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2015年03月

(社説)不平等な一票 正統性が問われている

--The Asahi Shimbun, March 28
(社説)不平等な一票 正統性が問われている
EDITORIAL: Diet's failure to fix vote-value disparity shows contempt for democracy

The Diet’s legitimacy to change Japan’s postwar pacifist principles or to initiate debate on constitutional amendments has been called into question by its failure to solve the serious problem of vote-value disparity.
いまの国会に、戦後の平和主義を転換したり、憲法を変える論議を提起したりする正統性があるといえるのか。

Although it is considering a new measure to improve the situation, the Diet has been far too slow to take steps to rectify the gross political inequality.
新たな是正策を検討しているとはいえ、国会の動きはあまりに鈍い。

It is hard not to doubt even the Diet’s will to respect the fundamental principle of equality under the law.
法の下の平等という原則を尊重する意思があるのか。それすら疑わざるを得ない。

High courts across the nation have handed down rulings on the constitutionality of the Lower House election last December, which was held with significant inequity in the value of a single vote.
昨年12月の衆院選の一票の格差をめぐる判決が、各地の高裁・支部で続いている。

Rulings have been delivered on 14 of the 17 lawsuits filed by lawyers’ groups in various high courts demanding that the election results be nullified.
One of the courts ruled that the election was “unconstitutional,” and nine ruled that it was held in a “state of unconstitutionality,” one step short of an outright violation of the Constitution. Four courts said the election was constitutional.
17件のうち14件で判決が出て、「違憲」が1、その手前の「違憲状態」が9。「合憲」は4だった。

In ruling that the election was held in a state of unconstitutionality, one of the high courts effectively set a deadline of December 2016 for redressing the situation in line with the Diet’s time frame for reforming the electoral system. The ruling sounded like ultimatum that unless the system is reformed, the next election could be declared unconstitutional and invalid.
「違憲状態」判決には、来年12月を期限とし、改めずに選挙したら次は「違憲・無効」もありという、最後通告のような厳しさも含まれている。

In the December Lower House election, one vote in the nation’s least populated constituency was worth 2.13 votes in the most heavily populated district. In other words, the weight of one person’s vote in a certain district was less than half of the weight of another person’s vote in a different district.
あのときの一票の格差は最大2・13倍。ある人の投票の重みが、違う選挙区に住む人の半分にも満たないことを意味する。

Why do voters have to put up with such outrageous inequality? The Diet’s negligence in failing to fix the problem is nothing but contempt for democracy.
そこまでの不平等を、有権者は耐え忍ぶしかないのか。国会の怠慢による不平等の放置は、民主主義に対する軽蔑以外の何ものでもない。

Before the Lower House election, the Diet tweaked the electoral system by reducing the number of single-seat constituencies by one each in five prefectures. But the Diet has kept intact the method of first distributing one seat to each of the 47 prefectures before allocating the remaining seats in the single-seat constituency part of the system in proportion to population.
前回衆院選は「0増5減」の調整はされたが、議席をまず都道府県に一つずつ割り振る「1人別枠方式」を事実上残して行われた。

Four years ago, the Supreme Court ruled that this approach was the main cause of the vote-value disparity and called for its abolition.
最高裁が4年前、一票の重みを不平等にする主因とし、廃止を促した方法だ。

However, no radical reform of the system to bring the disparity closer to zero has been carried out. What the Diet is currently considering is a proposal to reduce the numbers of seats allocated to nine prefectures by one each, while increasing the numbers of seats in six prefectures by one to three. But this is just another adjustment to make the figures look better.
格差をゼロに近づける抜本改革はなされず、いま検討されているのも「9増9減」という、別の数合わせにすぎない。

By making such a lukewarm response, the Diet cannot escape being criticized for lowering its own representation and legitimacy.
自ら代表性や正統性を低めようとしているといわれても仕方ない。

We don’t need to wait for a Supreme Court ruling to say that the Diet has no choice but to start making serious efforts to overhaul the electoral systems for both houses.
最高裁の判決を待つまでもなく、国会は衆参両院をにらんだ抜本改革に本気で取り組むしかない。

Some lawmakers feel that it is not imperative to reform the system because four high courts have ruled the election was constitutional.
合憲判決があったことで開き直る雰囲気もあるようだが、

But they are wrong.
それは間違っている。

These rulings were based on the assumption that the Diet will make progress in improving the system. These legislators should understand that the courts simply showed respect for the legislature’s power to make policy decisions on the issue.
あくまでも国会で制度見直しが進むことを前提にしており、三権の緊張関係の中で、司法が立法の裁量権に配慮した判断だということをふまえるべきだ。

The current situation makes us freshly aware of the misguided leniency the Supreme Court showed in ruling in 2013 on the constitutionality of the 2012 Lower House election.
改めて甘かったと感じるのが、前々回の12年衆院選をめぐる13年の最高裁判決である。

The top court showed a certain degree of understanding of the Diet’s plan to improve the system without abandoning the method of allocating a seat to each prefecture first. This ruling may have led some high courts to show similar leniency by declaring the election constitutional.
1人別枠方式を実質的に残したやり方に一定の理解を示した点が、今回の高裁で「合憲」まで出る寛容さをうみ出しているのではないか。

What must not be forgotten is the heavy responsibility of the judiciary concerning the problem of inequality in the value of a single vote.
忘れてならないのは、投票価値の不平等に伴う司法の責任の重みだ。

It is not surprising that legislators secretly wish to maintain the system under which they were elected. They are not qualified to represent the interests of voters who are demanding equality in the weight of their votes.
議員が自分を選んだ制度を温存したいのは本音だろうし、平等な一票を求める国民の利益代表にはなりにくい。

This is a value that will continue to be ignored unless the judiciary makes clear its importance.
司法がきっちり言わないと、ないがしろにされがちな価値なのだ。

More high court rulings on the issue are expected to come next month. The courts should make well-reasoned decisions from the viewpoint of the people’s interests.
高裁判決は来月も続く。国民の側に足場を置いて、判断を尽くしてほしい。

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(社説)辺野古移設 沖縄の問いに答えよ

--The Asahi Shimbun, March 24
EDITORIAL: High time for government to answer Okinawa’s questions
(社説)辺野古移設 沖縄の問いに答えよ

How long will the central government continue to blatantly and completely ignore Okinawa Prefecture’s requests and questions concerning the plan to relocate a key U.S. air base?
政府はどこまで問答無用の姿勢を続けるつもりなのか。

Okinawa Governor Takeshi Onaga on March 23 ordered the Okinawa Defense Bureau to suspend within a week all work to relocate the U.S. Marine Corps Air Station Futenma in the crowded city of Ginowan to the Henoko district of Nago. The ongoing work includes a seabed drilling survey to prepare for land reclamation off Henoko.
沖縄県の翁長雄志知事はきのう、米軍普天間飛行場(宜野湾市)の名護市辺野古沖への移設に伴う埋め立て工事に向けたボーリング調査など一連の作業を1週間以内に停止するよう、沖縄防衛局に指示した。

If the bureau refuses to obey his order, Onaga warns he will revoke the prefectural government’s permission, issued by his predecessor, Hirokazu Nakaima, in August last year, for rock reefs to be destroyed for the construction work.
指示に従わなければ、昨年8月に仲井真弘多・前知事が出した「岩礁破砕許可」を取り消すとしている。

In a March 23 news conference, Onaga said, “I’ve made up my mind.” His move should be regarded as a strong signal of Okinawa’s will that this is effectively an ultimatum by the prefecture.
翁長知事は会見で「腹を決めている」と述べた。沖縄側の最後通告ともいえる意思表示と考えるべきだろう。

In pursuing the plan to build an airbase in Henoko to replace the Futenma facilities, the central government has repeatedly said it would continue efforts to win support from people in Okinawa. In reality, however, the government has been quietly but steadily going ahead with the plan without paying any attention to Okinawa’s calls.
これまでの経緯を振り返ると、「沖縄の方々の理解を得る努力を続けながら」と言ってきたはずの政府が実際には、沖縄の訴えに耳を閉ざして「粛々と」作業に突き進んできた状況がある。

