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2015年01月

アウシュビッツ 解放70年から得る教訓の重さ

The Yomiuri Shimbun
70th anniversary of Auschwitz liberation a time for reflection
アウシュビッツ 解放70年から得る教訓の重さ

Seventy years have passed since the Auschwitz concentration camp, a symbol of the mass murder of Jews by Nazi Germany, was liberated in the final phase of World War II by the then Soviet Red Army.
ナチス・ドイツによるユダヤ人大量殺害の象徴であるアウシュビッツ強制収容所が第2次大戦末期、旧ソ連軍に解放されてから70年を迎えた。
 
A commemorative ceremony was held on Tuesday at the site of the former camp in southern Poland. Together with about 300 survivors, world leaders and state ministers of Western countries, including German President Joachim Gauck and French President Francois Hollande, attended the memorial to remember the victims.
ポーランド南部の現地では27日、記念式典が行われた。ガウク・ドイツ、オランド・フランス両大統領など欧米諸国の首脳・閣僚と約300人の元収容者らが出席し、犠牲者を追悼した。

The occasion has served as a venue for the world to reiterate the lesson to “Never allow the Holocaust to happen again,” on the 70th anniversary of the end of World War II.
戦後70年に「ホロコースト(大虐殺)を繰り返すな」という教訓を改めて確認する場となった。

Adopting an ideology of anti-Semitism, the Nazis embarked on the genocide of the Jewish people during the war. About 6 million Jews are believed to have been murdered by the regime. With its gas chamber, the concentration camp in Auschwitz can be described as a “killing factory” where 1.1 million prisoners, mostly Jews, died.
ナチスは、ユダヤ人に対する差別政策を取り、大戦中、組織的な抹殺に乗り出した。殺害されたユダヤ人は約600万人とされる。アウシュビッツは、ガス室による「殺人工場」と言え、ユダヤ人ら110万人が亡くなった。

The brutal act was a war crime without precedent and beyond description.
従来の戦争犯罪の域を超えた、言語を絶する残虐行為である。

During his speech at the German parliament, Gauck said, “Remembering the Holocaust remains a matter for every citizen of Germany.”
ガウク氏は独連邦議会演説で、「ホロコーストに思いをはせることは、全ドイツ国民にとって重要であり続ける」と強調した。

West Germany and then the unified Germany, on the basis of their deep soul-searching over the atrocities committed by the Nazis, made efforts to build respect for human rights and establish democracy, allowing the nation to regain solid ground within the international community.
西独、統一ドイツは、ナチスの蛮行への深い反省に基づき、人権尊重や民主主義の確立に努め、国際的地位を築いた。

Gauck’s remarks can be interpreted as a call for the German people to firmly maintain this basic stance.
ガウク氏の言葉は、この基本姿勢を今後も堅持しようという呼びかけだろう。

Reflecting on conflict today

There is still racial and religious conflict in the world today, and terrorist acts by radical groups are a frequent occurrence. It is quite regrettable that such incidents cast a shadow over the ceremony.
世界では今なお、民族、宗教に根ざす紛争や過激派のテロが頻発している。今回の記念式典にも影を落としたのは残念だ。

Vladimir Putin, president of Russia — which is at loggerheads with the West over the Ukraine crisis — did not attend the ceremony as he was not invited.
ウクライナ紛争を巡って米欧と対立するロシアのプーチン大統領は、招待されなかったことを理由に、式典を欠席した。

During his visit to the Middle East, Prime Minister Shinzo Abe made a speech at the Yad Vashem Holocaust Memorial in Jerusalem on Jan. 19. He vowed, “We declare our determination to never again allow such a tragedy to be repeated.” He also made clear Japan’s commitment to making active contributions to the peace and stability of the world.
安倍首相は中東歴訪中の19日、イスラエルのホロコースト記念館で演説した。「このような悲劇を二度と繰り返させない」との決意を表明し、「世界の平和と安定に貢献していく」と語った。

During his speech, Abe also noted the great deeds of Chiune Sugihara, then Japan’s vice consul in Lithuania, who issued at his own discretion transit visas to Japan for about 6,000 Jewish refugees fleeing Nazi persecution during World War II.
ナチスの迫害から逃れたユダヤ人約6000人に独断で日本通過ビザを発給し、命を救った外交官、杉原千畝の功績にも言及した。

Some media skeptics in the West have regarded Abe as a historical revisionist. In its repeated criticisms of Japan, China has compared the Nanjing Incident by the former Imperial Japanese Army to the Holocaust and viewed wartime Japan as being similar to Nazi Germany.
一部の欧米メディアは、安倍首相を「歴史修正主義者」と問題視する。中国は、ホロコーストと旧日本軍の南京事件を同列に扱い、ナチスとイメージをだぶらせて日本批判を繰り返す。

With his speech, Abe may also have intended to dispel misunderstanding on the part of Western countries and to counter China’s anti-Japan propaganda war by showing Japan’s stance of confronting history and recognizing the importance of lessons learned.
首相の演説には、歴史に正面から向き合い、その教訓を重視する姿勢を示すことで、欧米の誤解を正し、中国の宣伝戦に対抗する狙いもあったのだろう。

It is vital for Japan to convey to foreign countries its soul-searching over its past, its course in the postwar era as a peaceful nation and its clear message that it will strive to cooperate with the international community in the future.
日本は、過去への反省、戦後の平和国家としての歩み、そして将来にわたり、国際社会と協調するという明確なメッセージを海外に発信していくことが大切だ。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Jan. 29, 2015)

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社説:日本人人質殺害 許せない冷血の所業だ

January 26, 2015(Mainichi Japan)
Editorial: Japanese hostage situation utterly brutal
社説:日本人人質殺害 許せない冷血の所業だ

◇後藤さんの無事解放を

A photograph of what is purportedly the body of Haruna Yukawa, a hostage of what is believed to be the extremist Islamic State group, was released on the Internet on Jan. 24. The image is utterly brutal.
冷血の所業と言うしかない。イスラム過激派「イスラム国」とみられる組織の人質として殺害予告を受けていた湯川遥菜さんの遺体とされる写真が24日、インターネット上で公開された。

The militant group's other Japanese hostage, Kenji Goto, is seen holding the photograph, as a recording of his voice is played, saying, "Abe, you killed Haruna (Yukawa)."
もう一人の人質、後藤健二さんが遺体の写真を手に持って、「安倍(晋三首相)がハルナ(湯川さん)を殺した」との声明を読み上げ、新たな取引を日本政府に提示したのである。

According to the recording, Islamic State has changed the conditions for Goto's release. It is no longer demanding $200 million, but rather the release of a woman facing the death penalty in Jordan.
Islamic State is striking fear into the hearts of the Japanese people with a gory photo of the body and mocking Prime Minister Shinzo Abe's announcement to provide $200 million in non-military aid to Middle East countries fighting the militant group. It is now sitting back and watching Japan's response, waiting for the opportunity to get its "imprisoned sister" back. It is unforgivable. It is barbaric and insidious.
許せない、という言葉がこみ上げてくる。残酷で狡猾(こうかつ)である。むごたらしい遺体の写真で日本人を恐怖に陥れるとともに、中東で「イスラム国」と戦う国々に2億ドルの非軍事支援を表明した安倍首相をあざ笑い、日本の対応を高みの見物で見守りながら、虎視眈々(たんたん)と仲間(死刑囚)を奪還しようとしているのだ。

The death-row inmate was arrested for her involvement in terrorist bombings in the Jordanian capital of Amman in 2005. Because of the many casualties that resulted from the incident, she is not someone Jordanian authorities are willing to release easily. In addition, Jordan is part of a coalition of countries engaged in military operations against Islamic State, and there have been strong calls for the release of a Jordanian air force pilot who was captured by the Islamic State group when his plane went down during a mission.
この死刑囚は2005年、ヨルダンの首都アンマンの同時テロに関与して捕まった。多数の死傷者が出た事件だけに簡単には釈放できない人物だろう。それに加えてヨルダンは「イスラム国」と戦う有志国連合の一員であり、作戦中に墜落して「イスラム国」に拘束された空軍兵士の解放を求める声が強い。

To agree to a swap of Goto and the death-row inmate before bringing back a soldier from its own military forces would be an extremely difficult decision for Jordan. At the same time, the Abe administration's promise not to give in to terrorism while placing the utmost priority on human life is a challenging one to keep, and negotiations for Goto's release are expected to present serious challenges.
自国兵士を差し置いて後藤さんと女性死刑囚の交換解放に応じるのは、ヨルダンにとって苦しい選択だろう。安倍政権も「人命を最優先しつつテロリストには屈しない」という姿勢を貫く難しさがあり、解放交渉は難航必至の情勢だ。

