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2015年10月

1億総活躍会議 スローガン倒れにならぬよう

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Plan for dynamic society must create more than just slogans
1億総活躍会議 スローガン倒れにならぬよう

Prime Minister Shinzo Abe has put forth a policy of achieving what he calls “promoting the dynamic engagement of all citizens,” but isn’t it difficult for the people to have a specific image of such a society?
安倍首相は「1億総活躍社会」の実現を打ち出したが、国民は具体的なイメージを描きにくいのではないか。

The national council to discuss concrete measures for the realization of the policy held its first meeting Thursday. After compiling urgent measures before the end of November, the panel plans to put together mid- and long-term steps as early as next spring.
「1億総活躍社会」に向けた具体策を議論する政府の国民会議の初会合が開かれた。11月中に緊急対策をまとめた上で、来春にも中長期的なプランを策定する予定だ。

Chairing the meeting, Abe said, “I hope to create a society where everyone can play an active role, by eliminating all policies that stand in the way of us achieving this.”
議長を務める首相は「みんなが活躍できる社会を作るために、それを阻むあらゆる政策を取り除いていきたい」と強調した。

The government defines “a society that allows the dynamic engagement of its all citizens” as one in which “a population of 100 million [or more] can be maintained even 50 years from now” and “all citizens will be able to lead a fruitful life in their households, workplaces and communities.”
政府は、「1億総活躍社会」の姿について、「50年後も人口1億人を維持」「誰もが家庭、職場、地域で充実した生活を送れること」と説明する。

To realize these goals, Abe has put forth the new three arrows of his policy agenda: boosting the gross domestic product to ¥600 trillion, raising the birthrate hoped for by the people to 1.8 children per woman and reducing the number of workers who quit their jobs to provide nursing care to zero.
それらを実現するため、首相は、「国内総生産(GDP)600兆円」「希望出生率1・8」「介護離職ゼロ」という新たな3本の矢を掲げている。

To prevent these policies from ending up as mere slogans, it is essential for the national council to serve as an engine to promote the integration of concrete targets and road maps.
スローガン倒れにならぬよう、国民会議が推進役となり、具体的な目標と工程表をまとめ上げることが重要である。

Regarding the urgent measures, priority will most likely be placed on enhancing the birthrate and tackling the issue of workers quitting jobs to provide nursing care. Many aspects of these policy goals overlap with the government’s conventional policy initiatives of supporting women’s roles in society, vitalizing local economy to help deal with population decline and the overall growth strategy.
緊急対策では、出生率の向上と介護離職問題に重点が置かれる見通しだ。成長戦略や女性活躍推進、人口減を念頭に置いた地方創生といった政府のこれまでの政策と重なる部分が多い。

New ideas needed

All these issues have also been discussed by such government panels as the Council on Economic and Fiscal Policy, the Council for Industrial Competitiveness and the Council on Overcoming Population Decline and Vitalizing Local Economy in Japan.
政府の経済財政諮問会議や産業競争力会議、「まち・ひと・しごと創生会議」などで議論を重ねてきたテーマでもある。

It is conspicuous that some of the people who are members of these panels are also part of the new national council. This most likely indicates that cooperation with the existing panels was deemed important. To prevent the national council from ending up as an unnecessary addition, it is necessary to define its position clearly.
国民会議には、これらの会議を兼務するメンバーが目立つ。既存の会議との連携を重視したのだろう。屋上屋を架したことにならないよう、国民会議の位置付けをはっきりさせるべきだ。

In line with the government’s policies, local governments have worked out overall strategies for local economy vitalization while businesses have begun to formulate action programs for promoting the appointment of women. It is approaching a critical stage.
政府方針に沿い、自治体は地方創生の総合戦略を策定し、企業は女性登用の行動計画作りを始めている。これからが正念場だ。

We want the council to conduct its discussions while considering whether possible measures in this area are consistent with the conventional policy agendas.
国民会議は、従来の政策分野との整合性を考慮して、議論を進めてもらいたい。

The measures that should be taken in each area have almost all been tabled. The council is expected to support their implementation by clarifying the order of priority and the sectors to be strengthened.
どのテーマも、やるべき対策はほぼ出そろっている。国民会議に期待されるのは、施策の優先順位や強化すべき部分を明確にし、実施を後押しすることだろう。

We urge the council to come up with new ideas, such as lending state-owned land cheaply to build additional special nursing care homes.
特別養護老人ホームを増設するため、国有地を安く貸し出すなど、新たなアイデアを提示することも求められる。

Government ministries and agencies are taking steps — action that was anticipated — to obtain higher budgets for the next fiscal year by linking their measures with the government’s policy to promote “dynamic engagement.” However, the government should not resort to adopting a casual handout policy that tries to fulfill the ruling parties’ desire to please voters ahead of the House of Councillors election set for next summer.
予想されたことだが、各省庁に「1億総活躍」に絡めて来年度予算の増額を狙う動きが見られる。来年夏に参院選を控え、有権者にアピールしたい与党の思惑と相まって、安易なバラマキに陥ることがあってはならない。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Oct. 30, 2015)Speech

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米艦南シナ海に 中国の軍事拠点化を許さない

The Yomiuri Shimbun
U.S. vessel patrol shows Beijing cannot militarize South China Sea
米艦南シナ海に 中国の軍事拠点化を許さない

The latest U.S. action serves as a stern warning to China, a country that is attempting to change the status quo by the use of force and making the change a fait accompli in the South China Sea.
南シナ海で力による現状変更を進め、既成事実化を図る中国への厳しい警告を意味しよう。

A U.S. Navy Aegis-equipped destroyer sailed within 12 nautical miles (about 22 kilometers) of artificial islands built by China in the Spratly archipelago in the South China Sea.
米海軍のイージス駆逐艦が、南シナ海のスプラトリー(南沙)諸島で、中国が造成した人工島の12カイリ(約22キロ・メートル)内を航行した。

U.S. Defense Secretary Ashton Carter calls the operations as “routine activities” and made clear that Washington would continue the operations.
カーター米国防長官は「通常実施している作戦だ」と述べ、継続的に行う方針を表明した。

The U.S. operations embody, for all the world to see, the “freedom of navigation” in the South China Sea by conducting patrols, as on any other part of the open sea, in what China claims as its “territorial waters.”
中国が「領海」と主張する海域で公海と同様に巡視することで「航行の自由」を体現し、アピールする作戦だ。