Destruction of the rock reefs will alter the configuration of the seabed. To prevent a negative impact on marine resources, prefectural fisheries coordination regulations require advance permission from the prefectural governor for the destruction of such reefs.
岩礁破砕は海底の地形を変化させる行為。水産資源への影響を避けるため、県漁業調整規則で知事の許可が必要だ。

The current row between the administration and the prefectural government began in January, when the Okinawa Defense Bureau, the Defense Ministry’s local branch, sank a number of massive concrete blocks onto the seabed as anchors for buoys and floats that indicate the off-limits zones.
ことの発端は1月、沖縄防衛局が海底に大型のコンクリートブロックをいくつも沈めたことだった。

The blocks were sunk along the borders of the off-limits zones, which surround the areas where Nakaima approved the destruction of rock reefs for the construction work. This raised concerns about possible damage to coral reefs and other natural elements, prompting the prefectural government to start an on-site inspection on its own.
ブロックの投下は、許可区域を広く取り囲むように設定された立ち入り禁止区域に沿って行われ、許可区域外の海底のサンゴ礁などが傷ついているおそれがある。県は独自調査に取り組み始めていた。

But the prefecture’s attempt to conduct an inspection in the off-limits areas was rejected by the U.S. military. The local government again submitted a request for U.S. permission for the inspection. When he ordered a suspension of the work, Onaga also asked the Defense Bureau to help with the prefectural government’s inspection.
しかし立ち入り禁止区域での調査は米軍に拒まれ、県は再度調査を申請している。翁長知事は今回、防衛局に調査への協力も求めた。

Onaga, who defeated Nakaima in a gubernatorial election in November, initially called for a suspension of the work until an independent committee set up to assess Nakaima’s approval of land reclamation off Henoko reaches its conclusion.
翁長知事は仲井真前知事が出した埋め立て承認を検証する第三者委員会の結論が出るまで、作業の中止を要求した。

But the Abe administration ignored his request and forged ahead with the drilling survey.
それを無視して政権側はボーリング作業に突き進んだ。

As for the sinking of concrete blocks, the administration has kept repeating that the Okinawa government headed by Nakaima said the act is not subject to procedures for approval. Tokyo has ignored the Okinawa government’s argument that its permission is required for sinking such massive blocks.
政府はブロック投下について「(前知事時代に)県から岩礁破砕手続きの対象とならないと示されていた」と主張し続け、「対象となる」とする県の言い分に聞く耳を持たない。

Onaga was elected on a pledge to stop the relocation of the Futenma air base to Henoko. It is only natural for him to use his administrative powers to take action to promote Okinawa’s position on the issue.
知事選で辺野古移設阻止を公約して当選した翁長知事にしてみれば、知事の行政権限を駆使して沖縄の立場を訴える行動に出るのは当然の流れだろう。

Criticizing Onaga’s move, Defense Minister Gen Nakatani said, “I hope he will give a little more consideration to the interests of Okinawa Prefecture and Japan’s national security in thinking” about the issue.
知事の姿勢を、中谷防衛相は「もう少し沖縄県のことや日本の安全保障を踏まえて考えていただきたい」と批判する。

But people in Okinawa Prefecture, which is home to an overwhelmingly large proportion of the U.S. bases in Japan, have many questions about the government’s security policy, such as why a base must be built in Henoko and why U.S. Marines have to be stationed in the prefecture.
だが、米軍基地が集中する沖縄の県民にとっては、国の安全保障政策は「なぜ辺野古か」「なぜ沖縄に海兵隊か」といった疑問だらけである。

The administration should make sincere and straightforward responses to these serious questions asked by Okinawa.
沖縄からの深刻な問いかけに、政府はまず向き合うべきだ。

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チュニジア襲撃 「民主化モデル」を脅かすテロ

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Terrorist attack in Tunisia threatens successful transition to democracy
チュニジア襲撃 「民主化モデル」を脅かすテロ

Yet another horrendous case of bloodshed has occurred in North Africa, where terrorist activities by Islamic extremists have been continuing.
イスラム過激派によるテロが続く北アフリカでまた惨事が発生した。
 
Gunmen fired indiscriminately at a museum in the Tunisian capital of Tunis on Wednesday, killing about 20 people, including tourists from abroad, three of them from Japan. Many others were wounded, among them three Japanese.
チュニジアの首都チュニスの博物館で武装集団が銃を乱射し、日本人3人を含む外国人観光客ら約20人が死亡した。日本人3人など多数が負傷している。

This murderous rampage, which randomly targeted innocent people, can never be forgiven.
罪のない人々を無差別に襲う凶行は、断じて許されない。

Prime Minister Shinzo Abe strongly condemned the atrocity, stressing, “We will make the utmost efforts in our fight against terrorism by further deepening cooperation with the international community.” This is perfectly natural.
安倍首相は、犯行を強く非難し、「国際社会と連携を深めながらテロとの戦いに全力を尽くす」と強調した。当然である。

The government must endeavor to protect those who were attacked and ensure the safety of Japanese living overseas.
政府は、被害者の保護や在留邦人の安全確保に努めるべきだ。

It is no longer rare for Japanese people to be embroiled in terrorist assaults abroad. Given these circumstances, the government must strengthen its measures for collecting information about regions with unstable security and for disseminating warnings about such regions.
日本人が海外でテロに巻き込まれる例は、もはや珍しくない。政府は、情勢が不安定な地域に関する情報収集と、危険情報の発信を強化しなければならない。

The security authorities in Tunis reportedly shot to death two Tunisian members of the group of gunmen, and have taken multiple suspects into custody. An Islamic extremist organization is suspected of being involved in the daylight raid. The whole truth of the incident should be brought to light promptly.
現地の治安当局が、武装集団のチュニジア人2人を射殺し、複数の容疑者を拘束したという。事件へのイスラム過激派組織の関与が疑われている。全容解明を急いでもらいたい。

Tunisia is known for having spearheaded the Arab Spring uprisings for democratization, in which long-standing dictatorial regimes in the Middle East and North Africa were toppled by the people. After the collapse in the 2011 Jasmine Revolution of the administration of Zine el-Abidine Ben Ali, whose dictatorship had lasted for 23 years, popular revolts spread to Egypt, Libya and elsewhere.
チュニジアは、中東や北アフリカの長期独裁政権を民衆が倒す民主化運動「アラブの春」の先陣を切った。23年続いたベンアリ政権が2011年の「ジャスミン革命」で崩壊すると、その波はエジプト、リビアなどに広がった。

3,000 joining ISIL

Amid the political turmoil in those countries following the easing of dictatorial rule, Tunisia was able to craft a democratic system for the coexistence of secular groups and Islamic moderates. It thereby drew international attention as a model for a successful transition to democracy.
独裁統治の緩んだ各国で政情が混乱する中、チュニジアは、世俗派とイスラム穏健派が共存する政治体制を構築し、民主化の成功モデルとして注目された。

Behind this progress, however, public order and security deteriorated in Tunisia, while investment from abroad and the number of foreign tourists dropped significantly, sending the Tunisian economy into stagnation. With radicalism spreading among young people and others in poverty who are dissatisfied with society, there can be no denying that the threat of terrorism existed before the Tunis attack.
ただ、その陰で治安が悪化し、外国の投資や観光客が落ち込み、経済は停滞していた。社会に不満を持つ貧しい若者らに過激主義が浸透し、テロの潜在的な脅威があったことは否めない。

The number of Tunisian fighters who have joined the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) based in Iraq and Syria, is reportedly about 3,000. They are the largest group among overseas members of ISIL, causing Tunisia to earn the dishonorable nickname of an “exporter of extremist elements.”
イラクとシリアに根を張る過激派組織「イスラム国」に参加したチュニジア人戦闘員は、約3000人に達するという。出身国別で最も多く、「過激分子の輸出国」との不名誉な異名も取った。