There is also the risk that the kidnappers may change their minds and suddenly cut off hostage negotiations. The actual status of the negotiations is unknown. Under such circumstances, the government must take a realistic approach, making full use of all opportunities and personal networks toward the hostage's release.
しかも、誘拐組織の気が変われば直ちに交渉が打ち切られる危うさもある。交渉の実態も明らかにされていない。こうした状況下では、政府はあらゆる機会と人脈を生かし、現実的な対応によって人質解放を実現してほしいと言うしかない。

It is also necessary to accept the reality that Japan has become a target of terrorism, and implement all possible measures to prevent something like this from happening again. In the past, those who were taken hostage by Islamic State were primarily citizens of the coalition of countries involved in military action against the militant group, such as the U.S. and Britain. It is unusual for Japan, which has not participated in the military operations, to be targeted.
他方、テロの標的にされた現実を重く受け止め、再発防止の対策を講じなければならない。従来、「イスラム国」による人質事件は米英など有志国連合の国民が主な標的だった。軍事作戦に参加していない日本が狙われたのは異例である。

There has been a long-standing notion that Japan's ties with Arab countries are positive, making Japanese nationals unlikely targets of kidnappings and terrorism. There have been exceptions, such as the 1991 murder of University of Tsukuba professor Hitoshi Igarashi -- the Japanese translator of Salman Rushdie's novel, "The Satanic Verses" -- after Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini of Iran accused the book of blasphemy and issued a fatwa against all those involved in its publication. For the most part, however, there was little tension between Japan and the Muslim world.
昔から日本とアラブ諸国は関係が良好とのイメージがあり、日本人は誘拐やテロの対象になりにくいとされていた。1991年、イランのホメイニ師が作者らに死刑宣告を出した小説「悪魔の詩」の訳者、五十嵐一(ひとし)・筑波大助教授が殺された例はあるにせよ、概してイスラム教と日本の摩擦は生じにくかった。

However, as new generations came to power and Japan's image as an ally began to blur, especially since the 2000s, terrorist organizations stopped giving special consideration to Japan. Osama bin Laden, who orchestrated the 2001 terrorist attacks on the U.S., kept asking why Japan supported the U.S., after the latter had dropped atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Now, al-Qaida considers Japan a part of the "crusade" led by the U.S. and Europe.
ただ、世代交代が進む中で日本のイメージがぼやけ、特に2000年代に入ると、テロ組織が必ずしも日本人を特別扱いしなくなった節もある。01年の米同時多発テロを実行したテロ組織アルカイダの故ウサマ・ビンラディン容疑者は、日本はなぜ広島・長崎に原爆を落とした米国を支持するのかと問い続けた。アルカイダは日本を米欧と共闘する「十字軍」の一員とみなしている。
   
Among terrorist acts perpetrated by al-Qaida-related groups against Japanese nationals are the 2004 kidnapping and murder of a tourist in demanding the withdrawal of Japan's Self-Defense Forces from Samawah, Iraq, and the 2013 capture and killing of 10 workers at a natural gas plant in Algeria. Regardless, al-Qaida appears to have maintained a relatively restrained approach toward Japan.
アルカイダ系のテロとしては、04年にイラク・サマワからの自衛隊撤収を求めて日本人旅行者を誘拐、殺害した事件、13年にアルジェリアの天然ガス関連施設が襲われ、日本人10人が犠牲になった事件などが思い浮かぶが、それでもアルカイダは日本に対して、まだ抑制的な態度を保ってきたように思える。

◇平和的な中東外交貫け

Meanwhile, it is obvious that the Islamic State, which broke off from al-Qaida, is ruthless even toward Japanese nationals. We no longer live in a time when we can feel safe, just because we are Japanese. As the many existing terrorist organizations compete against each other in their radicalism and ability to shock, Japan has become a target of terrorism on par with the U.S. and European countries. It is important to consider, also, the possibility that being a peaceful country may make Japan even more vulnerable to attacks.
これに対し、アルカイダから離反した「イスラム国」が日本人であろうと容赦しないのは明らかだ。昔のように日本人は安全と思える時代ではない。林立するテロ組織がテロの過激さと衝撃度を競う今日、日本は既に欧米に匹敵するテロの標的であり、平和路線を志向する国だけに狙われやすいかもしれない、と考えてみる必要もありそうだ。

That does not, however, mean that Japan should change its stance. The extremists are the ones who are misinformed. Japan has long faced up to various Middle East issues, including Arab-Israeli conflicts, with an impartial attitude on an issue-by-issue basis. The capacity to take a peaceful, fair and impartial approach to problems is Japan's greatest asset. We must not lose our footing in face of a hostage's murder, and instead embrace what we have cultivated over the years.
かといって日本の姿勢を変える必要はない。勝手に誤解しているのは過激派の方だ。日本は長年にわたるアラブ・イスラエル紛争も含めて中東の諸問題に是々非々で臨んできた。平和的で「公平、公正」な対応を取れることこそ日本の無形の財産だ。人質殺害に殊更浮足立つことなく、長い歳月をかけて培ってきたものを大事にしなければならない。

Soon after the shootings at the Paris offices of satirical newspaper Charlie Hebdo, French President Francois Hollande declared that the attack had nothing to do with Islam. He likely feared that the actions of several terrorists would spawn prejudice and hatred toward the 1.6 billion Muslims around the world, and lead to serious divisions in society.
パリで新聞社襲撃事件が起きた時、オランド仏大統領は「事件はイスラム教とは関係がない」と早々と宣言した。数人のテロリストの行為が世界16億人のイスラム教徒への偏見や憎しみを生み、社会の分断につながることを恐れたのだろう。

In the Japanese hostage case, as with the Paris attacks, we must think seriously about the reality that a barbaric organization is proliferating in the name of Islam and about the U.S.'s responsibility for the current state of affairs.
今回の事件にも同じことが言えるが、イスラムに名を借りた野蛮な組織が拡散している現実をどうするか、米国の責任も含めて真剣に考える必要がある。

 As the administration of President George W. Bush sank further and further into a quagmire in Afghanistan and Iraq, terrorist organizations spread from the Middle East to the African continent.
ブッシュ政権がアフガニスタン、イラクで泥沼にはまり込む中、テロ組織は中東からアフリカなどに拡散した。

Hoping to close the curtains on the two wars, the Obama administration is cautious about its involvement in various Middle East issues, and has declared that the U.S. is no longer the policeman of the world.
二つの戦争の幕引きを優先するオバマ政権は中東の諸問題に及び腰で、「米国は世界の警察官ではない」と明言した。

This approach has had militants reacting with glee, and has most certainly been a major factor in the Islamic State group's expansion.
こうした姿勢が過激派をほくそ笑ませ、「イスラム国」が膨張する大きな要因となったのは確かだろう。

It is time the world learned from the mistakes of the "war against terrorism" since the Bush administration, and put its wisest minds together to come up with ways to prevent terrorism.
ブッシュ政権以来の「テロとの戦争」の反省を踏まえつつ、世界中がテロ防止に知恵を絞る時だ。

But first, we must secure Goto's release.
まずは後藤さんを確実に解放したい。

毎日新聞 2015年01月26日 02時30分

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年金給付水準 非正規や将来世代の改善図れ

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Pension benefit reform must consider non-regular workers, future generations
年金給付水準 非正規や将来世代の改善図れ

Reform must be expedited to minimize declines in pension benefit levels expected in the future, with the aim of enhancing the sustainability of the nation’s social security system.
制度の持続可能性を高め、将来の年金水準の低下を緩和するため、改革を急がねばならない。
 
An advisory council of the Health, Labor and Welfare Ministry has worked out a report explaining specifics concerning the government-envisaged pension system reform.
厚生労働省の審議会が年金制度改革の具体的内容を示した報告書をまとめた。

The report centers on steps to adjust benefit levels, the future effects of which were confirmed in pension finance studies the government announced in June last year, including measures to beef up arrangements to rein in pension benefit payments.
給付抑制を図る仕組みの強化など、昨年6月に公表された年金財政検証で将来の給付水準改善の効果が確認されたものが中心だ。

