英字新聞

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2014年08月

社説:日本海側の津波 避難と減災に本腰を

August 28, 2014(Mainichi Japan)
Editorial: Step up efforts to take countermeasures against Sea of Japan tsunami
社説:日本海側の津波 避難と減災に本腰を

A panel of experts set up by the Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism Ministry has announced estimates on the height of tsunami generated by major earthquakes that could occur in faults below the Sea of Japan.
国土交通省の有識者検討会が、日本海の海底断層で発生する大規模地震に伴う予想津波高を公表した。

Up to 23-meter-high tsunami are expected to hit Setana, Hokkaido, while five- to 12-meter-high tsunami are estimated in areas along the eastern to northeastern Sea of Japan coast from Hokkaido to Fukui Prefecture. Some three- to four-meter-high tsunami could hit areas along the western Sea of Japan coast from Kyoto Prefecture to Kyushu.
北海道せたな町で最大23メートルが予想され、北海道から福井の日本海沿岸の高いところで5〜12メートル、京都から九州北部の高いところで3〜4メートルの津波高になるとの予測が出た。

Although experts do not think there is a seismic source in the Sea of Japan that could trigger a huge temblor, like the Nankai Trough in the Pacific Ocean south of the Japanese archipelago, earthquakes whose focal points are situated on the bottom of the Sea of Japan are estimated to cause higher tsunami despite their smaller seismic scales.
南海トラフのような巨大地震を引き起こす大規模な震源域は日本海側にはないとみられるが、地震の規模の割に津波が高くなるのが特徴だ。

National and local governments are slow to work out countermeasures against Sea of Japan earthquakes as compared with responses to possible temblors in the Pacific Ocean. This is the first time that the national government has estimated the height of tsunami in each municipality along the Sea of Japan coast. By fully utilizing the estimates, the national government and local bodies concerned should take all possible measures to protect residents and their neighborhoods along the Sea of Japan coast from tsunami.
日本海側の津波対策は、太平洋側に比べて総じて遅れている。日本海に面した市町村ごとの国による津波予測は今回が初めてだ。これを生かし、政府と関係自治体が協力して津波対策に万全を期したい。

Massive tsunami that caused casualties have hit areas along the Sea of Japan coast in the past. The magnitude-7.7 central Sea of Japan earthquake in 1983 caused a tsunami that killed about 100 people, while a tsunami generated by a temblor with a magnitude of 7.8 in the southwest off Hokkaido in 1993 left 230 people dead or missing.
日本海側でも大きな人的被害を伴う津波が起きている。1983年の日本海中部地震では津波による死者が100人に上り、93年の北海道南西沖地震でも230人の死者と行方不明者が出た。

However, there are far fewer records of earthquakes in the Sea of Japan than those in the Pacific Ocean and little progress has been made on a geological survey on the seabed of the Sea of Japan. Legislation aimed at encouraging local bodies to step up countermeasures against tsunami, which came into effect following the March 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami, requires prefectural governments to estimate the areas that are likely to be submerged by tsunami. However, prefectural governments have previously struggled to make estimates due to a lack of specific assessments of earthquake and tsunami on the Sea of Japan coast. As such, the panel of experts recently conducted analyses.
だが、日本海側は太平洋側に比べて歴史記録が少なく、地質調査も進んでいなかった。東日本大震災の後に、津波対策強化のために作られた「津波防災地域づくり法」は、津波が陸地のどこまでくるか浸水想定を都道府県が策定するよう定める。だが、日本海側での地震や津波の予測モデルがなかったため、昨年1月から検討会で分析を進めてきた。

Based on data on past earthquakes and the crustal structure, the panel reportedly examined 60 underwater faults from Hokkaido to Nagasaki, assumed that these faults could trigger magnitude-6.8 to 7.9 temblors and then estimated the height of tsunami that could be generated by such quakes.
過去の地震や地殻構造のデータなどを基に北海道から長崎沖までの60の海底断層を選び、地震の規模はマグニチュード(M)6.8〜7.9と想定し、計算したという。

Experts say such relatively small earthquakes could trigger higher tsunami because these faults below the seabed of the Sea of Japan are relatively shallow. Since the faults are close to the archipelago, tsunami generated by earthquakes occurring in these faults could reach the archipelago in a short period of time. The panel estimates that tsunami waves could hit some areas within a minute after a quake, and that at least 30-centimeter-high waves, which could sweep away people, might hit 82 municipalities within 10 minutes.
地震の規模の割に津波が高いのは、震源となる海底の断層が浅いためだ。断層の位置も陸地に近く、短時間で津波が到達する。一部地域は地震発生から1分以内に津波が到達し、半数近くの82市町村で、人が流される恐れのある高さ30センチの津波が10分以内に到達する可能性がある。

Based on these estimates, prefectural and municipal governments in areas along the Sea of Japan coast are required to review their disaster-prevention plans. Top priority should be placed on safely evacuating local residents.
今回の予測を受け、道府県や市町村は防災計画を見直す。最優先は、住民の安全な避難だ。

A panel of experts within the government's Central Disaster Management Council recommended in September 2011 that all regions be rebuilt to make sure that residents can walk to safe locations within about five minutes after tsunami hit.
中央防災会議の専門調査会は2011年9月、津波が発生した場合、原則として歩いて5分程度で安全な場所に避難できるまちづくりを提言した。

The panel made the recommendation on the assumption that a huge earthquake could hit areas along the Pacific coast. However, similar countermeasures should be taken in areas along the Sea of Japan coast. Both national and local governments along the Sea of Japan coast should designate evacuation routes and regularly conduct evacuation drills in preparation for deadly tsunami, while implementing all possible measures to lessen damage caused by such disasters.
主に太平洋側の巨大地震を念頭に置いたものだが、日本海側でも、そうした姿勢で対策に取り組まなければならない。避難路の整備や日常的な避難訓練などの備えを進めたい。あらゆる減災の手立てを尽くすべきだ。

The panel also announced its estimates of the height of tsunami that could hit 11 nuclear power stations along the Sea of Japan coast, but the estimated figures were below those by the plant operators.
今回、日本海側にある11の原子力発電所ごとの予想津波高も公表されたが、いずれも電力会社の想定を下回った。

Still, there is a possibility that the estimates could change as seismological research progresses. As such, it is only natural that authorities should strictly examine the safety of each nuclear plant.
それでも地震の研究が進めば、想定が変わることも十分にあり得る。厳しい目で安全審査を進めるのは当然だ。

毎日新聞 2014年08月28日 02時40分

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「イスラム国」 凶暴な武装集団の跳梁許すな

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Barbaric Islamic State militant group must be stamped out
「イスラム国」 凶暴な武装集団の跳梁許すな