Washington gets high marks for making clear its stance of not tolerating any act that would threaten sea-lanes, which are maritime interests of the international community.
国際社会の利益である海上交通路(シーレーン)を脅かす行為は容認しない姿勢を明確に示したことは評価できる。

China is promoting the establishment of military strongholds in the sea by building artificial islands through reef reclamation and by constructing a 3,000-meter-class runway, in an attempt to change the South China Sea into a “Chinese sea.”
中国は、岩礁埋め立てによる人工島造成や3000メートル級の滑走路建設など軍事拠点化を推進し、南シナ海を「中国の海」にしようとしている。

This is part of China’s “anti-access and area denial (A2/AD)” strategy to prevent the intervention of U.S. forces in the event of a contingency.
米軍の有事介入を阻む「接近阻止・領域拒否(A2AD)」戦略の一環でもある。

Subi Reef, near which the U.S. destroyer sailed, was previously a sunken rock that was submerged at high tide.
米艦が航行したスービ礁は、もともと満潮時に水没する暗礁だ。

The U.N. Convention on the Law of the Sea stipulates that sunken reefs, artificial islands and facilities off shore are not entitled to the 12-mile territorial waters.
国連海洋法条約は、暗礁や人工島、沖合の施設はそれ自体の領海を有しないと定めている。

It is unjustifiable for China to claim that “China’s sovereign rights [over the South China Sea] were formed in the course of history,” while establishing the so-called nine-dash line, which has no legal basis under international law, in the sea.
国際法に根拠のない9本の境界線「九段線」を設定し、「歴史の中で主権が形成された」という中国の主張には無理があろう。

Refrain from rash moves

It is absurd for Chinese Foreign Minister Wang Yi to oppose the U.S. naval action by saying, “We urge the U.S. side to think twice, not to take rash moves and stir up trouble.” Isn’t it China itself that should refrain from rash moves?
中国の王毅外相が「米に軽率な行動を慎むよう促す」と反発したのは筋違いだ。「軽率な行動」を控えるべきは中国ではないか。

China has reportedly taken such actions as having its vessels, including a guided-missile destroyer, monitor, shadow and give warnings to the U.S. warship. We strongly urge China to exercise self-restraint so that its military units do not take any dangerous, provocative acts.
中国は、ミサイル駆逐艦などが米艦を「監視・追跡、警告した」という。軍部隊が危険な挑発に出ないよう強く自制を求めたい。

The U.S. Defense Department had earlier proposed that the U.S. military vessels should conduct patrols, but U.S. President Barack Obama had put off making his final decision.
米国防総省は早くから艦艇航行を進言していたが、オバマ大統領は最終判断を先送りしていた。

During his talks with Chinese President Xi Jinping in Washington last month, Obama urged China to suspend reef reclamation activities and facility construction in the South China Sea. But Xi refused to comply, saying they are China’s territory, prompting Obama to give the go-ahead to the naval action at last.
9月の米中首脳会談で、埋め立てや施設建設などの停止を要求したのに対し、習近平国家主席が「中国の領土だ」とはねつけたのを見て、ようやく踏み切った。

Obama may have had too much confidence in his ability to persuade Xi.
オバマ氏は、習氏を説得できると過信していたのではないか。

The United States is cooperating with China in dealing with climate change and antiterrorism measures. But this is no reason for the United States to overlook China’s self-righteous actions.
米国は気候変動問題やテロ対策で中国と協力しているが、その独善的行動を見過ごす理由にはなるまい。

Washington needs to rethink its strategy toward China, while taking measures to prevent any accidental military clash.
偶発的な軍事衝突を防ぐ措置をとりながら、対中戦略を練り直すことが求められる。

Chief Cabinet Secretary Yoshihide Suga said, “It is extremely important for the international community to cooperate so as to protect open, free and peaceful seas,” supporting the U.S. dispatch of the naval vessel to the area. The Philippines and Australia have also hailed the latest U.S. action.
菅官房長官は「開かれた、自由で平和な海を守るために国際社会が連携することは極めて大事だ」と語り、米国の艦艇派遣を支持した。フィリピンやオーストラリアも歓迎している。

While cooperating closely with the United States and other countries concerned, Japan should keep a watch on China’s moves in the South China Sea.
日本は、米国や関係国と緊密に連携しつつ、南シナ海での中国の動きを警戒せねばならない。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Oct. 29, 2015)Speech

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(社説)南シナ海 各国共通の利益を守れ

--The Asahi Shimbun, Oct. 28
EDITORIAL: China triply unreasonable in vital waterway for world’s trading vessels
(社説)南シナ海 各国共通の利益を守れ

The South China Sea must remain open for vessels of all flags to navigate freely.
南シナ海は、あらゆる国の船に対して通航の妨げのない、開かれた海でなくてはならない。

This is the basic premise of any argument related to complex territorial issues concerning these waters.
それが、この海域をめぐる複雑な主権問題を考える際の出発点である。

On Oct. 27, a guided-missile destroyer of the U.S. Navy sailed near Subi Reef in the Spratly archipelago.
米海軍のイージス駆逐艦が、南シナ海スプラトリー(南沙)諸島のスビ礁と呼ばれる岩礁の近くの海を航行した。

Under China’s de facto control, Subi is part of Beijing’s massive reclamation project to build artificial islands, and an airstrip is being built there.
スビ礁は中国が実効支配し、大規模な埋めログイン前の続き立てで滑走路を備えた人工島を建設している。

The destroyer sailed within 12 nautical miles (about 22 kilometers) of the artificial island that Beijing claims is in Chinese waters. The Pentagon explained that the vessel was sent there to assert “freedom of navigation.”
そこから12カイリ(約22キロ)以内、中国が領海だと主張する海をあえて通ったのは「航行の自由を示すため」と、米国防総省は説明している。

Under international laws, warships are allowed within territorial waters if their passage is “innocent.” If the U.S. destroyer did nothing to aggravate the situation and was where it was for the exact reason given by the United States, we support the latter’s assertion.
領海内であっても、軍艦の通航が、いわゆる「無害通航」なら、認めるのが国際ルールだ。事態をエスカレートさせず、説明通りの目的に沿うものなら、米国の主張は支持できる。

Right after China unilaterally declared an air defense identification zone (ADIZ) in the East China Sea in November 2013, the U.S. Air Force flew a pair of B-52 bombers over the ADIZ without prior warning. We believe the dispatch of the destroyer this time was for the same intent as in 2013--namely, to make the U.S. intention known by action.
米軍は一昨年11月、中国が東シナ海に防空識別圏を設けた直後、予告なく爆撃機を飛行させた。これと同様、今回も行動によって意思表示をしたということだろう。