To ensure the stability of the finances of the government-run pension system, what is referred to as “automatic adjustment of benefits based on macroeconomic indexation” has been introduced to the current social security system for the purpose of lowering benefit levels automatically in accordance with the rates of declines in the birthrate and increases in the number of the elderly. This is aimed at curbing benefit payments by making increases in pension benefits fall below rises in such yardsticks as per-capita wage growth and price rises.
現行制度は、年金財政の安定化のため、少子高齢化の進み具合に応じて自動的に給付水準を引き下げる「マクロ経済スライド」を導入している。賃金や物価の上昇分より年金の増額を小幅にとどめ、給付を抑制する仕組みだ。

The problem is that the implementation of this mechanism has been limited at a time of deflation, in which prices and wages decline, and when their growth rates are significantly low. The limitations were aimed at protecting the living conditions of the elderly, but they have resulted in delays in curbing benefit payments.
問題は、物価や賃金が下がるデフレや上昇率が低い際の実施が制限されている点だ。高齢者の生活に配慮したものだが、結果として、給付抑制の遅れを招いた。

If the current high average pension benefits for the elderly are left unchanged, funds for financing pension payments for the future generations are bound to shrink, a situation that would make it inevitable to slash benefit levels. The current benefit payment system should be reviewed for thorough implementation of the indexation formula.
今の高齢者への給付が高止まりしたままでは、将来世代の年金財源が減り、給付水準が低下する。経済動向にかかわらず、完全実施するよう見直すべきである。

The latest report rightly pointed out the need for “best possible efforts to prevent the indexation formula from being postponed” in order to curb benefit payments. This will likely bring adverse reactions from the elderly, while some in the ruling camp are wary of cutting back on the benefits, but the task of reviewing the benefit payment system cannot be left unaddressed if pension funds for future generations are to be secured.
報告書が、給付抑制について「極力先送りされない工夫」を求めたのは、もっともだ。高齢者の反発が予想され、与党内に慎重論もあるが、将来世代の年金を守るためには、避けて通れない。

Bigger burden, fatter benefits

The report has also noted the need to encourage non-regular employees to seek coverage by the kosei nenkin company workers’ pension plan.
報告書は非正規労働者の厚生年金加入を進める方針も示した。

The current kosei nenkin plan has been focusing on regular employees. Part-timers and other non-regular employees have mostly been excluded from corporate pension plan coverage. Non-regular employees qualify to receive only a basic pension in their old age, which is around a maximum of ¥60,000 per month. With non-regular workers continuing to increase, there are fears the number of low-benefit people will swell in the future.
現行の厚生年金は、正社員が中心だ。パートなどの多くが除外され、老後は満額でも月6万円程度の基礎年金しかもらえない。非正規労働者の増加に伴い、将来、低年金者が続出する恐れがある。

Effective from October 2016, coverage by kosei nenkin is to be expanded to include “employees working 20 hours or more a week” from the current “30 hours or more.” Because of opposition from the distribution industry sector, in which many non-regular workers are employed, the number of people to be covered under the new requirements is estimated at no more than 250,000, as a number of conditions such as non-regular workers’ monthly income and the scale of the company they work for have been included in eligibility.
2016年10月から、対象拡大のため、加入基準が「労働時間が週30時間以上」から「週20時間以上」に緩和される。だが、パートの多い流通業界などの反対で、月収や企業規模に条件がつき、新たな加入者は25万人に過ぎない。

Boosting pension benefits for non-regular workers is urgently needed, and expansion of coverage for the kosei nenkin plan is indispensable. This task must be carried forward steadily while paying due attention to business conditions of small and medium-size businesses.
非正規労働者の年金の充実は急務である。さらなる対象拡大が欠かせない。中小企業の経営に配慮しつつ、着実に進めるべきだ。

Regarding the duration of basic pension premium payments, the report said the idea of extending the current payment period of 40 years to 45 years for full pension qualification should be considered “a matter of course” in light of rises in life expectancy. The higher the burden of premium payments, the larger the pension benefits.
基礎年金の保険料納付期間については、寿命の延びに対応し、今の40年間から45年間に延長することが「自然の流れ」とした。負担が増える分、年金額も増える。

In a hyper-aging society, it is imperative that an increasing number of people work as long as possible to prop up society, the national economy and the social security system. Doing so, they will be able to help improve pension benefits for future generations.
超高齢社会では、より多くの人が、できるだけ長く働き、社会・経済や社会保障制度の支え手となることが重要だ。将来世代の給付水準の改善にも役立つ。

The problem, however, is how to secure funding sources: Half of basic pension benefits are funded by tax revenues. Discussions should therefore be conducted about not only the need to implement the hike in the consumption tax rate to 10 percent without fail, but also the need to increase the burden further even after the consumption tax hike.
問題は財源である。基礎年金の半分は税金で賄われる。消費税率10%への引き上げの確実な実施にとどまらず、その先の負担増も見据えた議論が求められる。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Jan. 25, 2015)

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インフル猛威 こまめな手洗いで感染予防を

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Prevent flu by washing hands frequently, avoiding crowded places
インフル猛威 こまめな手洗いで感染予防を

Influenza is raging through the nation.
インフルエンザが猛威を振るっている。

The average number of flu patients at regularly surveyed medical institutions rose to 33.28 in the reporting week from Jan. 5 to Jan. 11, topping the alert level of 30 per institute. The average number exceeded the alert level three weeks earlier than last winter.
今月5~11日の患者数は、1医療機関当たりの平均で33・28人に上り、警報レベルの30人を超えた。昨季より3週間早い。

The epidemic may spread further and the number of flu patients may exceed that of a regular year. We should take thorough preventive measures.
流行はさらに拡大し、患者数が例年より多くなる可能性がある。予防を徹底したい。

A flu virus is transmitted from person to person by droplets from coughing or sneezing. It multiplies in the throat and the lungs, and flu symptoms appear following a latency period of about two days. Unlike a common cold, a flu patient may abruptly run a high fever of over 38 C and suffer such symptoms as a headache and overall muscle pain.
インフルエンザは、咳せきやくしゃみなどの飛沫ひまつを介して感染する。喉や肺でウイルスが増え、2日程度の潜伏期間の後に発症する。一般の風邪と異なり、急に38度以上の高熱を発し、頭痛、全身の筋肉痛といった症状が表れる。

Day-to-day precautions are most important in warding off infection.
感染予防には、日頃の心がけが何より重要だ。

These steps include avoiding crowded places and frequent hand-washing. We can also build up our resistance by getting enough sleep and paying attention to what we eat. A humidifier will also help us keep the mucus in our respiratory tract moist, which helps maintain our defenses.
人混みを避け、こまめに手を洗う。睡眠や食事に気を付けて、抵抗力を高める。加湿器も、気道の粘膜の湿気を保ち、防御機能を維持するのに役立つ。

Immunization will prevent the flu from becoming severe, the effect lasting about half a year. However, it cannot completely prevent a person from becoming infected and developing flu symptoms. We must not be overconfident.
予防接種は重症化を防ぎ、効果が半年程度続くが、感染や発症を完全に抑えることはできない。過信は禁物である。

Of the viruses detected in the patients this season, most were the type-A Hong Kong strain (H3N2). So far no virus has been found in this strain that would be resistant to an anti-influenza drug.
今季検出されたウイルスのほとんどが、A香港型(H3N2型)だ。この型では、抗インフルエンザ薬が効かない耐性ウイルスは、今のところ見つかっていない。

It is best to see a doctor immediately after experiencing such symptoms as chills. By taking prescribed drugs and getting a lot of rest, flu patients usually get well within a few days.
悪寒などの症状が出たら、早めの受診が望ましい。薬を服用し、休養に努めれば、多くの場合、数日で回復する。

Elderly people and those with chronic diseases particularly need to take precautions against the flu.
特に用心せねばならないのは、高齢者や持病のある人だ。

Kids need special attention

The type-A Hong Kong strain has a relatively high probability of causing patients to also develop pneumonia through a bacterial infection. Special attention is also needed so that children do not develop brain disorders from this type of flu.
H3N2型は、細菌感染による肺炎を併発するリスクが比較的高い。子どもの脳症にも要注意である。

If a child shows signs of gasping or convulsions, it is vital to take them to the hospital immediately.
呼吸が苦しそうになったり、痙攣けいれんが起きたりしたら、すぐに病院に連れて行くことが大切だ。

Pneumococcal vaccine is said to be effective in preventing pneumonia. Since last year, the government has been subsidizing part of the vaccination expenses for those aged 65 or older.
肺炎予防には、肺炎球菌ワクチンが有効とされる。政府は、65歳以上を対象に、昨年から接種費用の一部を助成している。

