maritime route(sea-lane) in the South China Sea is doubtless in the interest not only of the countries bordering the South China Sea but also the international community, including Japan and the United States. China’s assertion is wide of the mark.
南シナ海の海上交通路(シーレーン)の安全確保は、南シナ海の沿岸国だけでなく、日米を含む国際社会共通の利益にほかならない。中国の主張は筋違いだ。

Although China has agreed to consult with ASEAN to formulate a legally binding code of conduct for the contested area, there are no prospects for a timeframe for the code’s completion. It cannot be denied that China is using the dialogue to buy time, with the intention of making its control over the South China Sea a fait accompli.
中国は、法的拘束力のある行動規範の策定に向けたASEANとの協議に応じているが、策定時期の見通しは立っていない。対話で時間を稼ぎ、南シナ海支配を既成事実化する意図は明白だ。

In last week’s summit of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum, the issue of the South China Sea was not discussed. We can see China presumably maneuvered in advance to tamp down the issue.
先に開かれたアジア太平洋経済協力会議(APEC)首脳会議では、南シナ海問題が議論されなかった。中国が事前に根回ししたことがうかがえる。

Early this month, Chinese President Xi Jinping visited Vietnam, with which China has had confrontations over the territorial problem, while sending Foreign Minister Wang Yi to the Philippines, the APEC chair.
習近平国家主席は今月上旬、領有権問題で対立するベトナムを訪問し、APEC議長国のフィリピンには、王毅外相を派遣した。

China is using an old trick to try to split ASEAN members by using its economic clout. As long as Beijing continues to use deception as an expediency and fails to stop unilateral actions based on force, it will only increase regional distrust of China.
経済カードで懐柔し、ASEANを分断するのは、中国の常套じょうとう手段だ。だが、その場限りのごまかしを続け、力による一方的な行動を改めなければ、地域の不信感を高めるだけではないか。

China’s tactic of distabilizing could hurt the unity of the member countries of ASEAN, which have declared they will launch an ASEAN Economic Community toward year-end. They are seeking to create a single market with a combined regional population of more than 600 million. Japan, in cooperation with the United States, must support the development of ASEAN as a whole.
中国の揺さぶりは、ASEANの結束に悪影響を及ぼす。ASEAN各国は経済共同体を年末に発足させると宣言した。域内人口6億人超の単一市場構築を目指す。日本は米国と協調し、ASEANの一体的発展を支えるべきだ。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Nov. 23, 2015)

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歴史観の訴追 韓国の自由の危機だ

--The Asahi Shimbun, Nov. 21
EDITORIAL: Indictment of historian a crisis of freedom in S. Korea
(社説)歴史観の訴追 韓国の自由の危機だ

Prosecutors in South Korea have indicted a university professor on defamation charges, claiming she falsely described former “comfort women” who were forced to provide sex to wartime Japanese soldiers.
Park Yu-ha, who is attached to Sejong University, was charged without arrest on Nov. 18 in connection to her book, “Comfort Women of the Empire,” which prosecutors assert defamed these women.
韓国の検察が、同国で出版された「帝国の慰安婦」の著者、朴裕河(パクユハ)・世宗大教授を在宅起訴した。旧日本軍将兵らの性の相手をさせられた女性たちに対する名誉毀損(きそん)の罪に問うている。

Prosecutors acted on complaints made by former comfort women.
起訴内容は、元慰安婦らの告訴をそのまま認めた。

“Korean comfort women and the Japanese military were basically in a comradely relationship,” Park wrote in her book.
著書には「朝鮮人慰安婦と日本軍は基本的に同志的関係にあった」といった表現などがあるが、

Prosecutors claim this, and some other descriptions in her book, are factually wrong.
検察はこれらを「虚偽の事実」にあたると断じている。

While acknowledging that speech, press and academic freedoms are basic rights guaranteed by the Constitution, prosecutors contend that Park violated the personal rights of former comfort women and overstepped the boundaries of academic freedom.
また、言論や出版、学問の自由は憲法が保障する基本的権利だとしながらも、元慰安婦らの「人格権などを侵害し、学問の自由を逸脱した」と起訴理由をあげている。

There are a wide variety of views and opinions concerning the comfort women issue among former comfort women and their supporters, but it is not the mandate of public prosecutors to judge whether descriptions of historical facts are correct or not.
慰安婦問題をめぐり、当事者や支援者にさまざまな意見があるのはわかる。だが、史実の正否は検察当局が判断を下すべきものではない。

It is even more dangerous for authority to punish free academic activities concerning interpretations and descriptions of history.
ましてや歴史の解釈や表現をめぐる学問の自由な営みを公権力が罰するのは、きわめて危険なことである。