Sending warships or warplanes can hardly be called an amicable gesture. It could invite unintended consequences. But fortunately, there was no confrontation between U.S. and Chinese vessels this time. Both countries must continue to exercise self-restraint.
軍艦や軍用機の派遣は、決して穏やかな方法とは言えない。場合によっては不測の事態を招く恐れもある。今回は幸い、米中の軍艦が接触するような事態にはならなかった。両国には今後も自制が求められる。

China’s Ministry of Foreign Affairs has reacted vehemently, denouncing the U.S. action as a threat to China’s sovereignty and security and damaging to regional peace and stability.
中国外務省は「中国の主権と安全を脅かす」「地域の平和と安定を損なう」と米軍の行動に強く反発している。

However, this assertion does not stand to reason.
しかし、中国の主張には無理がある。

The situation today is the result of China’s own actions in the South China Sea.
そもそも中国がこれまで南シナ海で続けてきた行動にこそ、問題があったからだ。

Subi Reef was originally a small rocky outcrop that became submerged at high tide. As such, it was not deemed an island under international maritime laws. But China not only reclaimed the waters around it to build a man-made island, it also claimed territory within 12 nautical miles of the island, and then refused to acknowledge the U.S. destroyer’s right to innocent passage. In other words, Beijing is being triply unreasonable.
スビ礁は、もとは満潮時に水没する小さな岩礁だ。海洋法上は島と見なすことができない。それを埋め立てて人工島にしたうえ、12カイリ以内を領海とみなし、無害通航権のある米軍艦の通過を非難するというのは、二重三重に無理のある主張だ。

Although China asserts its historical rights in most of the South China Sea, its reclamation project at seven locations can only be seen by other countries as a blatant case of expansionism.
中国は南シナ海の大半の海域について歴史的な権利を持っていると主張しているが、スプラトリー諸島で7カ所も埋め立てをする行動は、他国から見て明らかに拡張主義である。

The South China Sea is a vital waterway for the world’s trading vessels.
南シナ海は世界の貿易船舶にとって重要な航路だ。

Free and safe navigation in these waters is of common interest not only to the United States, China and countries of Southeast Asia, but also to all countries, including Japan.
その自由と安全は、米中はもとより東南アジア諸国、日本を含む各国共通の利益である。

After economic reforms, China sought trading partners around the world and achieved phenomenal economic development. Now that its economy is slowing down, China needs those partners more than ever.
改革開放後の中国は、広く世界に通商の相手を求めた結果、目覚ましい経済発展を遂げた。成長が鈍化した今こそ、なおさらそれが必要だろう。

Inviting tensions with other countries cannot possibly be in China’s best interest.
他国との対立を招くことは、中国自身にとっても、決して得策ではないはずだ。

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U.S. Navy sailing near Spratly Islands jacks up tensions with China

October 27, 2015 (Mainichi Japan)
U.S. Navy sailing near Spratly Islands jacks up tensions with China
 
WASHINGTON -- Military tensions spiked in the South China Sea on Oct. 27 as the United States sailed an Aegis-class destroyer within the 12-nautical-mile (about 22-kilometer) "territorial limit" of artificial isles China is building in the Spratly Islands.

The U.S. move looks like a strategic gambit to head off any further measures by Beijing to strengthen its territorial claim to the area. However, with a U.S. Navy ship prowling these contested waters, there is now the real possibility of an incident unforeseen in either China or the U.S.

During summit talks in late September, U.S. President Barack Obama directly requested that his Chinese counterpart Xi Jinping halt the militarization of the South China Sea, but Xi rebuffed Obama by saying China was acting within its sovereign domain. The Oct. 27 cruise of the U.S. destroyer constitutes strong-armed action by the United States to back its "freedom of navigation" policy, and was obviously ordered in the expectation that it would trigger countermeasures by the People's Liberation Army Navy.

The U.S. has maintained its insistence on the freedom of navigation of the world's oceans since the end of World War II and, with this latest gambit, the Obama administration intends to continue pushing that policy vigorously. The U.S. explained the move to its Asia-Pacific allies including Japan before the destroyer passed into the seas claimed by China, and this, too was an attempt to build regional support for freedom of navigation.

Since March this year, U.S. military aircraft approaching the artificial islands have been warned off numerous times by Chinese fighter jets that often come unusually close to the U.S. aircraft. Beijing, however, has insisted it is merely conducting normal aircraft identification operations.

According to the U.S. Department of Defense, in September this year a Chinese fighter jet passed an "unsafe" 150 meters in front of a U.S. RC-135 reconnaissance plane flying in international airspace above the Yellow Sea. In another incident in August 2014, a Chinese fighter came just 6 meters from a U.S. P-8 patrol aircraft on a reconnaissance mission in international airspace over the South China Sea, flying in front of the patrol plane to show the U.S. crew its load of missiles in what a U.S. government official called obviously provocative behavior.

Even in September this year, just before President Xi went to Washington, a Chinese military vessel cut through U.S. territorial waters off the coast of Alaska. In sum, China looks to be engaged in activities aimed squarely at countering the U.S.'s freedom of navigation strategies.

With all the past close encounters in mind, Obama and Xi agreed at their September summit to implement measures for preventing accidental clashes between the two nations' military planes. The leaders also agreed to such a mechanism, plus mutual confidence-building measures, at a meeting in Beijing in November 2014. The effectiveness of this mechanism, however, will depend entirely on how it works when close encounters or other incidents related to the freedom of navigation actually happen.

A crisis was precipitated just before the Taiwanese presidential election in 1996, when China conducted a missile exercise in the Taiwan Strait and surrounding areas and the U.S. dispatched a carrier group to the area in response. In 2001, a Chinese fighter jet touched a U.S. reconnaissance plane flying in international airspace near the southern Chinese island of Hainan. The fighter lost control and crashed, killing the pilot, while the U.S. plane was forced to make an emergency landing in China. The American crew was held temporarily by Chinese authorities, while the two governments engaged in a war of words over the incident.