As many of the people who died as a result of the flu were found to have also developed pneumonia, elderly people should be encouraged to get vaccinated.
インフルエンザが引き金となった死亡例の多くは、肺炎を併発しているだけに、高齢者の接種を促したい。

Group infections at such places as nursing care facilities have occurred this season, too, resulting in the deaths of some elderly people. They are believed to have been infected with the flu by visitors or employees at the facilities. These facilities may need to take such measures as limiting the number of visitors during an epidemic period.
今季も介護施設などで集団感染が発生し、高齢者が死亡している。来訪者や職員からの感染が考えられる。施設側には、流行期に見舞客を制限するといった対応が求められるだろう。

Since early this year, there has been a marked increase in the number of those flu patients in their 20s to 40s, people in the prime of their working life. In the case of adult patients, they are believed to emit the virus for about five days after their symptoms appear, making it highly advisable for them to refrain from going out during this period.
年明けから、働き盛りの20~40歳代の患者の増加が目立つ。大人の場合、発症から5日間程度はウイルスを排出しているため、外出を控える必要がある。

Even if people may have to go out to work, they must not force themselves to do so. Such actions are likely to spread the infection.
仕事があるからといって、無理に出勤してはいけない。感染を広げてしまう恐れがある。

For flu patients to get a good rest at home, it is vital for workplaces to show their understanding of employees’ physical conditions.
患者が十分に休むためには、職場の理解が欠かせない。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Jan. 19, 2015)

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社説:表現すること 他者を尊重する心も

January 16, 2015(Mainichi Japan)
Editorial: Respect for others is important in freedom of expression
社説:表現すること 他者を尊重する心も

A deadly terrorist attack on the French weekly Charlie Hebdo has sparked controversy over whether its publication of caricatures of the Muslim Prophet Muhammad falls within the bounds of freedom of expression or constitutes profanation. One cannot help but wonder whether these two matters are irreconcilable. It is necessary to pursue a society in which people with different values, such as religions, can coexist while respecting freedom of expression.
フランスの週刊紙「シャルリーエブド」への襲撃事件をきっかけに、表現の自由か宗教への冒とくか、という議論が起きている。だが、この二つは果たして、相いれぬものだろうか。表現の自由を守りつつ、宗教の違いなど価値観を異にする者が共存できる社会のありようを模索することこそ、必要なはずだ。

Charlie Hebdo has continued to publish caricatures of the prophet despite criticism that such satires are provocative. The magazine carried a caricature of the prophet in its latest issue published after the attack. Some Western media ran a photo of the caricature to express their support for Charlie Hebdo while others chose not to publish it in view of religious sensibilities. Japanese newspapers were split over their response, with some of them including the Mainichi Shimbun choosing not to publish a photo of the caricature and others running such an image.
シャルリー紙はこれまで、挑発的と批判されながらも、イスラム教の預言者ムハンマドの風刺画の掲載を続けてきた。事件後の最新号にも、ムハンマドの風刺画を掲載した。欧米では連帯の表明としてこれを転載したメディアもあれば、宗教感情を害するとして不掲載のメディアもあった。日本の全国紙も、毎日新聞を含む掲載見送りの新聞と、掲載した新聞とに対応が分かれた。

One caricaturist within Charlie Hebdo said journalism should not give in to violence saying, "There are no restrictions on or conditions for freedom of expression." The idea is based on a value of respecting freedom of expression that French people have maintained since the French Revolution, and is likely to be supported by many.
それぞれに、表現の自由をめぐる思いがある。シャルリー紙の風刺画家の一人は「表現の自由は条件や制限がついたものではない」として、暴力には屈しない姿勢を強調した。それは、フランス革命以来、表現の自由を何より大切にするフランスの文化や価値観に基づくものであり、理解する人もいるだろう。

We are of the view that freedom of speech is a principle that forms the basis of democracy and must be respected to the maximum extent. Nobody should be allowed to resort to violence to criticize or protest against free speech. What should be criticized in the latest incident is extremism in which terrorists attempted to suppress freedom of expression by violence.
私たちも、言論や表現の自由は民主主義の根幹をなす大事な理念であって、最大限尊重されなければならないと考える。言論への反発や抗議は、暴力という手段で行うべきではない。ましてや、他者を殺す権利は誰にもない。今回の事件で非難されるのは、暴力で表現を圧殺しようとした過激思想の方である。

However, denouncing violence in the press and how to exercise freedom of expression should be considered separately. There were many participants in an anti-terror demonstration march in Paris who apparently thought that repeatedly making fun of a certain religion is excessive while admitting that freedom of expression must be respected. It is worrisome that Charlie Hebdo continues to publish caricatures, which could be taken as provocation, while attention is focused on how to ensure Europe and Islamic society can peacefully coexist. This could trigger further clashes.
ただ、言論への暴力に反対することと、表現の自由のあり方は、分けて考えるべきではないか。反テロ行進に参加した人の中には、表現の自由は大切だが宗教への度重なるからかいは行きすぎだ、と受け止める人も少なくなかっただろう。欧州とイスラム社会の共存が問われる中、あえて挑発ととられかねない風刺画の掲載を続けることが、新たな衝突につながることを危惧する。

Freedom of expression should be protected to achieve a society in which diverse values are respected. To that end, it is important for members of society to respect not only their own values but also other people's values. If expressions that offend and discriminate against others were to be permitted without limits, society could lose diversity and tolerance, and even allow those in power to intervene in the press.
表現の自由は、多様な価値観を尊重しあう社会のためにこそ、守られるべきものであるはずだ。それには自分の価値観と同様に、他者の価値観も尊重することが大切である。他者の心情を傷つけ、差別する表現が無制限に許されるようになっては、社会はむしろ、多様さと寛容さを失い、場合によっては表現への権力の介入を招くことにもなりかねない。

In Japan, hate speech that fuels discrimination against and rejects certain ethnic groups has emerged as a serious social problem. Repeating speech that insults and defames other people is not worthy of being called freedom of speech. It is important to keep in mind that expression requires moderation and conscience and that those who exercise their freedom of speech must take responsibility for what they say.
日本でも、特定の民族差別をあおり、排斥するヘイトスピーチ(憎悪表現)の問題がある。他者への配慮を欠き、侮辱・中傷にあたる言動を繰り返すことは、表現の自由の名に値しない。表現には、節度や良識の裏付け、行使する側の責任も伴うことを、改めて自覚したい。

毎日新聞 2015年01月16日 02時40分

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介護報酬削減 職員の待遇改善と両立させよ

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Balance nursing care fee changes with better conditions for workers
介護報酬削減 職員の待遇改善と両立させよ

To maintain the nation’s social security system in a rapidly aging society, it is vital to curb ever-soaring nursing care expenses.
超高齢社会で社会保障制度を維持するには、膨張する介護費の伸びの抑制が欠かせない。
 
The government has decided to cut nursing care service fees under public nursing care insurance by 2.27 percent overall, starting in fiscal 2015. The move is the first downward revision in fees in nine years and the second largest cut on record following reductions of 2.3 percent in fiscal 2003.
政府は、介護保険サービスの公定価格である介護報酬を2015年度から全体で2・27%引き下げることを決めた。9年ぶりのマイナス改定だ。過去最大だった03年度の2・3%に次ぐ下げ幅になる。

Nursing care fees are paid to nursing care providers in compensation for the services provided under the public insurance system.
介護報酬は、提供したサービスの対価として、介護保険から事業者に支払われる。

The total expenses of the nursing care insurance program, which stood at ¥3.6 trillion in fiscal 2000, when the system started, reached ¥10 trillion in fiscal 2014. The expenses are expected to double within the next 10 years.
スタート時の00年度に3・6兆円だった介護保険の総費用は、14年度には10兆円に達した。今後10年で倍増する見込みだ。

With a 1 percent cut in nursing care fees, total expenses are calculated to be trimmed by ¥100 billion a year. As the planned hike in the consumption tax rate to 10 percent has been postponed by a year and a half and the task of securing revenue sources for social security programs has consequently been delayed, the government will inevitably cut nursing care fees to curb overall expenditures.
介護報酬を1%下げれば、総費用が年1000億円減るとされる。消費税率10%への引き上げが先送りされ、社会保障の財源確保が遅れる中、歳出抑制のために報酬引き下げはやむを得まい。

Meanwhile, the planned cutback will not only ease the government’s fiscal burdens, but also reduce insurance premiums paid by insured and service users.
引き下げにより、財政負担だけでなく、加入者には支払う保険料が軽減されるメリットもある。