Until the latest incident, terrorist activities in Tunisia had been considered to be limited compared to the rampant presence of Islamic extremist groups in the neighboring countries of Libya and Algeria. The recent shooting has upended this belief.
隣国のリビアとアルジェリアでイスラム過激派組織が跋ばっ扈こするのに対し、チュニジアでの活動は限定的と見られていた。だが、今回の事件は、その見方を覆した。

To ensure that the foundation of its democratic system, which it has managed to build at long last, is not shaken, the Tunisian government should seriously address the challenge of restoring public order and resuscitating the economy.
チュニジア政府は、せっかく築いた民主主義体制の基盤を揺るがせないため、治安回復と経済再建に真剣に取り組む必要がある。

After the gunmen’s siege, President Beji Caid Essebsi of Tunisia declared his government’s strengthening of measures to stamp out terrorists. Tougher steps for clamping down on terrorist groups, as well as bolstering inspections and surveillance at such places as airports and borders, are urgently needed to stem the infiltration of terrorist fighters.
事件後、セブシ大統領は、テロ掃討の強化を宣言した。過激派集団の摘発や、戦闘員の往来を阻止するための空港や国境での検問や監視の強化が急務である。

For its part, Japan must step up efforts to extend assistance to Tunisia in cooperation with the United States and European nations.
日本も、欧米諸国と連携し、チュニジア支援に力を入れたい。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, March 20, 2015)

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プーチン発言 「核準備」の恫喝は認められぬ

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Putin’s allusion to being prepared to use nuclear arms is intolerable
プーチン発言 「核準備」の恫喝は認められぬ

It was a threat in which an allusion was made over the use of nuclear weapons. His remarks, made as a leader of a nuclear power, were extremely inappropriate and irresponsible.
核兵器に言及した威嚇である。核大国の指導者として極めて不穏当、無責任と言うほかない。
 
Russian President Vladimir Putin said, “We were ready to do it,” when asked if Russia was prepared to put its nuclear forces on alert over the country’s annexation of Ukraine’s Crimean Peninsula last March.
昨年3月のロシアによるウクライナのクリミア半島編入の経緯を巡り、プーチン露大統領が、核戦力を臨戦態勢に置くことについて「そうする用意があった」と発言した。

However, he defended himself by saying he believed the Crimea crisis would not evolve into a situation where Russia’s nuclear forces would actually be put into a state of combat readiness.
一方で、クリミアの事態が核の臨戦態勢には発展しないと考えていた、とも弁明している。

Nonetheless, his remarks contain extremely serious elements and must not be ignored.
それでも、発言は重大な問題を含んでおり、看過できない。

Under the basic guidelines governing its use of nuclear weapons, Russia will use nuclear weapons only in response to an all-out attack by weapons of mass destruction or if the existence of the Russian Federation is threatened.
ロシアの核兵器運用の基本指針は、核の使用を、大量破壊兵器などの攻撃を受けた場合と、国家の存続が脅かされた場合に限る。

Around the time Russia annexed Crimea, it was not expected that the country would have to fight for its survival. Thus, Putin’s remarks made a mockery of these guidelines.
クリミア編入時にロシアが存続の危機に陥ることは想定されず、発言は基本指針を軽視している。

A senior official of the Russian Foreign Ministry said, “Russia, in principle, reserves the right to deploy its nuclear arsenal in Crimea.”
露外務省高官は、「ロシアはクリミアに核を配備する権利を原則として持つ」とまで語った。

The series of remarks by Putin are construed as an attempt by Russia to make its control of Crimea a fait accompli by intimidating the United States and European countries to forestall any intervention.
一連の発言には、米欧を恫喝どうかつし、その干渉を排することにより、クリミア支配の既成事実化を図る狙いがうかがえる。

Russia’s wisdom must be called into question. As a permanent member of the U.N. Security Council, the country is responsible for maintaining world peace.
世界の平和に責任を持つべき国連安全保障理事会の常任理事国としての見識が疑われよう。

Running counter to NPT

A U.S. State Department spokeswoman criticized Putin’s remarks, saying the Russian president has admitted to the whole world that Russian troops not only intervened in Crimea but also were ready to take more aggressive action. Her criticism cannot be faulted.
米国務省報道官は、プーチン発言について「ロシア軍によるクリミア介入にとどまらず、もっと攻撃的な行動を取る用意すらあったと世界中に公言したことになる」と批判した。当然だろう。

The Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty calls on signatory countries, including Russia, not to threaten the territorial integrity of other nations with the use of force. It is obvious that Putin’s latest remarks run counter to the spirit of this international treaty.
核拡散防止条約(NPT)は、ロシアを含む加盟国に、他国の領土保全を武力で脅かさないよう求めている。今回の発言がNPTの精神にも反するのは明らかだ。

What is of great concern is that Russia over the past few years has built up its nuclear capability. This also runs against the international trend of nuclear disarmament in the post-Cold War era, a trend symbolized by the signing of the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty by the United States and Russia.
懸念されるのは、ロシアがここ数年、核戦力を増強していることだ。米露の中距離核戦力(INF)全廃条約など、冷戦後の核軍縮の流れに逆行する。

In his latest remarks, Putin said, “We never thought about severing Crimea from Ukraine until the moment that these events began [with the Ukraine] government overthrow.” With this comment, he admitted that Russia took actions to annex Crimea immediately after Ukraine’s pro-Moscow government led by President Viktor Yanukovych was overthrown in February last year.
プーチン氏は今回、「ウクライナ政変まではクリミアを奪取しようと考えていなかった」と述べた。昨年2月の親露派ウクライナ政権の崩壊直後、クリミア編入に向けて動いたことを認めたものだ。

His remarks contradicted his earlier assertion that Russia annexed Crimea because he respected the results of the referendum held last March.
クリミア編入は「(昨年3月の)住民投票結果を尊重した」との従来の主張を覆したことになる。

It has been pointed out that Russian special forces intervened and conducted various maneuvers to have the referendum carried out in Crimea.
実際、クリミアの住民投票を実現するため、ロシア軍の特殊部隊が介入し、様々な工作活動を実施したとの指摘が出ている。

Putin, who has unilaterally been changing the status quo by force, is becoming a serious cause of uncertainty.
一方的な「力による現状変更」を進めるプーチン氏は、重大な不安定要因となりつつある。

The international community, while financially supporting Ukraine and maintaining its pressure on Russia, must call on Putin to refrain from embarking on any more adventures through words or deeds.
国際社会は、ウクライナを財政支援しつつ、対露圧力を維持し、プーチン氏に冒険主義的な言動の自制を促さねばならない。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, March 18, 2015)

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It's Time for Japan to Punish Tepco いまこそ東電を罰すべし!

cite from Bloomberg View

It's Time for Japan to Punish Tepco
いまこそ東電を罰すべし!