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温暖化適応計画 洪水や熱中症の対策が急務だ

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Climate change adaptation measures vital to counter flooding, heatstroke
温暖化適応計画 洪水や熱中症の対策が急務だ

The government has decided on a climate change adaptation plan that incorporates the potential effect of global warming by the end of this century and the measures it plans to take over the next 10 years.
政府が、今世紀末までの温暖化の影響予測と、今後10年間で取り組むべき対策を盛り込んだ「適応計画」を決定した。

Advance in global warming will have far-reaching consequences on our daily lives. To reduce the damage as much as possible, it is important to work out effective countermeasures and steadily carry them out.
地球温暖化が進めば、日常生活の広範囲に影響が及ぶ。被害を少しでも減らすため、効果的な対策を見極め、着実に進めることが重要だ。

The global average temperature has risen by about 1 C compared to the period prior to the Industrial Revolution, which began in the mid-18th century.
世界全体の平均気温は、18世紀半ばからの産業革命の前より、約1度上昇している。

The international community has taken measures against global warming, mainly by reducing emissions of greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide.
国際社会の温暖化対策は、二酸化炭素など温室効果ガスの排出抑制を主眼にしてきた。

Countries have set targets to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Even if these targets are met, however, global warming will not be curbed sufficiently, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development says in a projection.
各国は削減目標を掲げているが、それが達成されても、温暖化を十分には抑えられないと、経済協力開発機構(OECD)は試算している。

Adjusting our society to global warming will become more important.
温暖化に社会を順応させる重要性は一層、高まろう。

In the adaptation plan, three ministries — the Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism Ministry, the Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries Ministry and the Environment Ministry — assessed the seriousness of the environmental impact on various sectors and the urgency of measures, and proposed how to deal with it from this point onward.
適応計画では、国土交通、農林水産、環境の3省を中心に、各分野の影響の重大性や対策の緊急性などを評価し、今後の対処法を示した。

In regard to natural disasters, measures deemed most urgent are those needed to deal with flooding. Torrential rain similar to one which caused the banks of the Kinugawa river to collapse in Ibaraki Prefecture last month is expected to occur more frequently.
自然災害の面で、最も緊急性が高いのが、洪水対策だ。9月に茨城県の鬼怒川で決壊を引き起こしたような豪雨は、今以上に頻繁になると予想される。

The adaptation plan cites the reinforcement of river embankments to prolong the time before a bank is breached. This can be taken as a measure to mitigate damage.
適応計画は、堤防強化の目的について、「決壊するまでの時間を引き延ばす」ことを挙げた。減災を前提にした対策だと言える。

It is vital for local governments to prepare evacuation plans on the basis of the projected extent of damage in their areas so that residents can evacuate safely while an embankment holds.
堤防が持ちこたえている間に住民が避難できるよう、自治体が、被害の広がりを予測した避難計画を整備することが欠かせない。

Health care steps needed

Health care measures are also important. The risk of heatstroke in the middle of this century will almost double compared to the end of the 20th century. As the adaptation plan stresses, such means as using robots to reduce human labor in sweltering heat will be needed.
健康面での対策も大切だ。今世紀半ばの熱中症のリスクは、20世紀末の約2倍になる。適応計画が指摘するように、ロボットを活用し、炎天下の作業を省力化するといった工夫が求められる。

As the habitats of mosquitoes and other organisms transmitting infectious diseases spread, it is also necessary to take countermeasures to eradicate the larvae of these species at their source.
感染症を媒介する蚊などの生息域が拡大することから、幼虫の発生源対策なども必要になる。

Adverse effects of global warming have been seen in the farming sector with paddy field rice and fruit-bearing trees showing poor growth, and the taste of the food is less palatable. Developing more heat-tolerant varieties such as those the adaptation plan advocates should be accelerated.
農林水産業では既に、水稲や果樹の育ちが悪くなり、味が落ちる悪影響が生じている。適応計画が掲げた暑さに強い品種の開発を加速させるべきだ。

With the rise in temperature, there will be areas where such new crops as oranges and mangoes can be grown. It may be necessary for the government to adopt unconventional ideas to deal with the impact of global warming and promote local economies.
気温の上昇で、オレンジやマンゴーなど、新たな作物を栽培できるようになる地域もあろう。温暖化を地域振興につなげる「逆転の発想」も必要ではないか。

It should be noted that proceeding with these measures must be carried out by making good use of a limited budget. They should be advanced by assessing their priority on the basis of scientific evidence.
対策を進める上で、留意すべきは、限られた予算を効果的に使うことだ。科学的根拠を基に優先度を判断して進めねばならない。

The government will present its adaptation plan at the meeting of the 21st round of the Conference of the Parties to the U.N. Framework on Climate Change (COP21), to be held in Paris from the end of next month. Japan should proactively transmit information which can be helpful to developing countries that frequently suffer from extensive flood damage.
政府は、11月末からパリで開かれる国連気候変動枠組み条約の第21回締約国会議(COP21)で適応計画を報告する。洪水被害が多い途上国などの参考となるよう積極的に発信していきたい。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Oct. 26, 2015)

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香山リカのココロの万華鏡:「妄想デート」に癒やされ /東京

October 25, 2015 (Mainichi Japan)
Kaleidoscope of the Heart: Finding comfort in imagination
香山リカのココロの万華鏡:「妄想デート」に癒やされ /東京

With many celebrity couples recently tying the knot, it's become a hot topic during conversations with patients at my clinic. Female patients especially talk about how they are shocked to learn the news of their favorite stars getting married.
大物芸能人の結婚ラッシュで、診察室でもその話題が出る。とくに女性の場合、「あの歌手とのデートを“妄想”するのが支えだったのに」と衝撃の大きさを素直に語る人が少なくない。

"It helped me emotionally to fantasize about going on a date with that singer," one of my patients told me. As a medical term, "delusion," is a serious psychiatric illness where a person believes in something that is not real, but "fantasy" is used to refer to innocent daydreaming. The patient didn't really think that she was going out on a date with the singer but, rather, she imagined it would be nice.
ちなみに、「妄想」は精神医学の用…

続きは、デジタル毎日有料会員限定

"If it's just a fantasy, you might as well go see a movie or travel together with the singer in your dreams. I do it all the time," I told her. It would be problematic if a psychiatrist recommended patients have delusions, but there is nothing more uplifting than dreaming about what could happen. It requires no money or tools. When I am daydreaming about something, my age or appearance doesn't matter.

Sometimes I'm asked, "All of that is not real. Don't you feel kind of empty after waking up to reality?" But I try to forget about my fantasy while facing reality and focus on what's standing before me. And sometimes I tell myself, "I'll go off daydreaming while having a cup of tea after I'm done with this work."