In her book, Park mainly discussed the structural problems of imperialism that were behind the suppression of women.
朴さんが著書で論じている趣旨は、帝国主義が抱える女性抑圧の構造的な問題である。

She harshly blames the imperial Japan for driving these women into a situation in which they had no choice but to have a comradely relationship with soldiers of the Imperial Japanese Army.
さらに、同志的関係にならざるをえないような状況に追い込んだ当時の日本の責任を厳しく追及してもいる。

In South Korea, there have been criminal investigations and court rulings that seem to be influenced more by national sentiment than by legal theories in cases concerning issues related to Japan’s past.
韓国ではこれまでも日本の過去の問題が関係する事案では、法律論よりも国民感情に流されるかのような捜査や判決があった。

The latest move by the country’s prosecutors appears to be one example of this.
今回の判断の背景に、そんな要素は働かなかったか。

After former comfort women sought a temporary injunction against the publication of Park’s book, the Seoul Eastern District Court handed down a ruling in February that banned the publication of the book unless some passages were deleted.
この本をめぐっては元慰安婦らの仮処分申請を受け、裁判所も、一部を削除しなければ出版を認めない決定をしている。

Many facts about the comfort women issue remain unclear, such as the actual number of them.
確かに慰安婦問題については実際の総数など、まだ不明な部分も多い。

However, since former comfort women in South Korea began to come forward to tell their stories in the early 1990s, a lot of historical research on the subject has been conducted, mainly in Japan and South Korea. As a result, the real picture of comfort women has been gradually emerging.
一方で、被害者の韓国人女性たちが90年代初めに名乗り出始めて以降、日韓を中心に研究が進み、徐々に慰安婦問題の実態がわかってきた。

These studies on comfort women have disclosed that there was actually a great diversity of cases.
同時に明らかになったのは、慰安婦といっても、実に多様なケースがあったということだ。

Park’s book focused on this diversity and her descriptions about some cases do not necessarily fit the common image of comfort women among South Koreans as “innocent girls.”
朴さんの著書はまさにその多様な側面に焦点をあてたが、韓国で広く語られる「純真で無垢(むく)な少女」という被害者像と必ずしも一致するわけではない。

If researchers face the constant threat of criminal prosecution over the publication of their research findings, however, the pursuit of learning is impossible.
だからといって、研究者が成果を発表するたびに刑事事件で起訴されていたのでは学問は成り立たない。

Progress in academic research and the natural selection of academic theories take place through mutual reviews and criticism of various theories, discoveries and interpretations.
学説や発見、解釈は互いに検証し、批判や反論をし合うことで、研究が進展したり、淘汰(とうた)されたりするものだ。

Suppressing dissenting views and opinions is a serious challenge to freedom.
異論の封殺は、自由に対する挑戦である。

The indictment of Park represents a problem that far transcends her personal concerns.
今回の問題は朴さん個人にとどまらない。

South Korean media have not given extensive coverage of the action taken by the prosecutors. We strongly hope to see a wide spectrum of the South Korean public stand up for the protection of freedom.
韓国メディアは起訴を大きく報じていないが、自由を守る声が広がることを願ってやまない。

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日米首脳会談 中国の海洋進出に連携対処を

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Deepen Japan-U.S. cooperation to handle China’s maritime advances
日米首脳会談 中国の海洋進出に連携対処を

Japan and the United States must work closely together and play a leading role in both the political and economic fields to maintain order in Asia.
アジアの秩序を守るため、日米両国が政治、経済両分野で緊密に連携して、主導的な役割を果たすことが肝要だ。

Prime Minister Shinzo Abe and U.S. President Barack Obama held talks in Manila and agreed to enhance mutual cooperation in dealing with issues related to artificial islands built by China in the South China Sea.
安倍首相とオバマ米大統領がマニラで会談し、南シナ海での中国の人工島造成問題で、協力を強化することで一致した。

During the summit talks, Obama expressed his intention to continue the U.S. Navy’s patrol operations within 12 nautical miles of the artificial islands. They will be carried out as routine activities, he said.
オバマ氏は、米軍艦船が人工島の12カイリ内を巡視する作戦について「日常の行動として実行したい」と述べ、継続を表明した。

Abe expressed support for the U.S. patrol operations and told Obama he would “consider the possibility of the Self-Defense Forces conducting operations in the area while examining the impact of the situation on Japan’s national security.”
首相は、作戦を支持し、南シナ海での自衛隊の活動に関して「日本の安全保障に与える影響を注視しつつ検討する」と述べた。

China must be stopped from carrying out large-scale reclamation in the area and turning the artificial islands into military bases based on self-serving logic in violation of international law. Japan and the United States have to cooperate with Southeast Asian nations and patiently call on China to exercise self-restraint and improve the situation.
中国が国際法に反する独善的な論理を用い、大規模な埋め立てや軍事拠点化を進めることは阻止せねばならない。日米が東南アジア各国とも連携し、中国に粘り強く自制と改善を促す必要がある。