まったくひどい話ですが日本では報道されていないのでは?
翻訳抜けの部分は、補っておきました。( )内です^^。
(by srachai)

Bloomberg View Mar 10, 2015 6:05 PM EDT
It's Time for Japan to Punish Tepco
震災から4年、東京電力はまだ罰を受けていない-Wペセック

By  William Pesek  
【コラムニスト:Willie Pesek】

Fishermen trawling the waters off Japan's eastern coast have been alleging for a while that radioactive water was again spilling into the Pacific from the Fukushima power plant that melted down after a massive earthquake in 2011. On Feb. 24, Tokyo Electric Power Co., which is responsible for the site, admitted those suspicions were justified. And it turns out that Tepco knew about this latest radioactive leak since last May -- and the giant utility said nothing for almost a year.
東日本大震災から4年、福島県沖を漁場とする漁師らは、福島第一原子力発電所から再び汚染水が太平洋に流出しているのではないかとしばらく前から疑っていた。漁師らの疑いが正しかったことは2月24日に明らかになったが、東京電力は昨年5月から高濃度の放射性物質を含む汚染水の問題を把握していた。つまり、1年近くにわたって口を閉ざしていたわけだ。

In the 15 days since Tepco finally confessed, have investigators raided its Tokyo headquarters? Have regulators demanded that heads roll? Has Prime Minister Shinzo Abe used his bully pulpit to demand accountability from the company that gave the world its worst nuclear crisis since Chernobyl? In any other major democracy, those steps would have been obvious. But none have occurred in Japan. And that raises troubling questions not just about Tepco's corporate governance, but the rampant cronyism enabling it.
汚染水流出を認めてから2週間余りが経過したが、東京電力本社で立ち入り検査が行われただろうか。あるいは当局は厳重な処罰を求めただろうか。チェルノブイリ以降で最悪の原発事故を起こした同社に対し、安倍晋三首相は説明責任を要求しただろうか。民主主義国家ならば、そうした措置が講じられるのは明らかだろう。ところが日本では一切そうした行動は取られていない。ここで持ち上がってくるのは、東京電力の企業統治のみならず、こうした状況を許している「原子力ムラ」の事なかれ主義というやっかいな問題だ。

When he took office in December 2012, Abe pledged to make corporate executives more accountable to international codes of conduct. In August 2013, he had a perfect chance to show his mettle. At the time, Tepco was still the butt of international criticism for its handling of the aftermath at Fukushima. Abe -- concerned that the bad press would affect Tokyo's campaign to host the 2020 Olympics -- declared his government would push Tepco aside and handle the cleanup efforts directly.
安倍首相は12年12月の就任時、国際的な行動規範に準じた企業の説明責任を高めると約束し、13年8月には「汚染水対策は喫緊の課題」として国が対策の前面に出る方針を表明した。首相は当時、2020年のオリンピック東京招致活動への影響を心配したのだろう。

It was all for show. Abe's government never intervened, and Tepco stayed in charge. Four years to the day since the earthquake, Fukushima is still leaking; 120,000 people remain displaced; and Tepco's opacity and incompetence are unchanged. The company's obfuscations "tell us all we need to know about its resilient corporate culture of irresponsibility," says Jeff Kingston, director of Asian Studies at Temple University in Tokyo. "It has not changed its stripes. The decommissioning efforts have been shambolic, it's still incompetent and negligent and has a very deep hole to climb out of in trying to regain any public trust."
全ては見せ掛けだった。安倍政権による介入は一度もなく、東京電力に対応が任されたままだ。震災から4年が過ぎても、汚染水の流出は続き、県内ではなお12万人が自宅に戻れていない。そして東京電力の不透明な体質と無能さは変わらない。テンプル大学日本校のジェフ・キングストン教授は東京電力の曖昧な態度について、「無責任という根強い社風の全てを物語っている。全く変わっていない」と語る。

原子力ムラ

How does Tepco get away with it? It's protected from on high by the "nuclear village," Tokyo's answer to the military-industrial complex that is said to hold sway in Washington. This alliance of pro-nuclear politicians, bureaucrats and power companies promotes reactors over safer forms of energy like solar, wind or geothermal, and works to shield utilities from competition and global standards. (That's how Tepco got away with consistently doctoring its maintenance reports for Fukushima and putting all of its backup generators underground in a tsunami-prone area.) Even after the Fukushima disaster, national nuclear regulators seemed more concerned about restarting Japan's 48 remaining reactors (all of which have been shut down in the interim) than neutralizing the one contaminating the northeast of the country.
この状況がなぜ許されるのだろうか。それは東京電力が原子力ムラに守られているからだ。原発推進派の政治家や官僚、電力会社が寄り集まって再生可能エネルギーよりも原発促進を優先させ、さらに競争や世界的な基準から国内の電力会社を守ろうとする。
(以下数行翻訳抜けです^^)(福島原発事故以降も、原子力規制委員会は停止中の48原発の再稼働を目指しているみたいです。)

Tokyo was a scary place to be in March 2011 amid Fukushima's triple meltdown. Most frightening, though, was the utter lack of transparency from the authorities. Tepco's then-president Masataka Shimizu gave maddeningly contradictory accounts of events at Fukushima. Two months later, Shimizu took the fall for Tepco sending radiation clouds Tokyo's way. Tepco's idea of a new start was to replace him with a 36-year company veteran. Four years on, it's still an open question whether Tepco, or the economy that spawned it, has learned anything.
福島でメルトダウン(炉心溶融)が起きた11年3月、東京に住んでいて恐ろしい思いをした。何よりも恐ろしかったのは当局の透明性欠如だった。東京電力の清水正孝社長(当時)の説明は矛盾だらけで、事故から2カ月後に責任を取って退任が発表されたものの、その後任は同社に36年前から勤めるベテラン幹部だった。あれから4年、東京電力と同社と結託した日本経済が何かを学んだのか、今だに分からない。

"I find it galling that not only was Tepco never punished for constructing reactors well below the tsunami warning markers, thereby worsening the effects of the quake and tidal wave, but was even allowed to raise its rates to make the consumer pay for the cleanup costs," says Robert Whiting, author of “Tokyo Underworld.”
米国人ジャーナリストで「東京アンダーワールド」の著者、ロバート・ホワイティング氏は「津波警戒ラインより低い位置に原子炉を建設し、地震と津波による被害を増幅させた東京電力が罰せられないばかりか、電気料金を引き上げて後始末のコストを消費者に負担させることまで許されたのは腹立たしい」と述べた。

Even in the context of Japanese cronyism, it's astounding that nobody at Tepco has gone to jail. Criminal proceedings against Japan's business titans aren't unprecedented. Executives of the optics manufacturer Olympus were arrested over a 2011 fraud scandal. Internet entrepreneur Takafumi Horie and well-known fund manager Yoshiaki Murakami got locked up for insider trading. But Tepco's executives continue to enjoy a get-out-jail-free card, courtesy of the Tokyo establishment.
実際、(原子力ムラの構図を考慮しても、)同社で誰も刑務所行きになっていないのは驚きだ。日本の大物企業人に対する刑事上の手続きに先例がないわけではない。オリンパスの損失隠し事件では同社幹部が逮捕されたし、別の事件では堀江貴文ライブドア元社長も村上ファンドの村上世彰・前代表も服役した。それなのに(東京電力の大きさに敬意を表し)東京電力の幹部はこれを逃れている。

At the very least, Tepco's senior management should be fired without pensions and face charges from prosecutors. The company should also be nationalized. (Taxpayers are bearing the costs of Tepco's negligence anyway.)
(最低限でも、東電の重役たちは解雇されるべきだ。年金なども支払う必要はない。検察側の訴追を受けるべきなのだ。東電は国有化されるべきだ。東電の失敗のしりぬぐいをさせられているのは税金を支払っている国民なのだ。)

Abe's desire to eliminate the cronyism endemic to Japan Inc.  is laudable. It would make the economy more productive vibrant, productive and attractive to overseas investors.  He should start by bringing the most egregious offender to justice. I'm sure the Fukushima fishermen will be happy to testify.
日本株式会社にはびこる縁故主義を一掃したいという安倍首相の意欲はあっぱれだ。それによって経済は活性化され、生産性を上げ、海外からの投資先としての魅力が増すだろう。まずは、最も甚だしく正義を踏みにじった者を裁くことから始めてはいかがだろうか。福島の漁師らは喜んで証言台に立つだろう。

(ウィリアム・ペセック氏はブルームバーグ・ビューのコラムニスト です。このコラムの内容は同氏自身の見解です)

To contact the author on this story:
  William Pesek   at wpesek@bloomberg.net
記事に関する記者への問い合わせ先:東京 Willie Pesek wpesek@bloomberg.net

To contact the editor on this story:
  Cameron Abadi   at cabadi2@bloomberg.net
記事についてのエディターへの問い合わせ先: Cameron Abadi cabadi2@bloomberg.net