Most women would get excited when I told them about my daydreaming activities. "I'm in my 40s and I thought it was embarrassing to have fantasies, but doctor, you're much older than me. It's good to know that we are never too old to have fantasies." That's right. There is no age limit on imagination.

We should not be embarrassed to imagine how it would be like to travel to Hawaii with our favorite stars even though in reality they are married or have five kids.

"But even when I'm having fun daydreaming (about my favorite celebrity), the fun is all gone once I realize that he is married to that actress," someone once said to me. It sounds sad, but stars only appear on TV programs and on stage, and it'll do no harm for us to imagine that they are our lovers or best friends.

Those who talk about their fantasies at the clinic of course know the difference between their imagination and reality. They can dream whatever they like, and face reality when their hearts are warmed up, and then go back to daydreaming to get emotional comfort. It's OK to have that kind of night.

(Rika Kayama, psychiatrist)
毎日新聞 2015年10月20日 00時41分

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(社説)臨時国会 召集の求めに応じよ

--The Asahi Shimbun, Oct. 20
EDITORIAL: Abe, take note: There is a pressing need for fall Diet session
(社説)臨時国会 召集の求めに応じよ

The Abe administration is set to forgo an autumn extraordinary Diet session.
安倍内閣は、この秋の臨時国会の召集を見送る方向だ。

In response, the Democratic Party of Japan and other opposition parties called Oct. 19 on the Abe Cabinet to convoke a Diet session quickly. Abe should immediately grant this totally legitimate demand.
これに対し民主党はじめ野党がきのう、早期の召集を求めることで一致した。当然の要求であり、安倍首相はただちに応じるべきだ。

It is customary to convene an extraordinary Diet session in autumn to resume work that was not finished during the regular Diet session, such as incomplete deliberations on important bills.
通常国会で尽くせなかった法案審議などのため、秋に臨時国会を開くことは慣例となっている。

It would be the first time since 2005 for an autumnal session not to be convened.
この秋に開かれなければ、05年以来ログイン前の続きのことになる。

Chief Cabinet Secretary Yoshihide Suga explained that the government “has no choice but to give a higher priority to the prime minister’s diplomatic agenda” rather than to calling a new Diet session now.
菅官房長官は「首相の外交日程を優先せざるを得ない」と説明する。

It is true that Abe’s diplomatic schedule through November is tight with a series of important international conferences, including a trilateral meeting with the leaders of China and South Korea and a summit of the Group of 20 industrialized nations.
11月にかけて日中韓首脳会談や主要20カ国・地域首脳会議などが続くのは確かだ。

But there is a heap of policy issues that demand Diet debate.
一方で、立法府の議論が求められる政策課題は山ほどある。

Abe reshuffled his Cabinet earlier this month and announced a new policy agenda, which includes “three new arrows” of "Abenomics" to achieve ambitious goals like increasing Japan’s gross domestic product to 600 trillion yen as well as a plan to build a society where 100 million people will all play active roles.
首相は第3次改造内閣を発足させ、GDP600兆円などを目標とする「新3本の矢」や「1億総活躍社会」を掲げた。

But many Japanese question the achievability of these policy goals and are unsure about what Prime Minister Shinzo Abe meant by “active roles.”
ただ、その実現可能性や「総活躍」の意味について、首をかしげる国民も多い。

Abe needs to outline his vision in a policy speech at the Diet and then respond to people’s doubts by answering questions about his speech from other Diet members.
首相はまず所信表明演説でめざすところを明確にし、質疑を通じて国民の疑問に答える必要がある。

As for recently enacted national security legislation, Abe promised to “continue efforts to offer detailed explanations in order to gain more public understanding.”
また、安全保障関連法制について首相は「国民の理解がさらに得られるよう丁寧に説明する努力を続けたい」と語った。

He should fulfill his promise by offering more explanations about related questions, such as what steps he intends to take in the future under the new security laws.
言葉通り、今後どのような運用を考えているのかなど、いっそうの説明責任を果たすべきだ。

Other topics that need to be discussed at the Diet include the content of the agreement recently reached in the negotiations for the Trans-Pacific Partnership trade pact; the controversial plan to relocate the U.S. Marine Corps Air Station Futenma in Okinawa Prefecture, which has led to bitter confrontation between the Abe administration and the prefectural government; the challenge of mending Japan’s strained relations with its neighbors; and the question of how Japan should respond to the unfolding refugee crisis.
環太平洋経済連携協定(TPP)での合意内容、政府と沖縄県の対立が深まっている米軍普天間飛行場の移設問題、近隣外交の立て直しや難民対策なども議論しなければならない。

It would be outrageously selfish of the government to demand that the Diet deal with all these issues in the ordinary Diet session to be called early next year. The government should be criticized for belittling the importance of Diet debate on policy issues.
これだけの論点を、すべて年明けの通常国会に持ち越せというのは身勝手ではないか。国会軽視と言われても仕方がない。

There are also questions that some of the new members of the Cabinet should answer.
新閣僚にも問いたいことがある。

It has been revealed that the local branch of the ruling Liberal Democratic Party headed by farm minister Hiroshi Moriyama received political donations from construction companies that had been barred from bidding for public works contracts with the Kagoshima prefectural government.
森山農水相が代表を務める自民党支部は、鹿児島県から指名停止となった建設会社による寄付を受けていた。

There are also other ministers who are caught up in scandals.
不祥事が指摘される閣僚はほかにもいる。

It is not in Abe’s best interest to allow people to suspect that the government is reluctant to convene a Diet session because it wants to delay the opposition camp’s attacks on its policies as much as possible.
政府側が早期の国会に及び腰なのは、野党の追及をできるだけ遅らせたいからではないか。そう見られては首相としても不本意だろう。

The opposition parties are considering invoking Article 53 of the Constitution to force the Cabinet to call a Diet session.
野党は憲法53条に基づく召集要求を視野に入れている。

It stipulates that the Cabinet must convoke an extraordinary session when a quarter or more of all the members of either House demands it.
53条は、衆参いずれかで総議員の4分の1以上の要求があれば、内閣は召集を決定しなければならない、と定めている。

But the article doesn’t state when the Cabinet must do so. That means the Cabinet can postpone taking action.
条文には召集期日の規定はなく、内閣としては引き延ばしも可能だが、

Refusing to convene a session at an early date, however, would run counter to the constitutional principle of respecting the intentions of minority groups.
だからといって早期召集を拒めば、少数派の意向を尊重すべきだという憲法の趣旨に反することになる。