The international community should take every possible action to eradicate the barbaric Islamic State militant group.
凶悪な武装集団の掃討に向け、国際社会はあらゆる手を打つべきだ。

There seems to be no end in sight to the Sunni Islamist group’s increasing influence in Iraq and Syria. The Islamic State is reported to have forced Syrian President Bashar Assad’s forces to withdraw from an air force base in the north of the country, setting its sights on capturing Aleppo, the largest city in that area.
イスラム教スンニ派過激派組織「イスラム国」のイラク、シリアでの勢力拡大が止まらない。シリア北部で、アサド政権軍を空軍基地から撤退させ、北部最大の都市アレッポ攻略も視野に入れたという。

The Islamic State has been increasing its combat potential with funds obtained through such nefarious means as the seizure of oil fields and kidnapping for ransom. On the other hand, the militant group has been carrying out a skillful campaign to attract combatants from around the world who hold radical beliefs. The number of Islamic State militants total about 15,000, according to some observers.
「イスラム国」は、油田の強奪や誘拐などで不当に得た資金で戦闘能力を高める一方、巧みな宣伝活動で、過激思想に染まった戦闘員を世界中から集めている。勢力は約1万5000人に達したとの見方もある。

The group is guilty of mass slaughter and sexual assault in areas under its control. It recently beheaded an American who had not been heard of since he was kidnapped in Syria about two years ago, and released a chilling video on the Internet showing the execution. A Japanese man has also been captured by the group, arousing concern for his safety.
支配地域では、虐殺や性的暴行を繰り返している。約2年前にシリアで消息を絶った米国人男性を処刑し、その模様をネットで流した。日本人男性も拉致され、安否が心配されている。

The international community faces the pressing task of eliminating this barbaric group.
残虐極まりない組織の跳梁ちょうりょうをこれ以上許さないことは、国際社会にとって喫緊の課題と言える。

In early August, the United States launched air strikes on the Islamic State in some areas of Iraq. This achieved a certain measure of success in hurting the group. However, the Islamic State, which is trying to expand its influence through cross-border activities, has shifted its main area of operations to Syria, a move leading to the American’s execution.
米国は8月上旬から、イラク国内に限定して「イスラム国」への空爆を実施し、一定の効果を上げた。しかし、国境をまたいで勢力圏を広げる「イスラム国」は、シリア側に活動の重点を移し、米国人の犠牲者も出た。

The United States has said the purpose of its air attacks is to protect its own people, indicating that it is prepared to conduct a similar military campaign in Syria as one of its options.
米国は、自国民を守ることを空爆の目的に掲げており、シリア側での空爆も選択肢に入った。

U.S. faces dilemma

Assad’s government is poised to permit U.S. air strikes on the militant group in Syria if Washington agrees to hold consultations to reach a bilateral consensus prior to military operations.
シリアのアサド政権は、米国が事前調整の手続きを取ることを前提に、空爆を容認する構えだ。

However, launching air strikes puts the United States in a quandary. Doing so will help Assad remain in power at a time when the United States is at odds with his country. This will force President Barack Obama to make a difficult decision on how to deal with the situation.
だが、米国にとっては、空爆が対立するアサド政権の存続を利するジレンマがある。オバマ大統領は難しい判断を迫られよう。

The United States and European nations intend to supply weapons to Iraq’s Kurdish troops and the Free Syrian Army, an armed Syrian dissident group opposed to the Islamic State. The move is intended to deal a blow to the Islamic State by supporting its enemies.
欧米各国は、「イスラム国」と戦っているシリア反体制派武装組織「自由シリア軍」とイラクのクルド人部隊に武器を供与する方針だ。敵対勢力にてこ入れし、打撃を与える作戦である。

However, there is concern the Islamic State may gain the upper hand in its fight with its opponents, a development that could result in the Islamist group acquiring a large number of weapons that have been supplied to the troubled region.
心配なのは、「イスラム国」が戦闘を優位に進め、結果的に、紛争地域に出回った大量の武器を手にしてしまうことだ。

The great increase in the Islamic State’s power is believed to be attributable to massive funding from wealthy supporters in oil-producing countries. The international community needs to uncover the whole truth behind this and shut off the militant group’s source of funds.
「イスラム国」が強大化している背景には、産油国の富裕層などによる多額の資金供与があるとされる。国際社会は、こうした実態を徹底的に解明し、資金源を断つ必要がある。

Immediate measures must also be taken to stop the group from recruiting members from around the world. One of the tasks in this respect is to remove video footage promoting the Islamic State on the Internet, a task necessary to prevent the further spread of radicalization.
要員集めの封じ込めも、急がなければならない。過激思想の拡散を防ぐため、ネットに流れた「イスラム国」の宣伝映像の丁寧な削除などが課題となろう。

There is an increasing number of cases in which figures involved in terrorist activities in the Middle East and elsewhere return to the United States, European and other nations. It is extremely important to keep a close eye on them and track their movements.
中東などでテロに関与した人物が、欧米などへ帰国する例が目立ってきた。厳重な監視と摘発が極めて重要だ。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Aug. 27, 2014)

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社説:サッカーとバナナ 人種差別を根絶しよう

August 26, 2014(Mainichi Japan)
Editorial: J.League should adopt zero tolerance toward racism
社説:サッカーとバナナ 人種差別を根絶しよう

It's not their fault but bananas have become a symbolic sign of racism. We must eradicate all sorts of discrimination from soccer stadiums and society.
バナナが悪いわけではない。バナナが人種差別の象徴的記号となってしまっていることを私たちは知らなければならない。そして、あらゆる差別をスタジアムと社会から根絶しなければならない。
   
During a J.League game between Yokohama F. Marinos and Kawasaki Frontale at a stadium in Yokohama on Aug. 23, a teenage Marinos fan sitting behind the Marinos goal waved a banana toward the pitch. It was just after a Brazilian player with Frontale failed to score a goal and was about to turn back.
横浜市で23日に行われたサッカーJ1の横浜F・マリノス−川崎フロンターレ戦で、横浜マの10代後半の男性サポーターがピッチに向けてバナナを振る行為があった。川崎のブラジル出身の選手が相手ゴールに攻め込んだが得点できず、引き揚げようとした時、ゴール裏のスタンドにいた男性がバナナを振った。

During questioning by Marinos' officials, the teenager explained that he was aware of his act of provocation but that it wasn't aimed at any particular player. His explanation underscores a lack of awareness against discrimination, which the Federation Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) and the Union of European Football Associations (UEFA), as well as soccer leagues across the globe, have been trying so hard to eliminate from stadiums.
横浜マの事情聴取に対し、男性は「挑発行為はしたが、特定の選手に向けたものではない」と説明したという。この言葉には、国際サッカー連盟(FIFA)や欧州サッカー連盟(UEFA)、各国リーグが根絶に取り組んでいる差別に対する意識の希薄さが表れている。