原題:It’s Time Japan Finally Punished Tepco Executives: William Pesek(抜粋)
更新日時: 2015/03/12 08:30 JST (翻訳文掲載)

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(社説)辺野古移設 作業を止めて対話せよ

The number of people who become unhappy with Abenomics will surpass the number of people who become happy with Abenomics.
アベノミクスで不幸せになる人の数は、アベノミクスで幸せになる人の数を凌駕する。
Prime Minister Abe shouldn't be trying to change Japan to be such a boring country as that the money is most important. 
安倍首相には、日本をお金がすべてのつまらない国にして欲しくない。
Having a government that refuses to take the wishes of its people seriously is unfortunate for the entire public.
民意を重く受け止められない政府の存在は、国民全体にとっても不幸だ。
Having a government that can take the wishes of its people seriously is expected.
民意を重く受け止める政府を期待したい。
(srachai)

--The Asahi Shimbun, March 14
EDITORIAL: Paying no heed to Okinawa an issue that concerns us all
(社説)辺野古移設 作業を止めて対話せよ

The central government's decision to restart geological surveys in preparation for moving a U.S. military airbase to Nago, Okinawa Prefecture, prompted a concerned citizen to liken the drilling on the seafloor to “sticking a knife into Okinawa’s heart.”
「海の掘削は、沖縄の心にナイフを突き刺されたようなもの」。沖縄県名護市辺野古で、市民の一人はそう抗議した。

The government has resumed drilling the seabed to study the geological features of the area as part of a plan to relocate the U.S. Marine Corps Air Station Futenma from the crowded city of Ginowan to the rural Henoko district.
米軍普天間飛行場の移設に向け、政府が海底を掘って地質を調べるボーリング作業を再開した。

The surveys, which were suspended last summer, will be followed by land reclamation work that the government intends to start as early as this summer.
昨年夏に中断していたもので、この作業を経て今夏にも埋め立て工事に突き進む構えだ。

The resumption of the surveys is the first major move related to the Futenma relocation plan since Okinawa Governor Takeshi Onaga, who is opposed to the proposal, took office in December.
Onaga denounced the central government’s move, saying, “It is unforgivable that work resumed without an explanation to the Okinawan people.”
移設に反対している翁長雄志知事の就任後、初の大きな動きであり、知事は「県民に説明がない中で物事を進めるのは許せない」と反発した。

On the part of the government, Chief Cabinet Secretary Yoshihide Suga indicated that the Abe administration will maintain its hard-edged approach to the issue.
一方の政府では、菅官房長官が「法制に基づいて手続きを行っている。

“We are following procedures based on legal provisions,” Suga said at a March 12 news conference in Tokyo.
He said the central government is proceeding with the construction of the new airbase as a “matter of course.”
粛々と工事を進めるのは当然じゃないか」と強硬姿勢を崩さない。

Defense Minister Gen Nakatani also said, “I have no intention to seek a meeting (with Governor Onaga).”
The Abe administration and Okinawa are locked in an extraordinary confrontation.
中谷防衛相はきのう、「こちらから(知事に)会う考えはない」と発言し、異様な対立状態に陥っている。

Although former Okinawa Governor Hirokazu Nakaima approved the land reclamation off Henoko to build a new airfield, voters in Okinawa rejected his decision and replaced him in an election in December, making clear their opposition to the Futenma relocation plan.
確かに、仲井真弘多・前知事は埋め立てを承認した。だが、その判断に納得できない県民が選挙で知事を交代させ、移設反対の意思を明示したのだ。

In what can only be described as an irrationally obdurate attitude, the Abe administration has kept ignoring Onaga.
翁長知事を無視し続ける政府の姿勢は頑迷というほかない。

Further aggravating the confrontation between the central government and Okinawa Prefecture would be far from ideal in light of the relationship between the state and local governments and Japan’s security policy.
政府と沖縄県の対立をこじらせることは、国と地方の関係や、安全保障を考える上でも、決して望ましいことではない。

The U.S. military’s response to the new development has also been questionable.
米軍の対応もおかしい。

When the prefectural government sought permission to conduct inspections in the off-limits area to gauge whether the marine environment had been damaged on the seabed, the U.S. military declined the request, citing operational reasons.
海底の環境が損なわれた疑いがあるため、県が立ち入り禁止区域での調査許可を求めたが、米軍は「運用上の理由」で拒んだ。

But government-operated ships, including vessels of the Japan Coast Guard, frequently enter the area. Why does the U.S. military think only the prefectural government’s survey ships would cause trouble to its operations?
この海域では、海上保安庁など政府の船舶は往来している。なのになぜ、県の調査船だけが支障となるのか。

No wonder the prefectural government is distrustful of the U.S. military.
県が米軍に不信感を抱くのも無理はない。

The prefectural government decided to carry out an on-site inspection after the Okinawa Defense Bureau sank huge concrete blocks into the seabed at various locations outside areas where the prefectural government had given permission for rock reefs to be destroyed for the construction work. The sinking of concrete blocks raised concerns about damage to coral reefs.
県が調査することになったのは、沖縄防衛局が岩礁破砕の許可区域外に巨大なブロックをいくつも沈め、サンゴなどを壊した可能性があるからだ。

The areas on the periphery of reclaimed land, coral reefs and other elements of the marine environment should remain as they are even after the work is finished.
この海域は埋め立て予定地の周辺部で、工事完了後もサンゴ礁などはそのまま残る。

The prefectural government has good reason to take steps to protect fisheries resources and conserve the environment in these areas.
県が水産資源の保護策や環境保全策をとるのは当然だろう。

The waters off Henoko contain some of the few precious marine areas along the coasts of Okinawa that still boast an abundance of coral reefs.
ましてやこの海域は、沖縄の海岸の中でわずかに残った貴重なサンゴ礁の海。

Fabled dugongs live in these waters. Previously unknown crustacean species have been discovered in the area in recent years.
ジュゴンが回遊し、近年、新種の甲殻類なども相次いで見つかっている。

Onaga is calling on the central government to suspend the construction work in Henoko until a third-party committee set up by the prefecture finishes its task of assessing his predecessor’s permission for the work to go ahead.
翁長知事は、前知事の承認を検証する県の第三者委員会の審査が終わるまで、作業を停止するよう政府に求めている。

The Abe administration should accept Onaga's request and embark on serious efforts to mend its strained relations with the prefecture through dialogue.
ここは政府が提案を受け入れて作業を中止し、県との対話による関係修復に乗り出すべきだ。

Both the central government and U.S. military should avoid wounding further the hearts of the people in Okinawa, who have been suffering from the heavy burden of hosting U.S. military bases for many years.
政府も米軍も、長年、重い基地負担に苦しむ沖縄県民の心をこれ以上傷つけてはならない。

Having a government that refuses to take the wishes of its people seriously is unfortunate for the entire public.
民意を重く受け止められない政府の存在は、国民全体にとっても不幸だ。

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日独首脳会談 紛争解決へ「法の支配」強めよ

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Japan, Germany should work together to reinforce rule of law to settle rows
日独首脳会談 紛争解決へ「法の支配」強めよ

Pursuing peace and prosperity while respecting international order and rules — it is highly significant that Japan and Germany have agreed to join hands and perform their respective roles in achieving this goal.
国際秩序とルールを重んじ、平和と繁栄を追求する。そのために、日独両国が連携し、役割を果たす意義は大きい。
 
During a meeting with visiting German Chancellor Angela Merkel on Monday, Prime Minister Shinzo Abe emphasized the two countries will “cooperate closely as important partners sharing basic values.” Merkel responded by saying the two countries “share common values.”
ドイツのメルケル首相が来日し、安倍首相と会談した。安倍首相は「基本的価値を共有する重要なパートナーとして、緊密に協力したい」と強調した。メルケル首相は「日独両国は価値を共有する関係だ」と語った。