The Abe Cabinet should decide to call an extraordinary Diet session on its own without waiting for the opposition camp to make the demand.
野党の要求を待つまでもなく、安倍内閣はみずから臨時国会召集に踏み切るべきだ。

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(社説)南シナ海問題 中国は航行の自由守れ

--The Asahi Shimbun, Oct. 23
EDITORIAL: China must not hinder freedom of navigation in South China Sea
(社説)南シナ海問題 中国は航行の自由守れ

Tensions are mounting between the United States and China in the South China Sea, where several countries are locked in bitter disputes concerning their territorial claims.
さまざまな国の領有権の主張が絡みあう南シナ海で、米国と中国の緊張が高まっている。

The United States is poised to send naval ships or aircraft to areas near artificial islands China has been building through land reclamation. The Obama administration has decided to take the action to challenge Beijing’s territorial claims to these islands.
中国が埋め立てて造った人工島の近くに、米軍の艦船か、航空機を派遣する。オバマ政権がその方針を固めた。

Under international law, a country’s territorial waters are defined as a belt of coastal waters extending up to 12 nautical miles from the shores of the country. But U.S. forces will enter what China claims to be its territorial waters around the man-made islands to make clear Washington’s rejection of Beijing’s unilateral claims.
国際法では領土から12カイリ(約22キロ)が領海とされるが、米軍はあえて通航し、中国の一方的な主張を認めない姿ログイン前の続き勢を示そうとしている。

China has no right to protest Washington’s decision. There are no legal grounds for China’s territorial claims to the islands it has built or the waters around them.
これに中国が反発するのは、筋違いである。人工島の領有権も領海の主張も、説明のつくものではない。

Even if these were Chinese waters, international rules require China to allow foreign military ships to sail through them freely as long as they are only exercising the right of “innocent passage,” or peaceful transit not harmful to the good order or security of the coastal state.
仮に領海内だとしても、軍艦の航行が、いわゆる「無害通航」ならば、認めるのが国際ルールだからだ。

No country should undermine the maritime principle of freedom of navigation based on international norms.
どの国であれ、国際規範に沿った「航行の自由」という海洋の原則を曲げてはならない。

Any country’s attempt to change these basic maritime rules at its own discretion is unacceptable, especially in the South China Sea, through which one of the world’s most important sea routes passes.
とりわけ世界有数の重要海路である南シナ海で、独断によるルール変更は許されない。

What is worrisome is how China will react to the U.S. military’s move. A direct confrontation between the forces of the two countries could create a dangerously tense and volatile situation in the Western Pacific region.
懸念されるのは、米軍のそうした行動に対する中国の反応である。米中の軍同士が直接対峙(たいじ)すれば、西太平洋地域は一気に緊迫しかねない。

A military clash between the United States and China must be averted at any cost. The U.S. military obviously should refrain from any unnecessary provocation while operating in the areas.
万が一にも軍事衝突に発展させてはならない。米側は航行に踏み切っても無用な挑発は避けるべきなのは言うまでもない。

The blame for the rise in tension in the South China Sea rests with China. The Chinese government should comply with international rules and restrain itself to prevent any unexpected security emergency from occurring.
この緊張を招いた大きな責任は、中国の側にある。国際規範を守り、不測の事態が生じぬよう自制すべきだ。

China’s arguments for its territorial claims concerning the disputed areas are unreasonable in the first place. China asserts it has jurisdiction over most of the South China Sea, but there is no solid legal foundation for this claim.
そもそも中国の主張には無理がある。南シナ海のほぼ全域に「管轄権がある」というが、法的根拠は乏しい。

China’s demand that military ships obtain its permission before they pass through its territorial waters, which is based on its 1992 territorial sea law, is also unacceptable.
92年に定めた領海法で、軍艦が領海内を通るには中国の許可が必要としているのも受け入れがたい。

The current situation requires China to make a crucial choice between developing as a country that complies with international rules or going down the dangerous path of changing the status quo by force, ignoring international rules.
中国が国際ルールを守る国として発展するか、それを無視して「力による現状変更」に進むのかの分岐点となる。責任ある大国として分別を示すときだ。

The Chinese government, however, is showing some signs of softening its attitude. It has said the artificial islands will be used mainly for “private-sector services” and proposed to the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) to work together to develop a “code of conduct” to avoid clashes in the South China Sea.
中国側には軟化の兆しも見える。人工島建設について「民間サービスが主」と釈明し、東南アジア諸国連合(ASEAN)に対しては、南シナ海での衝突回避のための「行動規範」づくりを働きかけている。

This is the time for China to demonstrate that it has good sense as a responsible major country.
(中国にとっては、これは、責任ある大国としての良識を示す機会である)

The situation will also test the international community’s approach to dealing with the assertive China.
国際社会も、中国にいかに向き合うのかが試される。

The coming weeks will offer some good opportunities for the leaders of the countries concerned to discuss the issue, such as a summit of the Group of 20 industrial nations and a meeting of the leaders of members of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum, both slated for November. These opportunities should be used to explore ways to secure stability in the South China Sea.
来月の主要20カ国・地域(G20)首脳会議や、アジア太平洋経済協力会議(APEC)首脳会議など各国首脳が顔をそろえる機会を通じて、南シナ海情勢を安定させる道筋を探りたい。

The situation also has huge implications for Japan, where new national security legislation was recently enacted. Japan must not forget that its principal role is not military involvement but diplomatic work to help build unity among countries.
安保法制が成立した日本も、最大の役割は軍事的関与ではなく、国際社会の結束を築く外交面にあることを忘れてはならない。

Japan needs to use its close relations with ASEAN for tenacious efforts to ease tensions in the South China Sea.
ASEANと日本のパイプを生かし、粘り強く緊張をほぐす努力が求められている。

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社説:設備投資の拡大 政府の干渉は筋違いだ

October 23, 2015 (Mainichi Japan)
Editorial: Gov't pressure on private firms to boost investment unreasonable
社説:設備投資の拡大 政府の干渉は筋違いだ

With its establishment of a public-private consultative body aimed at encouraging companies to increase capital investment, the government looks to be shoving a meddling hand into the management machinery of private businesses, all to prop up the economy.
景気をてこ入れしたい政府による事実上の経営介入ではないか。
企業に設備投資の拡大を促すため、政府が経済界代表を集めて設置した会議「官民対話」のことだ。