The Finance Ministry had originally demanded that nursing care fees be cut by about 4 percent. But should the business conditions of nursing care providers markedly deteriorate, they may have to lower the quality of their services.
財務省は4%程度の引き下げを求めていた。ただ、事業者の経営が極端に悪化すればサービスの低下を招きかねない。

Serious manpower shortage

The latest revision can be construed as one resulting from the government taking into account both its fiscal condition and the business operations of service providers.
今回の改定率は、財政状況と事業経営の双方に配慮した結果と言えよう。

With regards to better working conditions for nursing care workers, the government will allot extra fees to nursing care benefits for providers that deal with the issue systematically.
一方、介護職員の待遇改善に関しては、計画的に取り組む事業者への加算を拡充する。

Manpower shortages have reached serious levels at workplaces of nursing care services, primarily stemming from low salaries. The average monthly wage for nursing care workers is ¥220,000, which is ¥100,000 less than the average across all industries. How appropriate, then, that the government has set aside extra outlays to raise the monthly average wage for nursing care workers by about ¥12,000.
介護現場では人手不足が深刻化している。最大の原因は待遇の低さだ。平均賃金は月22万円で、全産業平均より10万円も少ない。賃金を月1万2000円程度アップできるよう、別枠で費用を確保したのは適切な措置である。

To ensure the extra outlays will be reflected in wage hikes, public administrators must be adamant in making regular inspections.
加算分が確実に賃金アップに反映されるよう、行政の厳格なチェックが必要だ。

In fiscal 2025, when members of the baby-boomer generation will be 75 or older, projections indicate the need to increase the number of nursing care workers by 1 million. Nursing care providers need to make great strides to improve the working conditions for nursing care workers.
団塊の世代が75歳以上になる25年度には、介護職員を今より100万人増やす必要があるとの推計もある。事業者には、さらなる処遇改善の努力が求められる。

The Health, Labor and Welfare Ministry will decide on fees by type for nursing care services in the days ahead. The ministry is planning to increase rewards for at-home services supporting those requiring high or moderate levels of nursing care, as well as at-home services that assist elderly citizens with dementia.
厚生労働省は今後、個別サービスごとの価格を決める。介護の必要性が高い中重度者や認知症高齢者向けの在宅サービスなどを手厚くする方向だ。

Meanwhile, the government will drastically cut service fees for special elderly homes providing round-the-clock nursing care because operators of such facilities are said to have amassed profits averaging ¥300 million. There are said to be not a few of those operators that have neglected to improve their facilities and working conditions for their employees.
特別養護老人ホームは、大幅減額になる。平均3億円もの利益を蓄えていることが背景にある。設備や職員の待遇の改善を怠っている施設も少なくない。

Financial conditions differ among service operators. The government would cause more harm than good with these across-the-board cuts in fees if operators that had been striving to improve their services end up in financial hardship.
経営状況は施設ごとに異なる。報酬の一律カットで、サービス向上に努めてきた施設が経営難に陥っては本末転倒だ。

The ministry needs to work out a framework that accordingly rewards providers offering good services by, for instance, finding ways to enhance the fees paid to them.
報酬の加算方法を工夫するなど、良質な事業者が報われる仕組みにすることが重要である。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Jan. 14, 2015)

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安倍外交と安保 抑止力強化へ万全の法整備を

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Govt must develop security legislation to enhance Japan’s deterrence effort
安倍外交と安保 抑止力強化へ万全の法整備を

◆戦略的連携で国益を追求したい◆

The security environment of Japan has been made increasingly difficult in recent years because of such factors as China’s military buildup and maritime expansion and North Korea’s development of nuclear weapons and missiles.
中国の軍備増強や海洋進出、北朝鮮の核・ミサイル開発などで、日本の安全保障環境は近年、厳しさを増している。

China has put emphasis on enhancement of its maritime military power.
中国が重視するのが海上戦力の強化だ。

According to the International Institute for Strategic Studies in Britain, and other entities, the Chinese military has 70 major surface warships while the U.S. 7th Fleet, deployed in waters around Guam and Japan, has only about 10. With warships of the Maritime Self-Defense Force and the South Korean Navy, the U.S. side can manage to keep its numerical advantage over the Chinese.
英国際戦略研究所などによると、主要な水上戦闘艦は中国軍70隻に対し、日本とグアムに展開する米軍第7艦隊は10隻程度にとどまる。自衛隊と韓国軍を加え、ようやく数的優位を保っている。

Meanwhile, North Korea reportedly has been successful in extending the range of its ballistic missiles, improving their accuracy and miniaturizing nuclear weapons. If Pyongyang succeeds in making nuclear weapons small enough to be mounted on missiles, their threat will become even more serious.
北朝鮮は、弾道ミサイルの長射程化や精度向上を図り、核の小型化も進展させたとされる。核のミサイル搭載が可能になれば、その脅威は一段と深刻になる。

Collective self-defense right
◆集団的自衛権を有効に◆

Prime Minister Shinzo Abe’s government in July last year endorsed a new constitutional interpretation, which allows the nation to exercise its right of collective self-defense in a limited way, with the aim of strengthening the Japan-U.S. alliance and its deterrent power.
安倍政権が昨年7月、集団的自衛権の行使を限定容認する新見解を決めたのは、日米同盟を強化し、抑止力を高めるのが目的だ。

During the ordinary Diet session to be convened later this month, bills to revise the Self-Defense Forces Law and the law on the nation’s response to a foreign armed attack must be approved to ensure the viability of the government’s new constitutional interpretation.
今月下旬召集の通常国会で、自衛隊法や武力攻撃事態法の改正案などを成立させ、新見解の実効性を確保しなければならない。

Under the new constitutional interpretation, the SDF is assumed to protect U.S. military vessels carrying Japanese nationals or engaging in missile defense.
邦人輸送やミサイル防衛に従事する米軍艦船を自衛隊が防護することなどが想定される。

It is also vital for Japan, which has limited natural resources, to secure the safety of sea-lanes leading to its crude oil supply sources in the Middle East. Geographical restrictions should not be made in exercising the nation’s right of collective self-defense to enable MSDF ships to sweep for mines in the Hormuz Strait and other waters.
資源の乏しい日本にとって、原油の供給源である中東に至る海上交通路の安全確保は死活的に重要だ。ホルムズ海峡などで機雷掃海を行えるよう、集団的自衛権の行使には、地理的な制約を設けるべきではあるまい。

The government is planning to revise legal procedures to speed up the issuance of an order for the MSDF to take seaborne policing action, so that situations in a security gray area — such as occupation of a remote island by an armed group — could be dealt with more quickly.
政府は、武装集団による離島占拠などのグレーゾーン事態に対処するため、自衛隊の海上警備行動の手続きを迅速化する方針だ。

We hope the government and the ruling coalition parties will have thorough discussions on what legislation would be most effective to enable the nation to deal with situations ranging from peacetime to an emergency situation in a seamless manner.
平時から有事まで切れ目ない対処を可能にするには、どんな法制度が最も効果的か。政府・与党は議論を尽くしてもらいたい。

Revise defense guidelines
◆防衛指針の改定を急げ◆

The proliferation of weapons of mass-destruction and terrorism, done with the progress of military technology, have made it impossible for any one nation to protect its peace single-handedly.
大量破壊兵器やテロの拡散、軍事技術の進展で、どの国も一国だけでは平和を維持できない。

The government’s new constitutional interpretation enables the SDF to provide logistic support, such as supply and transportation missions for troops of other nations if they are not in combat zones. To make more flexible responses possible, the government should seriously consider making a permanent and comprehensive law on the dispatch of SDF units to other countries.
新見解により、戦闘現場以外では、自衛隊による他国部隊への補給、輸送など後方支援が可能になる。より機動的な対応のため、自衛隊の海外派遣に関する包括的な恒久法を真剣に検討すべきだ。

Along with the development of the security legislation, the Guidelines for Japan-U.S. Defense Cooperation that defines roles of Japanese and U.S. forces should be revised quickly.
安保法制の整備に合わせて、自衛隊と米軍の役割分担などを定めた日米防衛協力の指針(ガイドライン)の改定も急ぎたい。

The relocation of the U.S. Marine Corps’ Futenma Air Station to Henoko in Nago, Okinawa Prefecture, could be the only realistic option to reduce the burden on residents around the base while maintaining the deterrent power of the U.S. military. Despite opposition by Okinawa Gov. Takeshi Onaga, it is essential for the government and ruling parties to work together toward carrying out the relocation plan steadily.
米軍普天間飛行場の辺野古移設は、米軍の抑止力を維持しつつ、基地周辺住民の負担を軽減する唯一の現実的な選択肢だ。沖縄県の翁長雄志知事は反対するが、政府・与党が一体となって辺野古移設を着実に進めることが大切だ。