Throwing bananas onto the pitch carries the connotation of calling someone a monkey and is a well-known means of racial discrimination. Since African footballers started to play in the European leagues in the 1970s, there has been a spate of discriminatory incidents involving bananas. Those incidents represent the dark side of racial and ethnic diversity.
バナナをピッチに投げ入れるなどの行為は「お前はサルだ」という意味で、人種差別の常とう手段だ。欧州では1970年代以降、アフリカ生まれの黒人選手らがプレーするようになり、バナナによる差別行為が頻発した。多民族化、多人種化が引き起こした負の側面と言えよう。

During a Spanish league game in April, a banana was thrown onto the pitch at the feet of FC Barcelona player Dani Alves as he was about to take a corner. The Brazilian national team player picked up the banana, peeled it and ate it, and then kicked the ball as if nothing had happened.
スペインリーグでは4月、バルセロナに所属するブラジル代表の選手がコーナーキックを蹴ろうとした時、足元にスタンドからバナナが投げ込まれた。その選手はバナナを拾って皮をむき、食べた後、何事もなかったかのようにボールを蹴った。

Such a humorous reaction to an act of discrimination sparked worldwide compassion, prompting not only fellow soccer players but also the Italian prime minister to be photographed peeling a banana and then post it on Facebook and other social media. Unfortunately, however, there is an endless stream of similar acts of discrimination in Europe.
差別に対してユーモアを交えた行動で応じたこの行為は世界中の共感を呼び、選手だけでなく、イタリアの首相もバナナの皮をむいて写真に納まり、フェイスブックなどで発信した。だが、残念ながら欧州では同様の行為が絶えない。

In the J.League, the Urawa Reds were penalized with an unprecedented game behind closed doors after its supporters displayed a racist banner reading "Japanese Only" at Saitama Stadium in March. Urawa's management was criticized for leaving the banner unaddressed until after the game while some spectators had raised questions about it.
Jリーグでは3月、浦和のサポーターによって人種差別横断幕「JAPANESE ONLY(日本人以外お断り)」が埼玉スタジアムに掲げられ、浦和に史上初の無観客試合が科された。観客から指摘を受けながら、クラブ側が試合終了まで放置したことも問題だった。

Lessons and reflections from that incident may have led to the Marinos' quick reaction to the latest incident. The club decided to impose an indefinite ban on the teenager later the same day, and the Marinos' president reported the incident as an "act of discriminatory provocation" to J.League Chairman Mitsuru Murai on Aug. 25. The J.League is poised to impose sanctions on the Marinos at an early date.
この反省と教訓が今回、横浜マの素早い対応につながったと言えるだろう。その日のうちに男性に対し無期限の入場禁止処分を下すことを決め、週明けの25日には社長がJリーグに出向き、村井満チェアマンに「差別的挑発行為」と報告した。Jリーグは早期に制裁を科す方針だ。

What takes place at soccer stadiums represents the realities of society. The J.League should take this incident as an opportunity to send out a message to society that discrimination is totally intolerable and demonstrate its spirit of "zero tolerance" to racism and discrimination, following the footsteps of FIFA and other organizations.
スタジアムと社会はつながっている。差別は絶対に許さないというメッセージを社会に発信する契機ととらえ、JリーグはFIFAなどにならい、「ノートレランス(非寛容)」の精神で臨むべきだろう。

毎日新聞 2014年08月26日 02時30分

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香山リカのココロの万華鏡:招きたくない監視社会 /東京

August 24, 2014(Mainichi Japan)
Kaleidoscope of the Heart: Publically shaming criminals online is going too far
香山リカのココロの万華鏡:招きたくない監視社会 /東京

Recently, a comic store generated controversy with a threat to publically release the image of a shoplifter's face who was caught on a security camera stealing an expensive figurine. The store first released an image of the shoplifter with his face pixelated and threatened to remove the pixilation if the person did not return the figurine by a certain day.
漫画専門店で売り物の高価なフィギュアを万引きした男性。監視カメラでとらえられており、映像のネット公開をめぐって議論が起きた。店側はまずモザイクつきの写真をネットにアップし、期日までに返却に来なければモザイクをはずすと呼びかけたが、

In the end, at the urging of police, the store did not remove the pixilation. However, in on-the-street interviews on television shows, many people gave the opinion that the pixilation should have been removed, to help deter future shoplifters.
結局、警察の指導などにより公開は見送った。情報番組の街頭インタビューなどでは「再犯防止のためにも公開すべきだったのでは」といった厳しい声も目立った。

Crime is said to be overall on the decline, but shoplifting numbers refuse to fall. Perhaps lacking awareness that what they have done is a crime, some shoplifters supposedly take a defiant attitude, saying, "As long as I return it, there's no problem, right?"
犯罪は全体としては減る方向にあると言われるが、万引きはいっこうに減少しない。犯罪という自覚がないのか、店側が見つけても「返せばいいんだろう」と開き直るケースもあるとのことだ。

Some small retailers are supposedly affected quite badly by shoplifting, so it is not a problem that can be overlooked.  経営に大きな支障が出る小売店もあるというから、見逃せない問題だ。

However, we must be careful about the idea that a store can set up its own "punishment," by for example threatening to release a photo of a shoplifter's face.
とはいえ、店側が「監視カメラの映像をネットで公開します」など独自の“罰”をもうける動きには慎重にならなくてはならない。

In this day and age, using the Internet one can easily find all kinds of information about a person -- their name, their address, their place of work.
It can lead to ruining a person's standing in society.
とくにこの時代、ネットを使えば名前、自宅、職場などが簡単に特定され、その人の社会的生命が断たれるほどのダメージを与えることにもなりかねない。

While the theft in the recent case was of a very valuable item, is it right for stores to be able to decide that when the value of shoplifted merchandise is over some particular amount it warrants a public release of the shoplifter's photo?
今回、盗まれたのはとても高価な品だったが、映像の公開か非公開か、その境目の金額までをはたして店が決めてよいものか。

Sometimes on the Internet, people will release photos of criminals, taken while they happened to be nearby.
ネットでは、問題を起こした人の写真や名前など個人情報を公開することを「さらす」と呼ぶ。

"This person is a groper," they may write, releasing a photo on a site such as Twitter.
「これが痴漢です」などと居合わせた人が写真を撮り、ツイッターなどで「さらす」こともある。

I feel that more and more, the reaction to this public exposure is not "that's going too far," but "they deserve it."
それに対し「やりすぎだ」という声より「さらされて当然」と肯定する声のほうが大きくなりつつあるのを感じる。

Of course, no matter the reason, there is no excuse for breaking the law or other rules.
もちろん法律などで決められているルールを破るのは、どんな理由があろうとも許される行為ではない。