The government is desperate as a virtuous economic cycle buoying growth and wages has failed to materialize nearly three years after the administration of Prime Minister Shinzo Abe launched its "Abenomics" policy mix to kick-start the economy.
アベノミクスが目指す「経済の好循環」が見えず、政府の焦りがにじむ。

However, whether to expand capital investments is something that private companies should decide on at their own discretion, and it is unreasonable for the government to intervene in business management.
だが、企業が自主的に判断すべき課題であり、干渉は筋違いだ。

The government believes that companies have chosen to save their profits rather than invest in plants and equipment.
政府は「企業がもうけをため込み投資に回していない」とみている。

Numerous major companies have posted record-breaking profits thanks to the devaluation of the yen and other factors.
大企業の収益は円安効果などで過去最高の水準だ。

Companies' internal cash reserves reached 354 trillion yen in fiscal 2014, an increase of 50 trillion yen from fiscal 2012, before Abenomics shifted into high gear.
企業の内部留保(利益の蓄積)は2014年度に354兆円と、アベノミクスが本格化する前の12年度から50兆円増えた。

In contrast, Finance Ministry statistics shows that corporate capital investment in Japan in fiscal 2014 came to 40 trillion yen, up only 5 trillion yen from fiscal 2012.
一方、主に国内向け設備投資の動向を示す財務省の統計によると、14年度の設備投資は40兆円と12年度比で5兆円増にとどまった。

At the first meeting of the public-private consultative body, Prime Minister Abe urged representatives of companies to "specifically present their prospects for expanding their investments in plants and equipment."
安倍晋三首相は官民対話の初会合で「投資拡大の具体的見通しを示してほしい」と迫った。

Akira Amari, state minister in charge of economic revitalization, also said, "If companies' commitment to capital investment is weak, we'll further urge them to increase these investments."
甘利明経済再生担当相は「投資へのコミットメント(関与)が弱ければ、さらなる強い要請をかけていく」と語る。

Corporate investment in plants and equipment is a key to economic growth.
設備投資は成長のかぎを握る。

Capital investment in areas covered by the term "the fourth industrial revolution," including artificial intelligence and big data, are of growing importance.
人工知能やビッグデータなど「第4次産業革命」と呼ばれる分野への投資も重要性を増している。

Efforts to make effective use of funds for these sectors are indispensable.
資金を有効活用する努力は不可欠だ。

Still, a decision on whether to make capital investments should be left to the discretion of individual companies, as the failure of projects in which companies have invested massive amounts of money could deal a serious blow to their management.
だが、実際に投資するかどうかは、あくまで企業の判断だ。巨額の資金が必要で、失敗すれば、経営不振に陥る恐れもあるからだ。

It is not true that companies have failed to proactively make capital investments.
企業が投資をしていないわけではない。

They are increasing their capital investment overseas, particularly in emerging countries.
新興国中心に海外投資を積極化している。

They do not appear inclined to invest in Japan because the domestic market is contracting due to the low birthrate and depopulation.
国内市場は少子化や人口減で縮小しているためだ。

The value of mergers and acquisitions of foreign businesses by Japanese firms hit a record high total of 8 trillion yen in fiscal 2014.
日本企業による海外企業の合併・買収(M&A)は14年度に8兆円と過去最高を更新した。

Yoshimitsu Kobayashi, chairman of the Japan Association of Corporate Executives, said, "Corporate executives are making investments in the most appropriate manner in the global economy."
経済同友会の小林喜光代表幹事は「経営者はグローバル経済の中で最適な投資をしている」と説明している。

The government has also urged companies to raise wages for their employees.
政府は企業に賃上げも促してきた。

The government's request that companies make more capital investments on top of salary hikes has made it look like Japan's economy is managed at the initiative of the government.
これに続く要請は「官製経済」の様相を濃くする。

Such a practice could distort companies' business strategies and dampen private sector dynamism.
企業の経営戦略をゆがめ、民間活力をそぎかねない。

The government's role in expanding corporate capital investment should be limited to creating an environment that will facilitate such growth.
政府の役割は、投資しやすい環境整備に徹することだ。

At the public-private consultative body meeting, an attendee representing the business community pointed out that "reform of regulations that hinder investment should be prioritized."
官民対話では経済界から「投資の妨げになる規制改革などが先決」との声が出た。

The government should promote regulatory reform and introduce tax breaks to encourage businesses to invest in growth fields such as environmental protection and energy.
政府は、環境やエネルギーなど成長分野への投資を促す規制改革や税制措置に取り組むべきだ。

It is also necessary for the government to step up countermeasures against population decline.
人口減対策の充実なども必要だ。

The current economic stagnation is attributable largely to slumping consumer spending.
今の景気停滞は消費の不振も大きい。

The yen has become weaker due to credit easing -- one of the pillars of Abenomics -- and subsequent rises in the prices of foodstuffs and other goods have increased the financial burden on households.
アベノミクスの柱にしてきた金融緩和で円安が進み、食料品などの値上げが家計を圧迫している。

The prime minister has declared that Abenomics has entered its second stage, and set a goal of expanding Japan's gross domestic product to 600 trillion yen.
首相は「アベノミクス第2ステージ」を宣言し、国内総生産(GDP)600兆円の実現を目標に掲げた。

However, the government cannot see a clear road map for propping up the economy even if it encourages companies to increase capital investment without reviewing its past economic policy measures.
しかし、従来政策の検証をせず、企業に投資拡大を迫っても、景気浮揚の道筋は見えてこない。

毎日新聞 2015年10月23日 東京朝刊

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社説:辺野古環境委 公正に監視できるのか

October 21, 2015 (Mainichi Japan)
Editorial: Company donations put fairness of Okinawa environmental watchdog in doubt
社説:辺野古環境委 公正に監視できるのか

Three members of an expert panel tasked with monitoring the environmental impact of construction work off the Henoko district of Nago for the planned relocation of U.S. Marine Corps Air Station Futenma received donations from contractors involved in the project.
沖縄県の米軍普天間飛行場の辺野古移設計画をめぐり、工事が環境に与える影響を監視するため設けられた専門家委員会の委員が、受注業者から寄付金を受け取っていた。
      
Of the 13 members on the panel, Yokohama National University graduate school professor and panel chair Yoshiyuki Nakamura, along with two others, were found to have accepted donations between 500,000 yen and 8 million yen each following their appointments to the body.
受領が判明したのは、委員13人のうち、委員長の中村由行(よしゆき)・横浜国立大大学院教授ら3人。委員就任の決定後にそれぞれ50万円から800万円が渡っていた。