The U.S. Navy’s operations are significant to prevent China’s unilateral attempt to change the status quo from becoming established fact. Even if it is not participating in them, Japan should provide indirect support for the U.S. operations. The Maritime Self-Defense Force and the U.S. Navy have built strong mutual trust through joint exercises, and joint reconnaissance and surveillance operations, over a long period.
中国の一方的な現状変更を既成事実化させないため、米軍の作戦は重要だ。日本も、作戦に参加しないまでも、側面支援はしたい。海上自衛隊と米海軍は長年、共同訓練や共同の警戒監視活動を通じて、強い信頼を築いてきた。

Japan must also try to help the navies and coast guards of the Philippines and other countries in the area develop their capabilities through official development assistance.
政府開発援助(ODA)も活用し、フィリピンなど周辺国の海軍や海上保安機関の能力構築支援にも力を入れねばなるまい。

Abe pledges Futenma progress

Abe also told Obama that his administration would proceed resolutely with the relocation of the U.S. Marine Corps’ Futenma Air Station in Okinawa Prefecture to the Henoko district. Obama thanked Abe and expressed his intention to work with Tokyo in returning U.S. military facilities in the prefecture to Japan, among other issues.
米軍普天間飛行場の辺野古移設について、首相は「確固たる決意で進める」と表明した。オバマ氏は謝意を表し、米軍施設の返還などに協力する考えを示した。

It is important for Abe to maintain his stance of proceeding steadily with the relocation. Any attempt to seek an entirely new solution will further complicate the issue and only delay the removal of the dangers posed by the Futenma Air Station.
大切なのは、安倍政権が移設を着実に進める姿勢を堅持することだ。新たな解決策を探ることは、問題を複雑にし、普天間飛行場の危険性除去を遅らせるだけだ。

Obama praised the passage of security-related laws in Japan, saying they are historic achievements. He also said the United States strongly supported the Japan-South Korea bilateral meeting that was achieved recently.
オバマ氏は、安全保障関連法の成立について「歴史的業績だ」と高く評価した。日韓首脳会談の実現についても「強く支持する」と語った。

In reply, Abe expressed his intention to strengthen cooperation among Japan, the United States and South Korea to deal with North Korea’s nuclear and missile development.
首相は、北朝鮮の核・ミサイル問題を踏まえ、日米韓の協力を強化する考えを示した。

The cooperation of the three countries is essential for security in the northeast Asian region. Japan and the United States must keep urging South Korea to take positive steps toward that goal.
北東アジアの安全保障にとって日米韓の連携は不可欠だ。日米が韓国に前向きな対応を継続的に働きかけることが求められる。

Referring to the Trans-Pacific Partnership free trade pact, the prime minister said Japan and the United States’ leadership of the negotiations made it possible for the countries involved to reach a broad agreement. Obama said the TPP pact would drastically change the global environment and the next challenge was how the pact could be brought into effect and implemented.
環太平洋経済連携協定(TPP)について首相は「日米が主導したからこそ、大筋合意ができた」と指摘した。オバマ氏は「TPPはグローバル環境を一変させる。課題は、協定の発効と実施の段階に持っていくことだ」と語った。

It is significant that Japan and the United States have led the formulation of free, fair and transparent rules on trade and investment in the Asia-Pacific region. Taking the future expansion of participating countries into consideration, the countries concerned must try to ratify and implement the TPP pact as soon as possible.
日米が、アジア太平洋地域の自由、公正で透明性のある貿易・投資ルールの確立を牽引けんいんした意義は大きい。参加国の拡大も視野に入れて、できるだけ早期の批准・発効を目指すことが重要だ。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Nov. 21, 2015)

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APEC 自由貿易拡大はTPPを軸に

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Expansion of free trade framework must center around TPP pact
APEC 自由貿易拡大はTPPを軸に

Broadening high-level trade liberalization based on the Trans-Pacific Partnership free trade agreement is indispensable to the further development of the world economy.
環太平洋経済連携協定(TPP)をベースにした、高水準の貿易自由化を広げることが世界経済の発展に欠かせない。

A declaration was adopted Thursday at a summit meeting of the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation forum, of which a major pillar is to speed up discussions about creating a “Free Trade Area of the Asia-Pacific” (FTAAP).
アジア太平洋経済協力会議(APEC)首脳会議は、「アジア太平洋自由貿易圏(FTAAP)構想」の検討加速を柱とする首脳宣言を採択した。

The declaration stressed that the realization of the envisioned FTAAP “should be pursued as a comprehensive free trade agreement.”
宣言は、FTAAPに関して、「包括的な自由貿易協定として追求されるべきだ」と強調した。