But I also think that stores -- who are not police -- should not come up with and deal out their own "punishments." しかし、警察以外の個人や店の手により、どんな“罰”を加えても許されるというのは違うと思う。

While public exposure on the Internet is not a direct punishment like a fine or prison sentence, it is in some ways a heavier punishment.
ネットで「さらす」行為は罰金や懲役といった直接的な制裁ではないが、ある意味でそれ以上の重さを持っているともいえる。

According to police statistics, recently many shoplifters are people 65 and over.
警察の統計によれば、最近は65歳以上の高齢者の万引きの増加が目立つそうだ。

Maybe, having retired or no longer having any family, they think, "I have nothing left to lose, so I don't care who you report me to.
仕事を退職していたり家族がおらずひとり暮らしだったりで、「もう失うものはないから、誰に報告してくれてもいいですよ。

You're going to put my face out on the Internet? I don't care." If so, it is a sad situation.
ネットで顔を“さらす”? ああ、かまいませんよ」という心境なのだろうか。それも寂しい話だ。

I hope that we do not become a world where people are always observing each other, quick to photograph and expose other people on the Internet the moment they do something wrong.
お互いが監視し合い、怪しい行動を取ったらすぐに写真を撮って公開。これが当然、という世の中にならないことを願いたい。

(精神科医)
(By Rika Kayama, psychiatrist)
毎日新聞 2014年08月19日 地方版

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健康寿命 「元気で長生き」を目指したい

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Elderly must enjoy healthy long life without need for nursing care
健康寿命 「元気で長生き」を目指したい

A major challenge facing the nation at a time when its population is rapidly aging is to ensure that elderly people can maintain their day-to-day lives for as long as possible, dispensing with the need to receive nursing care.
高齢になっても、介護を必要とせず、自立して生活できる期間をできるだけ延ばしていく。超高齢社会へ向けた大きな課題である。

In early August, the Health, Labor and Welfare Ministry released the 2014 edition of its annual white paper, which focused on the goal of expanding the healthy life span so that the nation can be transformed into a long-lived, healthy society.
厚生労働省が今月公表した2014年版の厚生労働白書は、「健康長寿社会の実現に向けて」をタイトルに、「健康寿命の延伸」をメインテーマに掲げた。

Healthy life expectancy refers to the number of years that people can continue to live their daily lives independently, uninterrupted by health problems and without having to receive the help of family members or others.
健康寿命は、健康上の問題で日常生活が制限されず、家族などの手を借りることなく暮らせる年数のことだ。

In 2010, the healthy life span of the Japanese stood at 70.42 for men and 73.62 for women, both marking the world’s highest levels. The figures have been increasing year by year.
日本では、2010年時点で男性70・42歳、女性73・62歳と世界最高水準にあり、年々延びている。

However, these figures compare poorly with the average life expectancy—80.21 for men and 86.61 for women in 2013. This shows there is a disparity of about 10 years between the healthy life span and the average life expectancy among both Japanese men and women.
ただし、平均寿命(13年)の男性80・21歳、女性86・61歳と比較すると、いずれも10歳前後の開きがある点に留意すべきだ。

The gap represents how long men and women will be highly dependent on nursing care and medical services. It is widening due to a greater increase in the average life expectancy compared to that of the healthy life span.
この差は、介護や医療への依存度が高くなる期間を意味する。健康寿命より平均寿命の延びが大きいため、拡大する傾向にある。

It is necessary to shorten the period for which people need nursing and medical care, a task essential for enabling elderly people to live fulfilling, independent lives. If aged persons do not become bedridden and can live in good health for an extended period, the medical and nursing-care expenses they incur will likely be significantly reduced.
できる限りこの期間を短縮することが、高齢者一人一人の生活を充実させるために欠かせない。寝たきりにならず、健康に過ごせる期間が延びれば、医療・介護費の抑制効果も期待できる。

The government has said the goal of making Japan a nation of healthy and long-lived people is a pillar of its growth strategy.
政府は、健康長寿の実現を成長戦略の柱とも位置づけている。

In its strategy for health preservation and medical improvement adopted at a Cabinet meeting in July, the government said it would pursue the target of increasing the healthy life expectancy by more than one year by the end of 2020. The government hopes to nurture healthcare businesses that support elderly people’s efforts to lead long healthy lives, and promote such services and operations overseas, an endeavor conducive to economic growth.
7月に閣議決定した「健康・医療戦略」では、20年までに健康寿命を1歳以上延ばす目標を打ち出した。「元気で長生き」を支える健康・医療関連産業を育成して、海外展開を促し、経済成長につなげたい考えだ。

An increase in the number of healthy elderly people is also expected to help secure workers and contribute to the promotion of volunteer activities.
元気な高齢者の増加は、労働力の確保やボランティアの活性化にもつながるだろう。

Battle lifestyle illnesses

To increase the healthy life span, it is important for individuals to take preventive measures against lifestyle-related illnesses even while they are still working. Various complications can occur from diabetes, high blood pressure and other diseases associated with one’s lifestyle habits, which can easily lead to a need for nursing-care services in old age.
健康寿命を延ばすには、現役時代から生活習慣病の予防を心がけることが大切だ。糖尿病や高血圧などは、様々な合併症を引き起こし、要介護状態を招きやすい。

It is also necessary for local government and business corporations to play an active role in improving the health of local residents and employees. Measures must include promoting better lifestyle habits and raising the percentage of people receiving medical checkups.
自治体や企業も、住民や社員の生活習慣の改善や、健康診断の受診率向上などの健康作り対策に積極的に取り組む必要がある。

A good case in point is the Shizuoka prefectural government. The local government is promoting what it calls a “health mileage program” under which local residents are awarded points according to their medical checkup and daily physical exercise records. When a resident has collected a certain number of points, he or she is entitled to receive complimentary services at shops participating in the program.
静岡県は、健診の受診や日々の運動実績をポイント化し、一定以上になると協力店で優待サービスを受けられる「健康マイレージ」事業を行っている。

Meanwhile, Tanita Corp., a Tokyo-based measurement equipment manufacturer, has adopted a system in which pedometers are distributed to all its employees, requiring them to record how many steps they take every day. Employees who score high in this daily practice receive awards for their accomplishments.
計測器メーカーのタニタは、歩数計を全社員に配って計測を義務づけ、ランキング上位者を表彰する制度を設けている。

We hope measures will be taken to achieve the intended goal in a manner that fits the realities of each community and company.
地域や会社の実情に合った対策を進めてもらいたい。

It is also important to provide elderly people with more opportunities to play an active role in society. If they make contributions to society through work and community service, elderly people will find their lives to be fulfilling and are unlikely to need nursing care.
高齢者の活躍の場を広げることも重要だ。仕事や地域活動で社会に貢献することは、生きがいになり、介護予防に役立つだろう。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Aug. 24, 2014)