The donations were given by contractors for the relocation project and an environmental consulting firm, the latter of which now runs the day-to-day office functions of the panel.
寄付金を出したのは、移設事業を受注した建設会社や環境コンサルタント会社だ。委員会の運営業務もコンサル会社が請け負っていた。

The previous Okinawa governor, Hirokazu Nakaima, requested the formation of the expert panel in December 2013 as a condition for approving landfill work off Henoko. The Defense Ministry then established the environmental oversight committee in April the following year. The panel is tasked with providing scientific and technical advice to the Defense Ministry on environmental protection, and is responsible for environmental reviews of a drilling survey at the Henoko site -- a preliminary step to the land reclamation work -- all the way through a post-construction survey.
委員会は、沖縄県の仲井真弘多(ひろかず)前知事が2013年12月に辺野古埋め立てを承認した際に条件として求め、防衛省が14年4月に環境監視委員会として設置した。環境保全について、同省に科学的・専門的助言をするのが目的だ。現在の準備段階から、本体工事が完了した後の事後調査まで担当する。

When the Okinawa Prefectural Government pointed to the possibility that large concrete blocks that the Defense Ministry sank into the waters off the Henoko coast for a seabed survey had destroyed coral reefs, and demanded a halt to the work this past spring, the expert panel stated that the impact of the seabed survey on the reefs was "minimal." The committee played an important role as a source of expert opinion.
今春、防衛省が移設作業のため辺野古の海底に沈めた大型ブロックがサンゴ礁を損傷した可能性が高いと沖縄県が指摘し、作業停止を求めた際は、委員会が「サンゴ礁全体への影響は軽微」との見解を示すなど、重要な役割を果たした。

Chief Cabinet Secretary Yoshihide Suga has said that the government sees no problem in the three panel members receiving donations from companies involved in the base relocation work, insisting, "The panel is being managed in a fair and just manner." The panel members also claim that the donations have not affected the body's discussions and judgment.
3委員の寄付金受領について、菅義偉官房長官は「公平公正に委員会は行われている」として、委員会の運営に問題はなかったとの考えを示す。委員らも、委員会での議論や判断に影響はなかったとしている。

Even if the truth is as Suga and the committee members have claimed, however, the situation has unfolded in the midst of the controversial U.S. base relocation plan, which has developed into a very public clash between the central and Okinawa governments. Members of the expert panel should not have accepted money that could have been seen as suspicious in any way. As an old Chinese proverb says, "If you don't want to be mistaken as stealing a plum, you should not adjust your crown under a plum tree," i.e. don't leave any room for scandal or doubt.
菅氏や委員が言う通りだったとしても、政府と県の主張が鋭く対立する辺野古移設問題が舞台である。委員は疑いを持たれるようなカネを受け取るべきではない。「李下(りか)に冠を正さず」だ。

University of the Ryukyus professor emeritus Seiji Azuma, vice chairman of the expert committee, told the Mainichi Shimbun that most of the panel members from mainland Japan have no experience in environmental research in Okinawa.
副委員長の東(あずま)清二・琉球大名誉教授は毎日新聞の取材に「本土から来た委員は、沖縄の環境調査を一度もしたことがない人ばかり。

"I'm dubious of their ability to conduct environmental monitoring in Okinawa. The central government is probably looking to go ahead and build the new base with a green light from the panel," Azuma added, casting doubt on the purpose of the committee itself.
どうやって沖縄の環境を監視できるのか疑問だ。委員会のお墨付きを得て基地を造るのが本音だろう」と委員会そのものへの疑問を語る。

Okinawa Gov. Takeshi Onaga revoked his predecessor's approval for the land reclamation work off Henoko last week. However, the central government is trying high-handedly to push ahead with the landfill work, and the conflict between the two sides has heightened. If the committee remains a group tailor-made to endorse the central government's plans, it will fail to fulfill its stated role as an environmental watchdog.
翁長雄志(おながたけし)知事は先週、辺野古の埋め立て承認を取り消した。政府は工事を強引に進めようとしており、県と全面対決している。「お手盛り委員会」の疑いをかけられたままでは、環境を監視する役割は果たせないだろう。

The Defense Ministry should disclose all minutes from the panel meetings.
防衛省は委員会の議事録をすべて公開すべきだ。

Not accepting money or goods from interested parties is the least that can be expected, morally speaking, from members of an expert panel like the environmental monitoring committee in question. The Nuclear Regulation Authority, for example, checks whether outside experts have received remuneration of 500,000 yen a year or more from nuclear business-related organizations in the previous three years when asking their opinions.
審議会などの委員は、利害関係者から金品を受け取らないのが最低限のモラルだろう。原子力規制委員会は、外部有識者から意見を聞くにあたって、直近3年間に関連業者から年50万円以上の報酬を受け取っていないかなどを審査している。

The Defense Ministry should consider introducing such a system for the environmental monitoring committee in Okinawa.
防衛省も環境監視委員会にこうした仕組みの導入を検討すべきだ。

毎日新聞 2015年10月21日 東京朝刊

続きを読む
クリック募金^^
プロフィール
自己紹介・リンク

■近況

2009年の9月15日に脳梗塞を発症、右手が少し不自由になりました。
MRAで脳梗塞の部位を特定でき、素早い処置をとれたので大事に至りませんでした。
快復にむけてリハビリ中です。
(2011/01/01更新)

■自己紹介・リンク

[ はじめに ]
タイのスラチャイです。
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毎日毎日の地道な努力の積み重ねが必要です。
スラチャイはNHKのラジオ英語会話で現在の英語力を身につけました。
一日僅か15分の学習でも数年間継続すれば相当な学習効果が期待できます。

[ 名前 ]
松井 清 (スラチャイ)

[ 略歴 ]
・福岡県出身
・国立高知大学卒業
・準大手建設会社に就職
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・99/10 タイ全土を旅行
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・現在タイ国コンケン在住

[ 座右の銘 ]
Slow and steady wins the race.
遅くとも着実な者が勝利する
(NHK基礎英語芹沢栄先生)

[ 学習の手引き ]
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・ネイティブ発音付辞書活用
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06 聞き直すとき
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09 一般的なあいづち
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06 聞き直すとき
07 相手の言うことがわからないとき
08 うまく言えないとき
09 一般的なあいづち
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11 強めのあいづち
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