Abe is considering a plan to visit the United States during a period of consecutive holidays in May. During a meeting with U.S. President Barack Obama, it will be important for Abe to discuss the Japan-U.S. alliance’s new roles in Asia and strategy vis-a-vis China.
安倍首相は、5月の連休中の訪米を検討している。オバマ大統領との会談では、アジアにおける日米同盟の新たな役割や対中国戦略を語り合うことが重要である。

During their summit meeting in November, Abe and Chinese President Xi Jinping agreed to reconstruct a mutually beneficial relationship based on common strategic interests.
首相は昨年11月の中国の習近平国家主席との会談で、戦略的互恵関係の再構築で一致した。

To avoid unexpected accidents and clashes in the East China Sea, the two countries should, in the first place, reach agreement on the establishment and operation of a maritime liaison mechanism between their defense authorities. Practical cooperation must also be expanded in various fields, including the economy, energy and the environment.
まずは、東シナ海での不測の事故や衝突を避けるため、防衛当局間の「海上連絡メカニズム」の合意、運用を急ぐべきだ。経済、エネルギー、環境など、様々な実務的な協力も拡大したい。

Undoubtedly, the Senkaku Islands are a territory inherent to Japan so there is no room for Japan to make concessions. It is imperative to refute adequately and promptly China’s anti-Japan propaganda, linking it with the historical perception issue.
無論、尖閣諸島は日本固有の領土であり、日本側に譲歩の余地はない。歴史認識に絡めた中国の「反日宣伝」活動には、的確かつ早期に反論する必要がある。

There is concern that anti-Japan sentiment will also heighten in South Korea this year, which marks the 70th anniversary of the end of World War II. It is not an easy task to break a stalemate in resolving the comfort women issue, on which South Korean President Park Geun-hye has stood firm.
戦後70年の今年は、韓国でも反日世論が高まる懸念がある。朴槿恵大統領が固執する慰安婦問題の打開は簡単ではない。

We suggest that Japan and South Korea, for the time being, try to find a path toward making the 50th anniversary of normalization of diplomatic relations fruitful by holding meetings of their foreign ministers and top leaders and bilateral talks on a regular basis.
当面、日中韓の外相・首脳会談を早期に開催し、対話を重ねる中で、国交正常化50年を実りあるものにする道を探ってはどうか。

Early abductee solution urged
◆どうなる拉致再調査◆

Moves toward resolving the issue of Japanese nationals abducted to North Korea are entering a crucial stage. In July last year, North Korea launched a reinvestigation of Japanese abductees with completion targeted within a year. The government must press Pyongyang to provide information about the abductees promptly without allowing them to buy time.
北朝鮮による日本人拉致問題の解決に向けた取り組みは、正念場を迎える。北朝鮮は昨年7月、1年をメドに拉致被害者らの再調査を始めた。政府は、北朝鮮に時間稼ぎを許さず、安否情報の速やかな通報を迫らねばならない。

Abe’s diplomacy is also being put to the test in connection with Japan-Russia relations. Russian President Vladimir Putin is scheduled to visit Japan this year. Russia’s serious confrontation with the United States and Europe has continued since its annexation of the Crimea Peninsula. Japan is urged to try to develop relations with Moscow while maintaining a cooperative relationship with the United States and Europe.
日露関係でも安倍外交の真価が問われる。プーチン大統領は今年、来日する予定だ。クリミア半島編入では、ロシアと欧米との深刻な対立が続く。日本は、欧米との協調を維持しつつ、対露関係の進展を図ることが求められる。

Abe has toured 50 countries, a record number by an incumbent Japanese prime minister, in the past two years under the slogan of “developing diplomacy from global perspective.” It is laudable that Abe even visited countries of Africa and Central and South America to build personal relationships with their top leaders.
安倍首相は「地球儀俯瞰ふかん外交」を掲げ、2年間で歴代最多の50か国を訪問した。アフリカ、中南米にも足を運び、首脳らと個人的関係を築いたことは評価できる。

How has Japan progressed as a pacifist nation in the past 70 years? What role will Japan play on the basis of the Abe administration’s “tenet of proactive contribution to peace”? It will not be insignificant if Abe tells the international community his ideas about these matters in his own words.
戦後70年間、日本が平和国家としてどう歩んできたか。安倍政権の「積極的平和主義」に基づき、今後、どんな役割を果たしていくのか。こうした点について、首相が自らの言葉で国際社会に発信する意義は小さくない。

It is vital for Abe, with a long-term tenure in mind, to develop strategic diplomacy that sets a high value on the national interest.
首相は、長期政権も視野に入れ、国益重視の戦略的な外交を展開することが肝要である。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Jan. 10, 2015)Speech

続きを読む

パリ新聞社銃撃 表現の自由に挑戦する蛮行だ

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Fatal assault at Paris newspaper a barbarous act against free speech
パリ新聞社銃撃 表現の自由に挑戦する蛮行だ

An atrocious, cruel terrorist act targeted at an organ of public opinion has occurred. This can never be forgiven.
言論機関を標的にした残忍、冷酷なテロである。断じて許されない。

A group of armed terrorists on Wednesday fired automatic rifles indiscriminately at the head office in Paris of a weekly political newspaper, killing 12 people, including the editor.
武装グループがパリの政治週刊紙の本社で自動小銃を乱射し、編集長ら12人を殺害した。

Investigative authorities have identified two French brothers of Algerian descent as suspects in the case and taken several others believed to be linked to the slayings into custody. The suspects were quoted as raising such cries as “We avenged the Prophet Mohammed!” at the scene of the atrocities.
捜査当局は、アルジェリア系フランス人の兄弟を容疑者として特定し、関係者を身柄拘束した。容疑者は事件現場で、「預言者の復讐ふくしゅうだ」などと叫んだという。

A leading theory is that the killings may be related to the weekly newspaper’s publishing of caricatures satirizing the Prophet Mohammed of Islam.
犯行は、週刊紙がイスラム教の預言者ムハンマドを風刺する漫画を掲載したことなどと関係があるとの見方が有力だ。

This incident should be seen as a grave challenge by means of violence to freedom of speech, a principle at the crux of democracy.
民主主義の根幹をなす「表現の自由」に対する、暴力による重大な挑戦であると言えよう。

The incident has had a great impact on French society. President Francois Hollande condemned the assault as an “attack on France as a whole,” and called for the French people to observe a moment of silence Thursday, a day of mourning in honor of those killed.
事件はフランス社会に強い衝撃を与えた。オランド大統領は犯行を「フランス全体への攻撃だ」と非難し、8日を「追悼の日」として国民に黙とうを呼びかけた。

Protest gatherings were held Wednesday in various locations in France, drawing about 100,000 participants. This surely is an expression of the strong anger among the public.
事件当日の7日に、各地で計10万人規模の抗議集会が開かれたことは強い怒りの表れだろう。

The weekly has been known for its policy of not even treating religious parody as taboo. More than once it has created a stir through its frequent caricatures of Islam. The weekly newspaper’s office was firebombed in 2011, almost completely destroying its editorial offices.
週刊紙は、宗教の風刺もタブーとしない論調で知られ、再三、イスラム教の風刺画を掲載し、物議を醸していた。2011年には、火炎瓶攻撃を受け、編集部がほぼ全焼したこともある。

Muslims’ sense of alienation

When a satirical cartoon of the Prophet Mohammed was carried in a Danish newspaper in 2005, a series of protest demonstrations were staged in Islamic countries, some of them devolving into bloodshed. The latest incident in Paris was a methodically planned assault on a newspaper, which should be considered a brutality falling into a different category from conventional Islamic protests.
05年にデンマーク紙が掲載したムハンマドの風刺画を巡っては、イスラム諸国で抗議デモが相次ぎ、流血の事態に発展した。今回の事件は、新聞社を狙った計画的な犯行であり、従来の抗議とは次元が異なる蛮行と言えよう。

World leaders including U.S. President Barack Obama have denounced the terror attack. Prime Minister Shinzo Abe said, “Such a cowardly act can never be tolerated for any reason.”
オバマ米大統領ら各国首脳は犯行を非難した。安倍首相も「いかなる理由であれ、卑劣なテロは許せない」と表明した。