Abe and Merkel confirmed that the foreign ministries of their countries will hold regular consultative talks to find a peaceful solution to the Ukrainian issue. They also concurred that the two countries will call for Russia, which is in a position to influence pro-Russia armed groups, to play a constructive role in resolving the Ukrainian crisis.
両首脳は、ウクライナ情勢の平和的な解決へ、日独外務省が定期協議を行う方針を確認した。親ロシア派武装集団に影響力を持つロシアに対し、建設的役割を果たすよう求めることでも一致した。

The Group of Seven industrialized nations, including Japan and Germany, have ramped up economic sanctions against Moscow for Russia’s attempts to “change the status quo by use of force,” including its annexation of the Ukrainian territory of Crimea. Compared with the United States and Britain, which have taken a hard-line stance toward Moscow, Japan and Germany have taken a stand of drawing concessions from Russia through continued dialogue.
日独など先進7か国(G7)は、クリミア半島編入などのロシアの「力による現状変更」を認めず、経済制裁を強化してきた。米英などがロシアにより強硬なのに対して、日独は、ロシアとの対話を継続し、譲歩を促す立場である。

To realize a policy shift by Moscow, it is essential that the G-7 take both conciliatory and hard-line approaches in dealing with the country.
ロシアの方針転換の実現には、G7が硬軟両様でロシアに働きかけることが欠かせない。

This year’s G-7 summit will be held in Germany in June, with Japan to host it next year. As the chair countries of this and next year’s G-7 summits, Japan and Germany need to work together closely in coordinating the G-7’s strategy vis-a-vis Moscow to bring about more effective results.
G7首脳会議は6月にドイツで、来年は日本で開かれる。現在と次期の議長国が緊密に連携し、G7全体の戦略を調整し、より効果的なものにする必要がある。

Coordinating strategy

During their meeting, Abe and Merkel also agreed to bolster antiterrorism measures against such radical militant groups as the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant. International encirclement of such groups to stem the flow of combatants and funds to them must be tackled urgently. Japan and Germany should take the initiative in addressing this matter.
会談では、過激派組織「イスラム国」などのテロ対策で日独協力を強化することも合意した。戦闘員や資金の流入を阻止する国際包囲網の構築が急務だ。日独は、その取り組みを主導すべきだ。

With China’s increasing maritime presence in the East and South China Seas in mind, Abe briefed Merkel on the East Asian situation during the meeting.
安倍首相は会談で、中国の東・南シナ海での海洋進出を念頭に、東アジア情勢を説明した。

Merkel’s visit to Japan this time is the first in seven years. In the meantime, she visited China five times. This obviously shows that Germany attaches importance to expanding economic cooperation with China, which is its largest trading partner in Asia.
メルケル首相の来日は7年ぶりだ。この間、中国には5回訪れた。アジアにおける最大の貿易相手である中国との経済協力の拡充を重視しているのは明らかだ。

A huge Chinese market is very attractive for any foreign country. But there have been problems as China has insisted on self-righteous assertions on such issues as trade, investment and intellectual property rights.
巨大な中国市場は、各国にとって大きな魅力だ。一方で、中国は貿易、投資、知的財産権などに関して、独善的な主張が目立ち、様々なトラブルを起こしている。

Making China comply with international rules in such fields as maritime security is a common agenda for the world. Japan should deepen discussions on this matter with Germany and other countries concerned.
海洋安全保障を含め、中国に国際ルールを順守させることは各国共通の課題だ。日本は、ドイツなど関係国との議論を深めたい。

Referring to Germany’s historical perception of the past 70 years since the end of World War II in a post-summit news conference, Merkel said, “Summing up the past can be a prerequisite to reconciliation,” but she avoided referring to Japan-China and Japan-South Korea relations.
メルケル首相は会談後の記者会見で、ドイツ自身の戦後70年の歴史認識に関して「過去の総括が和解の前提となる」と述べた。日中・日韓関係への言及は避けた。

This year will see many diplomatic occasions in which historical perceptions of Japan and other countries attract attention. Japan — along with Germany, which was also a defeated nation in World War II — has pursued a pacifist path and contributed to world stability based on its reflections of the wartime past. It is essential for Japan to persistently disseminate this fact to the international community.
今年は、各国の歴史認識が注目される外交の機会が多い。日本は、同じ敗戦国のドイツと同様、先の大戦の反省を踏まえ、平和国家の道を歩み、世界の安定に貢献してきた。この事実を国際社会にきちんと発信することが肝要だ。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, March 10, 2015)

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米VSイスラエル 中東安定へ亀裂の修復を図れ

The Yomiuri Shimbun
For sake of stability in Middle East, U.S. and Israel should patch up ties
米VSイスラエル 中東安定へ亀裂の修復を図れ

A major rift has emerged between two nations that are longtime sworn friends regarding suspicions over Iran’s nuclear development program. This is an extraordinary situation.
イランの核開発疑惑を巡り、長年の盟友国が重大な対立に陥っている。異例の事態である。
 
At a time when nuclear negotiations between Iran and major powers including the United States, Russia and key European nations are coming into the homestretch, Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu has delivered a speech to the U.S. Congress in which he publicly slammed the potential agreement being discussed as a “very bad deal.”
イランと米欧露などによる核協議が大詰めを迎える中、イスラエルのネタニヤフ首相が米議会で演説し、協議中の合意案を「非常に悪い取引だ」と公然と批判した。

Elsewhere in his speech, Netanyahu said the “deal will not prevent Iran from developing nuclear weapons” and “we’re better off without it.” He insisted on the total abolition of Iran’s nuclear-related facilities. With an Israeli general election set for March 17, Netanyahu likely had political motivations for showcasing his hard-line stance toward Iran.
ネタニヤフ氏は「これでは核開発は阻止できない。ない方がいい」とも述べ、核関連施設の全廃を主張した。17日の総選挙に向け、イランへの強硬姿勢をアピールする政治的な狙いがあるのだろう。

We can describe this speech as only an unproductive action that has poured cold water on the efforts of the international community to seek a peaceful resolution to this nuclear problem.
核問題の平和的な解決を目指す国際社会の努力に水を差す、非生産的な言動と言うほかない。

Netanyahu’s visit to the United States came about through an invitation by House of Representatives Speaker John Boehner that bypassed the White House. Boehner and his Republican Party are skeptical about the Iran nuclear talks. In a sign of discontent over this process, U.S. President Barack Obama did not meet with Netanyahu.
ネタニヤフ氏訪米は、イラン核協議に懐疑的な共和党のベイナー下院議長が、政権の頭越しに実現させた。それへの反発もあり、オバマ大統領は会談しなかった。

That these splits between the United States and Israel have been laid so bare is a serious situation. We hope both sides can patch up their relations quickly to help prevent further instability in the Middle East, but little optimism is warranted. The fact that confrontation between the two main U.S. political parties is having a negative impact on U.S. diplomacy also cannot be overlooked.
両国の亀裂がここまで表面化したのは深刻な状況だ。中東の不安定化を避けるには早期修復が望ましいが、楽観できない。米国内の党派対立が外交に悪影響を及ぼしたことも、見過ごせない。

Tread carefully

In November 2013, Iran reached a “first-step” agreement with the United States, Russia and key European nations. Under this deal, Tehran agreed to halt the enrichment of uranium to a concentration of 20 percent and also suspend work on key components of a heavy-water reactor that could someday produce plutonium.
米欧露などとイランは一昨年11月、イランが濃縮度20%ウランの製造を停止し、プルトニウムを生産できる重水炉の建設も中断する「第1段階」措置で合意した。

Both sides are seeking to reach a “framework deal” by the end of March, and a final deal by the end of June. The main pillars of such agreements are recognizing that Iran still has the right to the peaceful use of nuclear power, and that sanctions against Iran will be lifted if it takes steps including reducing the number of centrifuges it operates.
今月末までに「枠組み合意」を、6月末に最終合意を目指している。イランに原子力平和利用の権利を認めつつ、遠心分離器の削減などに応じて、対イラン制裁を解除することが柱である。