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社説:広島土砂災害 検証尽くして教訓導け

August 23, 2014(Mainichi Japan)
Editorial: Learning a lesson from Hiroshima landslides
社説:広島土砂災害 検証尽くして教訓導け

The number of residents reported missing following major landslides in northern Hiroshima in the predawn hours of Aug. 20 has significantly increased, threatening to make the disaster the worst of its kind in recent years when combined with the confirmed death toll.
広島市北部で20日未明発生した土砂崩れの行方不明者が大幅に増え、犠牲者と合わせると近年では最悪の土砂災害となる恐れが強まった。
   
Initially seven people were reported missing, but a little over 24 hours later that figure climbed to over 50. The discrepancy in the numbers reported missing comes from police and local municipalities using different methods to confirm the safety of residents.
行方不明の人数が当初の7人から24時間以上たって50人超に増えたのは、住民の安否情報の確認方法が自治体と警察との間で違っていたためだ。

The difficulty that officials face in fully grasping the extent of the damage indicates how severe the disaster is.
被災状況の把握すら困難な厳しい状況であることを示している。

With rain continuing to fall intermittently, rescuers are desperately searching for the missing while remaining on alert against secondary damage. All efforts should be exhausted in search and rescue operations, with priority put on saving human lives.
断続的に雨が降り、2次災害を警戒しながらの捜索活動が続く。人命を最優先に力を尽くしてもらいたい。

Amid ongoing power and water outages in the disaster-hit areas, an increasing number of residents have been forced to take shelter at public facilities.
被災現場は停電や断水が続き、避難所で暮らす住民が増えている。

Local municipalities are urged to pay close attention to residents' needs so that volunteers can provide adequate support.
ボランティアを受け入れる自治体は、的確な支援ができるよう住民の要望をきめ細かく聞き取ってほしい。

Hiroshima Prefecture has the most spots vulnerable to sediment disaster in Japan.
広島県は土砂災害危険箇所が全国で最も多いが、

However, the designation of warning zones under the Act on Sediment Disaster Countermeasures for Sediment Disaster Prone Areas has not come fast enough.
土砂災害防止法の警戒区域指定は遅れていた。

The residential areas that suffered damage in the latest landslides were prone to disasters due to their proximity to mountains, but most of them had not been designated as sediment disaster-prone areas.
被災現場は山裾に住宅地が広がり、災害の恐れのある地域だったが、ほとんどが未指定だ。

Financial and manpower shortages have reportedly hampered the progress of field surveys, while residents are reluctant to have land designated as being disaster-prone, fearing that their property values will be downgraded.
財政難や人員不足で現地調査などの作業が進まないという。不動産価値の低下を住民が懸念し、理解を得にくいことも要因だ。

Nevertheless, it is serious that such an immense disaster hit areas that had not been listed as being disaster-prone.
だが、指定されなかった地域で甚大な災害が起きたことを重く受け止めなければならない。

If more damage like this arises, criticism that the disaster was a man-made calamity could intensify.
今後も同じような被害が出れば、「人災」という批判が強まりかねない。

The Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism is urged to review the operation of the law and promote the designation of areas prone to sediment disaster as such.
国土交通省は指定促進のために運用を見直し、

If reviews alone are insufficient, legislative revisions need to be deliberated in the Diet.
それでも不十分ならば国会で法改正を議論する必要がある。

The city of Hiroshima has acknowledged that its evacuation advisory came too late, and is poised to review the standards for issuing such advisories.
広島市は避難勧告の遅れを認め、発令基準を見直す。

Memories of the landslide disaster on Izu Oshima Island in October last year, when an absence of an evacuation advisory or order resulted in many casualties, remains fresh in our minds.
昨年10月の土砂災害で東京都大島町(伊豆大島)が避難勧告・指示を出さず、多くの犠牲者が出た。

The central government subsequently notified municipalities across the nation to issue evacuation advisories without fearing that they might turn out to be unnecessary.
そのため政府は、空振りを恐れず勧告を出すよう自治体に通知したが、

The government should fully reassure municipalities about the directive once again.
改めて徹底すべきだ。

It is difficult and dangerous for residents to evacuate at night, but the risks could be lowered in some cases if people moved to the upper floors of buildings.
夜間の避難は難しく危険もつきまとうが、建物の高層部に逃げる垂直避難であれば危険度は低い。

In the Hiroshima disaster, a family found their way to safety by evacuating upstairs to the second floor of their home. 今回の災害でも1階から2階に移り全員が無事だった家族がいた。

Residents in disaster-prone areas should regularly discuss how to act in the event of a disaster and make steadfast preparations.
災害の危険性が高い地域の住民は、日ごろから災害時の行動を話し合い、備えを万全にしておいてほしい。

In the wake of the torrential rain that hit the Kii Peninsula in September 2011, leaving 82 people dead and 16 missing, the Wakayama Prefectural Government created guidelines for issuing evacuation advisories.
82人が死亡し16人が行方不明となった2011年9月の紀伊半島豪雨を受けて、和歌山県は避難勧告を出すモデル基準を作った。

The guidelines require avoidance of ambiguous expressions.
あいまいな表現を避け、

They also require the use of numerical criteria such as accumulated precipitation so residents can make an objective judgment.
累積雨量など数値基準を使って客観的に判断できるようにした。

In the Hyogo Prefecture town of Sayo, where flooding from a typhoon five years ago left 18 dead and two missing, the town office introduced a monitoring system in which residents living near rivers report water levels and other relevant information, based on which the town office decides whether to issue evacuation advisories.
5年前の台風による水害で20人の死者・行方不明者が出た兵庫県佐用町は、河川付近の住民から水位などを報告してもらうモニター制度を導入し、発令の判断に活用している。

We should take note of such system improvements grounded in lessons learned from tragedies.
痛ましい体験を教訓とした制度改善例を参考にしたい。

In the Hiroshima disaster, the cause and background factors of the extensive damage should be thoroughly verified so we can utilize the information in future measures.
今回の土砂災害でも被害が拡大した原因や背景を徹底的に検証し、そこから得た教訓を今後の対策に生かしていくことが極めて重要だ。

毎日新聞 2014年08月23日 02時33分(最終更新 08月23日 09時39分)

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社説:女性管理職6.6% 異次元の対策が必要だ

August 22, 2014(Mainichi Japan)
Editorial: Implement new steps to boost ratio of women in managerial posts
社説:女性管理職6.6% 異次元の対策が必要だ

Achieving the government's goal of increasing the ratio of women to those in managerial positions to 30 percent by 2020 appears to be extremely difficult, as was shown by a government survey.
はなはだしく道険し、である。