The French authorities must waste no time in uncovering the whole picture of the incident, including the organizational background of the suspects. It is highly important for the entire international community to beef up cooperation for purposes such as limiting the revenue sources of terrorists and stiffening each country’s immigration control procedures.
仏当局は、容疑者の組織的な背後関係を含め、事件の全容解明を急ぐべきだ。国際社会全体が、テロ資金の封じ込めや出入国管理の厳格化に向けて、連携を強めることが肝要である。

Ever since last spring, there have been frequent assaults and terrorist activities by Islamic extremists in many parts of the world, including Europe, the United States and Australia. We worry that the Paris incident could spur further social conflict embroiling Muslims in various countries.
昨年春以降、欧米や豪州などでイスラム過激派による襲撃やテロが頻発している。懸念されるのは今回の事件が、各国でのイスラム教徒を巡る社会的な軋轢あつれきに拍車をかけかねないことだ。

Younger-generation Islamic residents of Europe tend to feel alienated due to such factors as high rates of unemployment and poverty, and anti-Muslim discrimination. An increasing number have been infected by Islamic extremism, even to the point of joining the Islamic State group of radicals that has continued expanding its influence over the Middle East.
欧州のイスラム系住民の若い世代は、高い失業率や貧困、差別などから疎外感を抱きがちだ。イスラム過激思想に染まり、中東で勢力を拡大する過激派「イスラム国」に合流する者も増えている。

In fact, one of the suspects in the Paris terror incident was detained while attempting to travel to Iraq in 2005 to join the ranks of an extremist group.
実際、今回の容疑者の1人は05年、過激派に加わるためイラク渡航を画策し、身柄拘束された。

Every European country is urged to move forward with efforts to prevent moderate Muslims from being isolated from the rest of society, and instead help them to secure a harmonious coexistence with others.
欧州各国は、穏健なイスラム教徒の孤立を回避し、社会的共生を進める努力が求められよう。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Jan. 9, 2015)

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社会保障改革 少子化の克服へ総力で挑もう

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Tackle and overcome low birthrate through measures across society
社会保障改革 少子化の克服へ総力で挑もう

◆医療・介護の効率化も急ぎたい

The low birthrate is shaking the future foundation of Japan. It will not only jeopardize the stability of the country’s social security system, but also cause a decline in socioeconomic vitality.
少子化が、日本の将来を揺るがしている。社会保障制度の安定を脅かすだけでなく、経済・社会の活力も低下させる。

We should make this year the starting point for our society to do everything in our power to take drastic measures to tackle and overcome the low birthrate.
少子化の克服へ向け、今年を、抜本的対策に総力を挙げて取り組む出発点としたい。

After peaking in 2008, the nation’s total population has declined and now stands at about 127 million. Should the birthrate remain at the current level, the total population is expected to fall to 87 million in 2060. Elderly people aged 65 or older are projected to account for as much as 40 percent of the total population by then.
日本の総人口は、2008年をピークに減少に転じ、現在は約1億2700万人だ。出生率が今の水準のままなら、60年には8700万人に落ち込むと推計される。65歳以上の高齢者は総人口の4割に達する見通しだ。

Expand child care services
◆保育サービスの拡充を

While social security spending, such as medical and nursing care service expenses, is ballooning in line with the super-graying society, the number of those who would support the social security system is on the decline, due to the low birthrate. If the matter is left uncorrected, it is certain that the system will get bogged down sooner or later.
超高齢化に伴って医療や介護などの社会保障費が膨張する一方、少子化で制度の支え手は減り続ける。放置していては、いずれ行き詰まることが確実である。

Late last year, the government set a national target of securing a “total population of 100 million in 2060.”
政府は昨年末、「60年に人口1億人」を確保する目標を掲げた。

The target is based on the assumption that the total fertility rate — the average number of children who will be born to one woman over her lifetime — would be raised from the current 1.43 to 2.07 in 2040. This is the level that would enable the nation to sustain population levels.
1人の女性が生涯に産む子供の平均数を示す合計特殊出生率を今の1・43から、40年には2・07に引き上げることを想定している。これが人口を維持できる水準だ。

The number of children considered ideal for a married couple is said to be 2.4 on average. The unmarried rate is rising but, in fact, nearly 90 percent of unmarried young people want to get married.
夫婦が理想とする子供の数は平均2・4人とされる。未婚率は上昇しているが、実際は独身の若者の9割近くが結婚を望んでいる。

The low birthrate shows that many people are giving up on getting married or have children due to economic and other reasons.
出生率の低迷は、経済的な理由などにより、結婚や子育てをあきらめる人が多いことを物語る。

If young people are provided with an environment in which they can get married and have children as they wish, it will never be impossible for the nation to achieve it’s target.
若い世代が希望通りに結婚・子育てができる環境が整えば、目標達成は決して不可能ではない。

In doing so, it is important for women to be able to have a baby with a sense of reassurance, without being pressed to choose between their career or child-rearing. To lessen their concern or sense of strain over child-rearing, it is also desirable to build a system to offer comprehensive advice and support for women from pregnancy onward.
女性が仕事と子育ての二者択一を迫られずに、安心して出産できるようにすることが重要だ。育児への不安や負担感を減らすため、妊娠期からきめ細かく相談・支援する体制作りも望まれる。

The highest priority should be given to the improvement of child care services.
最優先すべきは、保育サービスの拡充である。

From April, the government will start a new system to support parents and child rearing — the system intended to bring to zero the number of children on waiting lists for admission to child care centers.
今年4月から、待機児童解消などを目指す子ども・子育て支援新制度がスタートする。

Under the system, the government will increase the number of child care facilities. Additional annual expenses totaling more than ¥1 trillion will be needed in fiscal 2017, making it a big challenge to secure a source of revenue.
保育所の増設などを進めるが、17年度には年1兆円超の追加費用が必要とされる。財源確保が大きな課題だ。

Concerns of nonregular staff
◆非正規の処遇改善せよ

Also needed are changes in the mind-set of business corporations and men. While the number of dual-earner households is increasing, it would be difficult to raise the birthrate as long as the tasks of child-rearing and household chores are left entirely on working women.
企業や男性の意識改革も求められる。共働きが増える中、育児や家事を女性任せにしていては、出生率回復は難しい。

There is a report that the percentage of women having their second or further children would rise if their husbands are proactively involved in child-rearing.
夫が育児に積極的だと第2子以降の生まれる割合が高くなるとの報告もある。

It is deemed essential to review the way people work, including correcting long working hours, in tandem with the support for balancing work and family.
仕事と家庭の両立支援と併せ、長時間労働の是正など働き方の見直しが欠かせない。

A major factor behind the low birthrate is an increase in the number of nonregular workers, according to experts. Their status is marked by such unfavorable conditions as low wages, lack of job security and scant opportunities for promotion or pay hikes. Another indicator in this respect is the percentage of married male nonregular workers. Their figure is much lower than that of regular employees of the same sex.
少子化の大きな要因として、非正規労働者の増加が指摘される。低賃金で身分が安定せず、昇進・昇給の機会もほとんどない。男性の場合、既婚率が正社員と比べて著しく低い。

Given this, an improvement in the job security of young people is vital in countering the low birthrate.
若者の雇用安定は、少子化対策の要である。

It is important to ensure nonregular employees are paid wages that are commensurate with their labors, while also providing them with greater opportunities to improve their status as corporate employees. This requires improving the treatment of nonregular workers and giving them more opportunities to acquire job skills while at the same time increasing efforts to aid the corporate sector in upgrading their status to that of regular employees.
非正規労働者の処遇改善と技能習得の機会拡充、正社員への転換支援の強化などで、働きに見合った賃金を確保し、キャリアアップの道を広げることが大切だ。

There is a need to make progress in fighting the spread of poverty in our society and rectifying economic and other disparities among people, a task requiring effort to promote working conditions conducive to making young people better motivated to work.
若者が意欲を持って働ける職場作りを通して、貧困や格差を是正していく必要がある。

Another essential task is to facilitate an environment in which women and elderly persons can bring their abilities into full play. This is important as there are growing concerns about an anticipated labor shortage due to the population decrease.
人口減少で労働力不足が懸念される中、女性や高齢者も十分に能力を発揮できる環境を整えることが肝要である。

We believe doing so will do much to achieve success in transforming our country into “a society in which women can shine,” one of the goals pursued by the administration of Prime Minister Shinzo Abe.
それが、安倍政権が掲げる「女性が輝く社会」の実現にもつながろう。

Progress in the graying of baby boomers will be accompanied by a rapid increase in medical and nursing-care payments in the near future. Efforts must be made to curtail benefits covering a portion of the expenditures incurred while also improving the quality of such services. All this will require converting the medical and nursing-care systems into lean and efficient schemes.
医療・介護費は今後、団塊の世代の高齢化と共に急増する。ムダを省いた効率的な制度に改め、質を高めつつ、給付の抑制を図らねばならない。