The FTAAP would endeavor to economically integrate 21 countries and regions, including Japan, the United States, China and Russia. We welcome the fact that the APEC members — despite their widely different levels of economic development, ranging from industrially advanced to developing — have reconfirmed the importance of unifying trade rules.
FTAAPは、日米中露など域内21か国・地域の経済統合を図る試みだ。先進国から途上国まで経済の発展段階が違うAPECメンバーがルールを統一する重要性を確認できたのは、歓迎できる。

If the broad agreements reached in the TPP negotiations, such as the abolition of tariffs and the application of fair and transparent trade rules, spread to nations outside the TPP, it will certainly invigorate the economic activities in the region.
TPPで大筋合意した高いレベルの関税撤廃や、公正で透明な貿易ルールの適用がFTAAPでより多くの国々に広がれば、地域の経済活性化に弾みがつこう。

It is a cause for concern that China and Russia, which are not involved in the TPP, have reacted adversely to the envisaged economic integration centering on the TPP.
懸念材料は、TPPに参加していない中露がTPPを軸にした経済統合に反発していることだ。

Chinese President Xi Jinping expressed caution in a lecture during the summit, saying: “With various new regional free trade arrangements cropping up, there have been worries about the potential of fragmentation.”
中国の習近平国家主席は講演で「自由貿易の計画が次々と現れ、地域がバラバラになることを懸念している」と警戒感を示した。

Russian President Vladimir Putin wrote in an article ahead of the APEC summit that “the confidential fashion in which the TPP negotiations were conducted is probably not the best way to facilitate sustainable growth in the Asia-Pacific region.”
ロシアのプーチン大統領も「TPPの秘密交渉スタイルは、地域の成長を促す最良の道ではない」とする論文を発表した。

U.S. Congress is key

One country after another has shown interest in taking part in the TPP, including South Korea and the Philippines. China and Russia, whose intentions to vie with the economic order led by the United States are now in jeopardy, have apparently taken steps to check the moves of other nations to become additional TPP members.
韓国やフィリピンなどの参加検討表明が相次いでいる。中露は、米国主導の経済秩序に対抗する目論もくろ見みが危うくなったため、新規参入の動きを牽制けんせいしたのだろう。

China is poised to seek the region’s economic integration based on the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP), which it has been negotiating with countries including Japan, South Korea and India. The United States is not a party to RCEP negotiations.
中国は、日韓やインドなどと交渉中の東アジア地域包括的経済連携(RCEP)を基礎に経済統合を目指す考えだ。米国は交渉に参加していない。

However, the tariff abolition targets being sought in the RCEP initiative are lower than those under the TPP. It has been pointed out that the RCEP talks have yet to make progress regarding such matters as environmental protection and human and intellectual property rights, while TPP member countries and businesses are required to comply with standards regarding those matters.
だが、RCEPは、TPPに比べ、目標とする関税撤廃率が低い。TPPが締結国の政府や企業に求めた環境や人権、知的財産権などへの配慮についても、議論がまだ進んでいないとされる。

To ensure fair and free economic activity, it is more desirable to have the TPP rules accepted as international standards.
公正で自由な経済活動を確保するには、TPPルールを国際標準とする方が望ましい。

It was right that Prime Minister Shinzo Abe said at the APEC summit: “Japan hereafter will energetically pour our efforts into expanding the TPP.” By cooperating with such countries as Australia, Japan must play a leading role in the RCEP negotiation process — in which the United States is absent — with the aim of bringing its levels of trade liberalization closer to those of the TPP.
安倍首相が「日本は今後、TPPを広める取り組みに注力する」と語ったのは適切だ。豪州などと連携して、米国不在のRCEP交渉をリードし、自由化の水準をTPPに近づけねばならない。

It is worrying that rough sailing is expected regarding the ratification of the TPP by the U.S. Congress. In addition to objections from the Republican Party, trade unions, which are the support base for the Democratic Party, have also been intensifying their resistance toward the TPP.
気がかりなのは、TPPの批准が、米国で難航しそうなことである。野党の共和党に加え、与党・民主党でも、支持層の労働組合が反対を強めている。

The TPP cannot be put into force without ratification by the United States. We hope the U.S. administration will strenuously tackle the challenge in Congress.
米国が批准しないと、TPPは発効しない。米政府は議会対策に精力的に取り組んでほしい。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Nov. 20, 2015)

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2009年の9月15日に脳梗塞を発症、右手が少し不自由になりました。
MRAで脳梗塞の部位を特定でき、素早い処置をとれたので大事に至りませんでした。
快復にむけてリハビリ中です。
(2011/01/01更新)

■自己紹介・リンク

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