The results of a survey released by the Health, Labor and Welfare Ministry shows that women accounted for only 6.6 percent of those in managerial posts at the division chief-level and above in fiscal 2013.
厚生労働省が発表した2013年度雇用均等基本調査によると、管理職(課長相当職以上)に占める女性の比率は6.6%にとどまった。

There is no sign of an improvement in the situation.
30%とした政府目標の達成期限(20年)が間近だというのに、隔たりは大きいままだ。

One cannot help but wonder whether efforts to address the issue should be left to the discretion of individual companies. Since the government of Prime Minister Shinzo Abe places top priority on encouraging women to play an active role in society among its policy measures, it should work out an unprecedentedly bold action plan that is not bound by a traditional mindset.
しかも、後退こそあれ、改善はほとんど見られない。このまま、企業の自助努力に任せていてよいだろうか。女性の活躍を最重要政策の一つに掲げる安倍政権である。従来の発想から抜け出た「異次元」の行動計画がここにこそ必要だろう。

It is globally infamous that Japan lags behind many other countries in women's advancement in society.
不名誉なことだが、日本における女性の社会進出の遅れは、世界的に有名だ。

A report issued by the U.S. Congress features measures Japan has taken to encourage women to assume important positions in society as part of "Abenomics," an economic policy mix promoted by the Abe administration. The report also shed light on specific problems that have blocked women from participating in Japanese society in the economic and political fields.
最近では米議会の調査報告書がアベノミクスと女性政策を取り上げ、経済、政治分野で女性の参加が進まない問題に焦点を当てた。

Are there any changes in Japanese companies' awareness of the roles that women should play?
では、当事者である日本の企業に意識の変化は見られるだろうか。

Only about 20 percent of the companies surveyed by the ministry answered that they have taken positive action to eliminate the gap in job opportunities between men and women, declining from the last two years when the ratio was over 30 percent.
厚労省調査では、格差の解消を目指した積極的な取り組み(ポジティブ・アクション)を行っていると回答した企業の割合が約20%しかない。30%を超えていた過去2年よりかえって悪化した。

What is worse, 63 percent of the companies responded that they have no intention of taking any specific measures to that end, as compared with 54 percent in fiscal 2012.
逆に「今のところ取り組む予定はない」の回答が12年度の54%から63%に増えている。

Moreover, reasons cited by surveyed companies for not making any effort to narrow the gap between men and women would certainly stun the public.
さらに、取り組まない理由にあぜんとさせられる。

Some companies said they are developing human resources regardless of their gender, some other businesses replied that women are already playing an active role in their organizations, while others answered that there are too few women in their workplaces.
「男女にかかわりなく人材を育成しているから」「すでに女性は十分活躍しているから」「女性が少ない、あるいは全くいないから」−−。

These answers suggest that the companies do not view the current situation as problematic.
現状を特段、問題視していない姿が透けて見える。

Many employers claim that they have difficulties finding women with the required ability and experience although they are willing to appoint women to important positions, a reason cited by the largest number of surveyed companies as to why they do not actively appoint female employees to managerial posts.
一方、女性を起用するにやぶさかではないが、能力や経験を伴った人材がいない、というのも女性管理職が少ない理由としてよく耳にする。

The survey results have raised questions as to whether companies are truly enthusiastic about recruiting hidden talent and whether male managers truly have enough expertise or experience.
厚労省の調査でもこれがトップだった。しかし、企業は本気になって、人材を発掘しようとしているだろうか。男性の管理職は能力や経験が伴った人ばかりなのだろうか。

While the government is seeking to enact new legislation to encourage companies to take action to hire and appoint women to important posts, the business world has taken the stance that efforts toward that end should be left to the discretion of each individual company.
政府は新法を作って、企業に積極的な行動を促そうとしているが、「経営の自主性に任せてほしい」というのが経済界の基本姿勢である。

However, it would be too optimistic to expect employers who have even failed to grasp the situation of their own companies to spontaneously try to appoint women to managerial positions.
だが、現状をさほど問題と認識していない、あるいは自社の実態を把握すらしていない経営者の自主性に期待するのは楽観的過ぎというものだ。

Many business operators argue that a radical system like one in Norway, under which companies that fail to appoint women to at least 40 percent of their executive positions must be disbanded, does not fit in with Japanese culture.
役員の4割以上を女性にしない企業は最終的に解散処分となるノルウェーのような急進的制度は日本の文化になじまない。

If the business world sticks to its opposition to making it mandatory to ensure women account for a certain percentage of board members or managers, companies should take unprecedentedly bold measures to demonstrate that they are truly enthusiastic about promoting women to key positions.
そんな声が多い。義務化に反対するのなら、企業は、前例のない大胆な行動で本気度を証明すべきだ。

The chairman and 18 vice chairmen of the Japan Business Federation (Keidanren) are all men.
ちなみに、経団連の会長と副会長18人は全員が男性である。

Japan's largest business organization has never appointed women to any of these top positions.
女性の就任は一度もない。

Keidanren should appoint women to high-ranking posts, such as chairman and vice chairmen, as a symbolic example of the business world's efforts to appoint women to key posts.
象徴的な例として、正副会長や委員長ポストに女性を起用する計画を示してはどうか。

毎日新聞 2014年08月22日 02時31分

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社説:広島の土砂災害 救援活動に全力挙げよ

August 21, 2014(Mainichi Japan)
Editorial: Landslide disaster shows need for better prevention measures
社説:広島の土砂災害 救援活動に全力挙げよ

Torrential rain has triggered a series of landslides in northern Hiroshima, crushing houses and leaving many residents dead and some others missing.
局地的な豪雨に見舞われた広島市北部で土砂崩れが発生し、住宅が押しつぶされるなどして多くの死者・行方不明者が出た。

Police, firefighters and Self-Defense Forces (SDF) personnel are desperately searching for and rescuing survivors. 警察や消防、自衛隊による救助・救援活動が急がれるが、

However, they must take care to prevent a secondary disaster as a firefighter lost his life during search and rescue operations.
救助中の消防隊員が犠牲となり、2次災害に注意しながらの作業となる。

The government should put its utmost efforts into restoring disaster-hit areas and extending assistance to affected residents.
政府は被災地の復旧や住民支援に全力を挙げてほしい。
   
Typhoon Halong, this year's 11th, brought heavy rain mainly to western Japan earlier this month.
今月に入って、西日本を中心に台風11号による大雨が続いた。

A rain front hovering along the Japanese archipelago has since repeatedly brought rain and loosened the ground. その後も前線が日本列島上空に停滞し、度重なる雨で地盤は緩んでいる。

Therefore, even a small amount of rain could trigger a landslide, and maximum caution needs to be exercised.
わずかな雨でも土砂災害が起きる恐れがあり、今後も厳重な警戒が必要だ。