Obama has less than two years left to serve in office. There is speculation that the president wants to make this nuclear deal part of his administration’s legacy.
残り任期が2年を切ったオバマ氏には、核合意を政権の「遺産」としたい思惑がうかがえる。

However, he should not be hasty in wrapping up the agreement.
The United States should demand a deal that is comprehensive and verifiable to prevent Iran’s nuclear development.
功を焦らず、イランの核開発を阻止するため、検証可能で包括的な合意を追求するべきだろう。

It also cannot be denied that Obama’s erratic diplomacy vis-a-vis the Middle East has invited this backlash from Israel.
オバマ氏の場当たり的な中東外交が、イスラエルの反発を招いたことも否定できない。

In recent years, Iran — the nation with the largest Shiite majority — has been strengthening its influence in other nations under Shiite leadership such as Iraq and Syria, as well as Lebanon and Yemen.
シーア派大国のイランは近年、同じシーア派政権下のイラク、シリアに加え、レバノンやイエメンでも影響力を強めている。

The United States and Iran share common concerns when it comes to mopping up operations against the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), a Sunni extremist organization.
スンニ派の過激派組織「イスラム国」の掃討作戦においても、米国は、イランと利害を共有する。

As a consequence, the Obama administration reached out to Iran, a nation with which the United States has not had diplomatic ties for 35 years.
このため、オバマ政権は、35年間も断交状態にあるイランに接近した。

It has been pointed out that both nations are in a joint struggle behind the scenes in operations against ISIL.
「イスラム国」掃討作戦では水面下の共闘も指摘される。

In some respects, Washington had no option but to approach Tehran. But for the sake of stability in the entire Middle East, it is essential that the United States also gives consideration to its allies in the region, such as Israel and Saudi Arabia.
米国のイラン接近は、やむを得ない面もあるが、中東全体の安定を考えれば、イスラエル、サウジアラビアなど同盟国への配慮は欠かせない。

Obama should do more to carefully explain this new strategy toward Iran and to gain greater support for it.
オバマ氏は、新たな対イラン戦略を丁寧に説明し、理解を得る努力を尽くすべきだ。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, March 8, 2015)

続きを読む

中国全人代開幕 安定成長へ軟着陸できるか

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Can China ensure a soft landing on stable economic growth?
中国全人代開幕 安定成長へ軟着陸できるか

Can China, the world’s second-largest economic power, adroitly bring years of high growth to a soft landing on more stable economic growth? The answer to this question will have a large impact on the future prospects of the global economy as well.
世界2位の経済大国・中国は、高成長から安定成長へうまく軟着陸できるのか。その成否は世界経済の行方にも大きな影響を与えよう。
 
The National People’s Congress, China’s equivalent of the Diet, has opened its annual meeting.
中国の国会にあたる全国人民代表大会が開幕した。

Premier Li Keqiang delivered the government work report, in which he announced a growth target for this year of about 7 percent, down from the previous goal of about 7.5 percent.
李克強首相は政府活動報告で、経済成長率の目標をこれまでの「7・5%前後」から「7%前後」に引き下げた。

China’s economy expanded 7.4 percent last year, falling short of the targeted growth rate. Some observers have estimated that — based on China’s electricity consumption, volume of goods shipped by rail and other factors — the actual figure might have been even lower.
昨年の成長率は、目標を下回る7・4%にとどまった。電力消費量や鉄道輸送量などから推計すると、実際の成長率はもっと低いとの見方もある。

In his report, Li said China’s “economic development has entered a ‘new normal’” whereby “a model of development that draws on high levels of investment and energy consumption and is heavily driven by quantitative expansion becomes difficult to sustain.”
李氏は報告で「経済発展は新常態(ニューノーマル)に入った」と述べた。「大規模投入、資源・エネルギーの高消費、数量の拡張に偏った発展パターンは、もはや続けられない」とも強調した。

The growth deceleration can be said to indicate China’s path to economic expansion — which has been powered by investment in projects centering on large-scale infrastructure construction — is nearing its limit.
成長の減速は、大規模なインフラ整備をはじめとした投資主導の成長路線が、限界に近づいていることを示していると言える。

As workers’ wages soar, dark clouds are appearing over the competitiveness of China’s exports and the nation’s appeal as the “world’s factory.”
労働者の賃金が高騰し、輸出競争力や「世界の工場」としての魅力にも陰りが見えている。

We can understand Beijing’s acceptance that a slower degree of growth is “normal” and its intention to make structural adjustments to the economy.
一定の減速を「常態」として容認し、経済構造の転換を図ろうという狙いは理解できる。

Mitigating uncertainty

Other issues Li addressed in his speech included a greater focus on the quality of economic growth, encouraging personal consumption and measures to prevent the spread of financial risks.
李氏は、課題として、成長の質の重視、個人消費の促進、金融リスクの拡大防止などを挙げた。

As China’s real estate market conditions have deteriorated, huge loans made to regional governments and other entities that have spearheaded land development are reportedly going bad. The impoverished state of regional cities is especially conspicuous. The government will be tested on how it plans to avoid social unrest.
不動産市況の悪化により、土地開発を主導してきた地方政府などへの巨額の融資が、不良債権化していると言われる。特に、地方都市の疲弊が目立つ。社会不安をどう回避するかが問われる。

China also needs to advance the consolidation and reorganization of its bloated state enterprises to spur the growth of private businesses.
肥大化した国有企業の整理・再編を進めることで、民間企業の成長を促すことも必要だ。

Pain will accompany reforms that drive a wedge into vested interests. It will not be easy to keep a lid on public dissatisfaction while swinging the big ax of reform. The administration of President Xi Jinping faces a difficult task in steering the nation through this challenge.
既得権益に切り込む改革は痛みが伴う。国民の不満を抑えながら、大なたを振るうのは、容易ではあるまい。習近平政権は、難しいかじ取りを迫られている。

Despite the economic slowdown, China’s defense budget was increased by more than 10 percent from the previous year. It has now swollen to about 3.4 times the size of Japan’s defense-related expenditure.
一方、経済減速にかかわらず、中国の国防予算は前年より10%以上増え、日本の防衛関係費の約3・4倍に膨らんだ。

Much of China’s spending focuses on strengthening its nuclear capabilities, as well as its air and sea forces for its maritime expansion and efforts to stand up against the United States.
海洋進出や米国への対抗をにらんだ海空軍と核戦力の増強が重点となる。

If other costs such as military-related research and development spending were included, the actual size of China’s defense budget would be significantly larger than the publicly announced figure. This opaque military expansion will only stoke a growing distrust of China.
研究開発費なども含めれば、実際の予算は公表分を大きく上回ろう。不透明な軍拡は、国際的な対中不信を増幅させるだけだ。

Li also touched on the upcoming 70th anniversary of the end of World War II. In his speech, Li said, “China will protect the fruits of victory in the war and the world’s fairness and justice.”
李氏は、戦後70年に関して「第2次大戦の勝利の成果と、世界の公平、正義を守る」と述べた。

Li probably wanted to emphasize that China will protect the global order as one of the “victor nations” in the war. However, is it not China itself that has laid down a challenge to the postwar order through its repeated military clashes with India and Vietnam?
「戦勝国」として世界秩序を守ると強調したいのだろうが、インドやベトナムとの武力衝突を繰り返し、戦後秩序に挑戦してきたのは、中国ではないか。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, March 6, 2015)

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(社説)政治とカネ 企業献金のもとを断て

--The Asahi Shimbun, March 4
EDITORIAL: Ban corporate donations to restore public’s trust in politics
(社説)政治とカネ 企業献金のもとを断て

Prime Minister Shinzo Abe and Democratic Party of Japan leader Katsuya Okada on March 3 joined a growing list of political heavyweights whose party branches received contributions from companies that were awarded government subsidies.
国の補助金を受けた企業から閣僚らが代表を務める政党支部への寄付が、相次いで発覚している。きのうは安倍首相や民主党の岡田代表らの党支部への寄付が明らかになった。