The first task in this respect is to draw a clear line between medical services for acute cases and those for recuperating patients at hospitals and other medical institutions.
まずは、病院・病床の役割分担を明確にすることだ。

As circumstances stand today, there is an excess in the number of hospital beds registered for patients who need acute-phase treatments. Medical institutions in this category have advanced equipment and highly skilled staff.
高度な設備やスタッフを備えた急性期向けの病床が過剰となり、

In some cases, however, these registered beds are occupied by elderly people with chronic health needs but whose conditions have already stabilized.
そこに症状の安定した慢性期の高齢者が入院している。

Given the status quo, it is necessary to reduce the number of beds used for the costlier treatment received by these patients to an appropriate level. This calls for improving the quality of medical services in a manner that can meet the needs of a super-aging society, including advice for inpatients regarding when the time is right for their discharge from the hospital as well as an at-home diagnosis and treatment.
退院支援や在宅診療など、超高齢社会のニーズに合った医療を充実させ、コストのかかる急性期病床を適正数に絞り込むべきだ。

‘Pains’ must be tolerated
◆「痛み」伴う政策が要る

Another case in point is the government-run nursing care insurance system. Starting next fiscal year, some services for elderly persons requiring a low degree of nursing care will be transferred to the control of city, town and village governments.
介護保険では、新年度から、介護の必要性が低い軽度者向けサービスの一部を市町村事業に移す。

This will be complemented by a plan to tighten the requirements that must be met by elderly people who want to be housed in homes for persons requiring around-the-clock nursing care.
特別養護老人ホームの入居要件も厳しくする。

It is also inevitable to allot a greater portion of benefits to aged persons who require a high level of nursing services.
重度者に給付を重点化することは、やむを得まい。

There is a pressing need to renovate the system to make it possible for elderly persons to receive the nursing care they truly need, mainly at home, instead of excessively relying on hospitals and other facilities.
病院や施設に過度に依存せず、在宅を中心に必要なケアが受けられる体制作りが急がれる。

An important task in pension system reforms is to expand the scope of subscribers to the corporate employees’ pension plan. There are concerns about a possible surge in the number of people who would only be entitled to low value pension payments in the future. This is because a number of nonregular workers are excluded from the list of subscribers to the current corporate employees’ pension program.
年金制度では、厚生年金の加入対象の拡大が重要課題だ。非正規労働者の多くが除外される現行制度では、将来、低年金者が急増する恐れがある。

With this in mind, it is advisable to study the idea of imposing greater taxes on pension benefits and curtailing the amount of benefits received by high-income pensioners.
年金課税の強化や高所得者の年金減額も検討すべきだろう。

In sustaining the social security systems in our rapidly graying society, it is unavoidable to carry out reforms that entail pains, such as a curb in pension benefits and an increase in the financial burden on affluent elderly persons. All this requires strong political leadership.
超高齢社会において社会保障制度を維持していくには、給付の抑制や、経済力のある高齢者の負担増など、「痛み」を伴う改革が不可避である。政治の強い指導力が求められる。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Jan. 7, 2015)

続きを読む
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■近況

2009年の9月15日に脳梗塞を発症、右手が少し不自由になりました。
MRAで脳梗塞の部位を特定でき、素早い処置をとれたので大事に至りませんでした。
快復にむけてリハビリ中です。
(2011/01/01更新)

■自己紹介・リンク

[ はじめに ]
タイのスラチャイです。
英語学習に王道はありません。
毎日毎日の地道な努力の積み重ねが必要です。
スラチャイはNHKのラジオ英語会話で現在の英語力を身につけました。
一日僅か15分の学習でも数年間継続すれば相当な学習効果が期待できます。

[ 名前 ]
松井 清 (スラチャイ)

[ 略歴 ]
・福岡県出身
・国立高知大学卒業
・準大手建設会社に就職
・50歳で会社を早期退職
・99/10 タイ全土を旅行
・00/10 タイに移住
・03/07 カイちゃん誕生
・07/06 シーファーちゃん誕生
・現在タイ国コンケン在住

[ 座右の銘 ]
Slow and steady wins the race.
遅くとも着実な者が勝利する
(NHK基礎英語芹沢栄先生)

[ 学習の手引き ]
・音読して耳から英語を吸収
・Think in English.
・ネイティブ発音付辞書活用
・英英辞典を活用(英和も)
・翻訳和文で専門用語確認

[ English Newspapers ]
Yomiuri
Mainichi
Asahi
Japan Times
Washington Post
Newyork Times
Bangkok Post
The Nations
Phuket Gazette

[ 英字新聞の英和対訳学習 ]
英字新聞(読売)
英字新聞(毎日)
英字新聞(朝日)
英字新聞(朝日2)

[ スラチャイ編集の辞書 ]
タイ日辞書(改訂版)
日タイ辞書(改訂版)
ラオ日辞書
日ラオ辞書

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初歩のタイ語
初歩の中国語
初歩のラオス語
初歩のビルマ語
初歩のシンハリ語
初歩のタガログ語

タイ語の基礎
タイ文字
タイ日辞書
タイ語の副詞
タイ語の前置詞
タイ語の助動詞
タイ語の接続詞

基礎タイ語一覧(タイ文字、ローマ字)
seesaaサイト内リンク一覧:
01 あいさつ
02 別れのあいさつ
03 声をかけるとき
04 感謝の言葉と答え方
05 謝罪の言葉と答え方
06 聞き直すとき
07 相手の言うことがわからないとき
08 うまく言えないとき
09 一般的なあいづち
10 よくわからないときの返事
11 強めのあいづち
12 自分について述べるとき
13 相手のことを尋ねるとき
14 頼みごとをするとき
15 申し出・依頼を断るとき
16 許可を求めるとき
17 説明してもらうとき
18 確認を求めるとき
19 状況を知りたいとき
20 値段の尋ね方と断り方
21 急いでもらいたいとき
22 待ってもらいたいとき
23 日時・場所・天候を尋ねるとき
24 その他

基礎タイ語一覧(タイ文字、音声付き)
サイト外HPリンク一覧:
01 あいさつ
02 別れのあいさつ
03 声をかけるとき
04 感謝の言葉と答え方
05 謝罪の言葉と答え方
06 聞き直すとき
07 相手の言うことがわからないとき
08 うまく言えないとき
09 一般的なあいづち
10 よくわからないときの返事
11 強めのあいづち
12 自分について述べるとき
13 相手のことを尋ねるとき
14 頼みごとをするとき
15 申し出・依頼を断るとき
16 許可を求めるとき
17 説明してもらうとき
18 確認を求めるとき
19 状況を知りたいとき
20 値段の尋ね方と断り方
21 急いでもらいたいとき
22 待ってもらいたいとき
23 日時・場所・天候を尋ねるとき
24 その他

タイの文化一覧:
01 雨の日にも傘をささないタイ人
02 勉強熱心なタイ人女性たち
03 タイ人は敬謙な仏教徒
04 タイの市場
05 タイの食堂
06 タイ人は外食が大好き
07 果物王国タイランド
08 タイ人の誕生日
09 タイの電話代は高い
10 微笑みの国タイランド

14の戒律(テラワーダ仏教戒律)
seesaaサイト内リンク一覧:
第01番目の戒律
第02番目の戒律
第03番目の戒律
第04番目の戒律
第05番目の戒律
第06番目の戒律
第07番目の戒律
第08番目の戒律
第09番目の戒律
第10番目の戒律
第11番目の戒律
第12番目の戒律
第13番目の戒律
第14番目の戒律

14の戒律(テラワーダ仏教戒律)
サイト外HPリンク一覧:
14の戒律解説
第01番目の戒律
第02番目の戒律
第03番目の戒律
第04番目の戒律
第05番目の戒律
第06番目の戒律
第07番目の戒律
第08番目の戒律
第09番目の戒律
第10番目の戒律
第11番目の戒律
第12番目の戒律
第13番目の戒律
第14番目の戒律


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[ HPリンク ]
cocolog 家族のアルバム
fc2 家族のアルバム
初歩の日本語(タイ人学生向け)
タイの小学三年生数学学力テスト(国家試験)
タイ語、中国語、ビルマ語
Preliminary Japanese lessons for Thai students
旅行のタイ語学習サイト
ラオ日・日老辞書
妻はタイ人/タイの文化/タイの仏教戒律

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