In just over a three-hour period early on Aug. 20, northern Hiroshima saw rainfall that exceeded the average amount of rain that falls throughout all of August.
広島市北部で20日未明の3時間に平年の8月1カ月分の雨量を大きく上回る雨が降った。

The Hiroshima Local Meteorological Observatory issued a warning of record-breaking rain over a short period around 3:45 a.m., and the Hiroshima Municipal Government issued an evacuation recommendation about half an hour later. 広島地方気象台は記録的短時間大雨情報を発表し、その約30分後に広島市が避難勧告を出した。

By that time, however, some landslides had already occurred and local residents had alerted emergency services. しかし、既に土砂崩れが発生し、住民からの通報が相次いでいた。

Therefore, the local government's response was too slow.
行政の対応は後手に回った。

It is essential to thoroughly scrutinize why local authorities failed to issue an evacuation recommendation or order before the disaster occurred.
なぜ被害が発生する前に避難指示や勧告を出せなかったのか。徹底的に検証し対策を講じる必要がある。

The landslides occurred in a district where mountains were developed into residential areas.
被災現場は山間部を切り開いて宅地開発が進められた地域だ。

The ground in extensive areas of Hiroshima Prefecture is composed of decayed granite covered with thin surface soil. 広島県には風化した花こう岩の上を薄い表土が覆う地質が広がり、

Therefore, if rainwater accumulates in these areas, slopes are prone to collapsing.
雨で水がたまると斜面は崩れやすくなる。

In the latest disaster, it is believed that rain that had fallen over the past few weeks accumulated in the soil, making the ground fragile, and that a massive amount of rain that hit the area over a short period triggered mudslides.
今回も、これまでの雨が土壌にたまり、短時間に大量の雨が降ったことで土石流などが発生したとみられる。

In June 1999, torrential rain that hit residential areas in the city of Hiroshima and surrounding areas left 31 people dead and another missing.
1999年6月には広島市などの住宅地で31人が死亡し1人が行方不明になる集中豪雨があった。

Following the disaster, the Sediment-related Disaster Prevention Law was enacted.
この災害を受けて制定されたのが土砂災害防止法だ。

In accordance with the legislation, prefectural governments are supposed to conduct a survey on areas prone to landslides and other sediment disasters and designate vulnerable locations as caution zones.
法に基づき、都道府県は土砂災害危険箇所を調査した上で警戒区域や危険性のより高い特別警戒区域に指定する。

Municipal governments are required to work out evacuation plans and draw up maps clearly showing caution zones.
市町村は避難体制を整備し、警戒区域を示す地図を作製、周知する。
ソフト面の対策を充実して住民の安全と生命を守るのが狙いだ。

There are many areas prone to sediment disasters in Hiroshima Prefecture.
広島県は危険箇所が多いが、

However, local bodies' efforts to ensure the safety of residents in vulnerable areas have made little progress as it takes a long time to conduct a detailed survey on disaster-prone locations.
調査に時間がかかることなどから作業が進まず、

The majority of areas hit by the latest landslides were not designated as caution zones.
今回の被災現場も大半が指定されていなかった。

Local governments should take flexible measures such as prioritizing the designation of high-risk locations as caution zones.
危険度の高い地域の指定を優先するなど臨機応変の対応が求められる。

A nationwide survey conducted by the Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism Ministry shows that there are some 520,000 locations vulnerable to sediment disasters, but one-third of these have not been designated as caution zones.
全国的に見ても、国土交通省の調査で危険箇所は約52万カ所に上るが、3分の1は未指定で、作業は遅れている。

This is attributable partly to local residents' resistance to the designation of their neighborhoods as such for fear that the value of their land would decline.
指定されれば不動産価値が下がると住民が懸念し、理解を得にくいことも要因とされる。

However, since landslides could cause huge damage, it is necessary to patiently explain the purpose of the law to residents of high-risk areas to convince them of the need for such warnings.
だが土砂災害の被害は甚大だ。住民に法の趣旨を丁寧に説明する必要があるだろう。

There have been a growing number of local downpours in recent years.
近年、局地的な豪雨が各地で増えている。

Any kind of serious natural disaster could hit anytime and anywhere in Japan where there are numerous mountains and rivers.
山地や河川の多い日本では、いつどこでどんな自然災害が起きてもおかしくない。

All local governments must work out disaster prevention measures based on a wide diversity of scenarios without being bound by stereotypes.
これまでの常識にとらわれず、幅広く事態を想定した災害対策が全国すべての自治体に求められる。

毎日新聞 2014年08月21日 02時33分

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社説:原子力小委 動画非公開は教訓軽視

August 20, 2014(Mainichi Japan)
Editorial: Nuclear policy committee shows disregard for Fukushima lessons
社説:原子力小委 動画非公開は教訓軽視

One of the most important lessons we've learned from the Fukushima No. 1 Nuclear Power Plant disaster is that the closed nature of the nuclear power industry led us to underestimate the dangers of nuclear reactors.
福島第1原発過酷事故の大きな教訓は、原子力関係者の閉鎖的な体質が原発の危険性の過小評価を招いたことだ。

The industry tuned out sound criticism from outside sources, largely influencing the government's policy and risk assessment.
外部からの健全な批判を受け入れず、それが国の政策にもリスク評価にも大きく影響してしまった。

We must put this lesson to good use by making the policymaking and risk assessment process public and raising information transparency.
この教訓を生かすには、政策決定やリスク評価の過程を、できる限り公開し、情報の透明性を高めることが重要だ。
   
The Nuclear Regulation Authority (NRA) -- established after the onset of the Fukushima disaster -- streams video of its meetings and press conferences live, and the footage is also available for viewing online after the events take place.
事故後に設置された原子力規制委員会は、委員会そのものや記者会見を動画でライブ中継し、終了後もネット上で公開している。

A Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) deliberative council that reviewed the government's basic energy policy does the same.
国のエネルギー基本計画を検討した経済産業省の審議会も同様だ。

Such arrangements not only allow debate to extend to outside experts, it also serves to raise awareness and interest among the general public.
外部の専門家の間にも議論を広げるだけでなく、一般の人の関心を高める手段としても評価できる。

However, the Nuclear Energy Subcommittee of METI's Advisory Committee on Natural Resources and Energy, which has been holding meetings since June, accepts silent observers but does not publicly broadcast its meetings.
ところが、6月から開催されている経産省・総合資源エネルギー調査会の「原子力小委員会」は、傍聴は認めるものの、動画による公開はしていない。

Some subcommittee members have demanded that the meetings be broadcast, but as of the fourth meeting held Aug. 7, no video had been made available.
委員からは繰り返し公開を求める声が上がっているが、今月7日に開催された第4回会合でも実現されていない。