The ruling Liberal Democratic Party’s Yamaguchi prefectural No. 4 electorate branch, which Abe heads, was found to have received donations from five companies, including 620,000 yen ($5,180) from two companies that qualified for industry ministry subsidies in 2012 and 2013. Similar donations have been received by LDP branches led by other Cabinet ministers.
首相が代表の自民党山口県第4選挙区支部は、2012年と13年に経産省所管の補助金交付が決まった2社から計62万円など、複数の企業から寄付を受けていた。ほかの閣僚の党支部にも同じような寄付があった。

The DPJ branch headed by Okada was found to have accepted 240,000 yen in 2011 and another 240,000 yen in 2012 from a company whose subsidiary had been designated as a recipient of agriculture ministry subsidies.
一方、民主党の岡田代表の党支部は、農水省の補助金が子会社に交付決定された企業から、11年と12年に24万円ずつの寄付を受けていた。

Under the Political Fund Control Law, companies are prohibited from making political donations for one year from the date they were notified by the government that they were designated as recipients of government subsidies. But the law does not apply to subsidies that “by nature do not generate profit,” such as those for study and research and disaster relief.
政治資金規正法は、国から補助金などの交付決定を受けた企業は、通知の日から1年間は政治活動に関する寄付をしてはならないと定めている。ただ、試験研究や災害復旧など「性質上、利益を伴わない」補助金は除かれている。

And the law does not hold the recipients of the donations accountable if they were not aware that the donors were receiving government subsidies.
また、補助金のことを知らなければ、寄付を受ける側の責任は問われない。

The prime minister told the Lower House Budget Committee on March 3, “The donations in question include those about which the donor companies told my office quite clearly that the subsidies were of a nonprofitable nature.” Abe also said, “As for what I did not know, that’s the fact, and there is nothing more I can say about it.”
首相はきのうの衆院予算委員会で「指摘された企業からも『補助金は収益性を伴わないものだ』と明確に私の事務所に伝えられているものもある」と説明。また「そもそも知らなかったことについては、実際知らなかったわけだから、これ以上言いようがない」と語った。

He spoke and acted as if this matter was none of his concern.
まるでひとごとだ。

True, the law only forbids lawmakers from receiving donations if they are in full knowledge of the illegality of the act. But the money that changed hands amounted to hundreds of thousands of yen, and there are punitive provisions for donor companies.
確かに法には、違法な寄付と知りながら受けてはならないとある。だが、数十万円単位のカネのやりとりだ。企業側には罰則もある。

It is only natural to expect politicians to deal with donations with extreme care.
政治家が細心の注意を払うべきなのは当然ではないか。

And even with government subsidies that are deemed nonprofitable, determining their legitimacy should ultimately be left to the judiciary.
また、利益を伴わない補助金と見られても、違法でないかを最終的に判断するのは司法だ。

The law forbids government-subsidized companies from making political donations for a certain period to prevent any unexplained flow of money that can be used to establish a special relationship between government and business.
補助金対象の企業の献金を一定期間禁じているのは、国との間に特別な関係を築くことを狙った不明朗なカネの流れを防ぐためだ。

Should this waiting period be abolished, it would be tantamount to tacitly allowing government subsidies to be channeled to politicians’ war chests. これを認めたら補助金が政治家に還流することになりかねない。

Yet, politicians can escape responsibility by simply denying any knowledge.
それなのに政治家が「知らなかった」と言い通せばおとがめはなし。

The law must be immediately amended.
直ちに法改正されてしかるべきだ。

Corporate and industry group donations are inherently tricky by nature. If the donors expect “returns” on the money they give, that would be bribery of sorts. On the other hand, if the donor companies expect nothing in return for their donations, shareholders are bound to question why the donations are being made at all.
そもそも企業・団体献金には、見返りを求めれば賄賂性を帯び、求めなければその目的を株主らから問われるという矛盾がある。

The only way to fundamentally resolve all these problems is to ban corporate and industry group donations altogether.
こうした性格から生じる様々な問題を解消する根本的な対策は、やはり企業・団体献金を禁じることだ。

But the argument can also be made that if a ban is imposed, then donations can be given in the guise of personal contributions from corporate or industry group executives, and that would render the flow of money even harder to trace.
仮に禁じても、役員らの個人献金に化けてかえって不透明になってしまうとの指摘もある。

Still, unless drastic action is taken, the public’s trust in politics will only erode further.
しかし、まずは思い切った改善策をとらなければ、政治への信頼は失われるばかりだ。

And this is something the prime minister cannot just dismiss as none of his business.
ひとごとではない。

続きを読む
クリック募金^^
プロフィール
自己紹介・リンク

■近況

2009年の9月15日に脳梗塞を発症、右手が少し不自由になりました。
MRAで脳梗塞の部位を特定でき、素早い処置をとれたので大事に至りませんでした。
快復にむけてリハビリ中です。
(2011/01/01更新)

■自己紹介・リンク

[ はじめに ]
タイのスラチャイです。
英語学習に王道はありません。
毎日毎日の地道な努力の積み重ねが必要です。
スラチャイはNHKのラジオ英語会話で現在の英語力を身につけました。
一日僅か15分の学習でも数年間継続すれば相当な学習効果が期待できます。

[ 名前 ]
松井 清 (スラチャイ)

[ 略歴 ]
・福岡県出身
・国立高知大学卒業
・準大手建設会社に就職
・50歳で会社を早期退職
・99/10 タイ全土を旅行
・00/10 タイに移住
・03/07 カイちゃん誕生
・07/06 シーファーちゃん誕生
・現在タイ国コンケン在住

[ 座右の銘 ]
Slow and steady wins the race.
遅くとも着実な者が勝利する
(NHK基礎英語芹沢栄先生)

[ 学習の手引き ]
・音読して耳から英語を吸収
・Think in English.
・ネイティブ発音付辞書活用
・英英辞典を活用(英和も)
・翻訳和文で専門用語確認

[ English Newspapers ]
Yomiuri
Mainichi
Asahi
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Washington Post
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The Nations
Phuket Gazette

[ 英字新聞の英和対訳学習 ]
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英字新聞(毎日)
英字新聞(朝日)
英字新聞(朝日2)

[ スラチャイ編集の辞書 ]
タイ日辞書(改訂版)
日タイ辞書(改訂版)
ラオ日辞書
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seesaaサイト内リンク一覧:
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03 声をかけるとき
04 感謝の言葉と答え方
05 謝罪の言葉と答え方
06 聞き直すとき
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08 うまく言えないとき
09 一般的なあいづち
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03 声をかけるとき
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05 謝罪の言葉と答え方
06 聞き直すとき
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08 うまく言えないとき
09 一般的なあいづち
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11 強めのあいづち
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13 相手のことを尋ねるとき
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16 許可を求めるとき
17 説明してもらうとき
18 確認を求めるとき
19 状況を知りたいとき
20 値段の尋ね方と断り方
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22 待ってもらいたいとき
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24 その他

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第05番目の戒律
第06番目の戒律
第07番目の戒律
第08番目の戒律
第09番目の戒律
第10番目の戒律
第11番目の戒律
第12番目の戒律
第13番目の戒律
第14番目の戒律

14の戒律(テラワーダ仏教戒律)
サイト外HPリンク一覧:
14の戒律解説
第01番目の戒律
第02番目の戒律
第03番目の戒律
第04番目の戒律
第05番目の戒律
第06番目の戒律
第07番目の戒律
第08番目の戒律
第09番目の戒律
第10番目の戒律
第11番目の戒律
第12番目の戒律
第13番目の戒律
第14番目の戒律


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[ HPリンク ]
cocolog 家族のアルバム
fc2 家族のアルバム
初歩の日本語(タイ人学生向け)
タイの小学三年生数学学力テスト(国家試験)
タイ語、中国語、ビルマ語
Preliminary Japanese lessons for Thai students
旅行のタイ語学習サイト
ラオ日・日老辞書
妻はタイ人/タイの文化/タイの仏教戒律

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