The subcommittee was established for the purpose of deliberating specific policies in the nuclear energy field based on the Basic Energy Plan approved by the Cabinet in April.
この小委は4月に閣議決定されたエネルギー基本計画に基づき、原子力分野の具体的方針を検討する目的で設置された。

Topics under discussion include reconstruction and revival in Fukushima, reduced dependence on nuclear energy, human resource development and nuclear fuel cycle policy.
福島の復興・再生や原子力依存度の低減、人材育成、核燃料サイクル政策などがテーマとなっている。

Such discussions will have a great bearing on what the country decides for its energy mix.
その議論は各電源の割合を示すエネルギーミックスの決定にも関係してくる。

With the subcommittee debating topics that will dictate Japan's nuclear policy, transparency of its discussions is crucial.
まさに、今後の具体的な原子力政策を左右する会議であり、透明性を高めて議論することが欠かせない。

Some may argue that allowing silent observers to watch from the visitors' gallery and the release of the minutes are sufficient.
一般傍聴や議事録公開で十分という主張があるかもしれない。

But those who can actually attend the meetings comprise a tiny percentage of the general public.
だが、開催日に会場にこられる人は国民の一握りに過ぎない。

Overviews of the meetings are released within a week or so of each meeting, but they do not indicate who said what. 1週間程度で議事要旨は公開されるが、発言者が誰かわからない。

It takes about a month before the minutes are released, by which time the next meeting has already taken place.
議事録が出るまでには1カ月近くかかり、その間に次の会合が開催されているのが実情だ。

This state of affairs prevents the public from closely following the deliberation process.
これでは、国民が議論の過程を追うことができない。

Some have proposed a compromise of providing audio broadcasts of the meetings, but such broadcasts fail to provide a complete picture, since it's difficult to identify who has the floor at any given time.
音声だけの公開という妥協案もあるようだが、誰が発言しているかがわかりにくく、情報がそぎ落とされてしまう。

The subcommittee chair, Itaru Yasui, has cited the uneasiness some members would feel in voicing their views if the meetings were to be broadcast via video.
動画非公開の理由について小委の委員長は「意見を言いにくい人がいる」と述べている。

However, nuclear energy policy is an important matter bearing on Japan's post-Fukushima energy policy.
しかし、原子力政策は原発事故以降の日本のエネルギー政策の行方に関わる重要事項だ。

It's a matter of great interest to the public.
国民の関心も高い。

If indeed the subcommittee's members feel they can't be honest if their meetings are broadcast, then perhaps there's a lack of understanding about the significance of the meetings and the importance of their transparency.
ここで「動画中継されたら本音が言えない」とすれば、この会議の重要性についても、議論の透明性についても、理解が不足しているのではないだろうか。

At its fourth meeting, the subcommittee recognized the importance of making its meetings public, saying that it would "discuss how to improve the situation."
第4回の会合で事務局は、公開の重要性を認めた上で「そのための手立ての改善を検討したい」と述べている。

We hope the subcommittee will modify its policy and move ahead with video broadcasts of their meetings.
早急に方針を改め、動画公開を進めてほしい。

毎日新聞 2014年08月20日 02時40分

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社説:無戸籍の人 法を見直し抜本救済を

August 19, 2014(Mainichi Japan)
Editorial: Time to aid residents without family records
社説:無戸籍の人 法を見直し抜本救済を

In Japan there exist a number of adults who have been left without family register records because their parents have failed to register their births. The government does not have a grasp of the situation, and the exact number of such people remains unknown, but private support groups receive roughly 100 inquiries a year.
出生届が出されず、戸籍がないまま成人した人たちがいる。国は実態を把握しておらず、具体的な人数は不明だが、民間支援団体には年間100件もの相談がある。

Recently, the Ministry of Justice sent notification to regional legal affairs bureaus across the nation and initiated its first investigation into the problem. It is wrong for children to be left struggling in society simply because their parents, dealing with particular circumstances, failed to submit birth notifications. We hope the ministry's investigation will be the first step in providing relief.
法務省はこのほど、全国の法務局に通知し、初めての実態調査に乗り出した。親の事情で出生届が出せず、そのしわ寄せを子供が受けるのはおかしい。調査を救済の一歩にしてもらいたい。
   
The problem has been partially fuelled by a stipulation in the Civil Code that when a woman gives birth, the person who was the woman's husband at the time she was pregnant is deemed to be the father. Any child born within 300 days of a divorce, therefore, is presumed to be the child of the woman's former husband.
無戸籍の人が生まれる背景には、民法のきまりがある。子供を産んだ母親が妊娠した時の夫を父親とする「嫡出推定」の規定だ。離婚後300日以内に生まれた子供も「前夫の子」と推定される。

Because of this, if a woman flees her husband due to violence or other such reasons, and meets another man and gives birth without first settling her marriage relationship, it is apparently not uncommon for that woman to refrain from registering the child's birth.
このため、夫の暴力などが原因で逃げ出した妻が、婚姻関係の解消ができないまま別の男性と知り合い、出産した場合、出生届を出さないことが少なくないとされる。

There are also times when a woman gets pregnant with another man's child before her divorce is finalized, and after the child is born takes measures to avoid her former husband being registered as the father under the 300-day rule.
また、離婚の成立前に夫以外の男性との間で妊娠した女性が出産後、「300日規定」を理由に前夫の子供とされるのを避ける場合もある。

Of course, such problems can be overcome through arbitration and court rulings, but it is often a great burden for each side to meet face to face.
もちろん、調停や裁判で解決できるが、そうした場で相手と顔を合わせること自体が大きな負担になる。

If a person has no family register, they cannot prove their age. Accordingly, they cannot vote, and are unable to obtain a driver's license or a passport. There are apparently a significant number of people who are also unable to obtain resident cards.
戸籍がなければ、年齢の証明ができず、選挙権が認められない、運転免許やパスポートも取得できない。無戸籍の人の中には、住民票もない人が少なくないようだ。

This leaves them in a worse situation, in which they are left out from being notified about entry into public schools while their families remain ineligible to receive administrative services and benefits, such as child welfare allowances.
そうなれば、公立学校への就学案内が届かなかったり、児童手当など行政サービスが受けられなかったりという実生活上の不利益はさらに大きい。

It is possible for local bodies to create resident cards at their own discretion even if a person does not have a family register, but this fact has not been sufficiently publicized.
住民票は、戸籍がなくても自治体の判断で作成が可能だが、そうしたことが十分に周知されてこなかったのは確かだ。

The Ministry of Justice is said to be seeking the cooperation of municipalities in its investigation. We hope that it will release its findings.
法務省は、市区町村にも調査への協力を求めるという。調査結果はぜひ公表してもらいたい。

The Justice Ministry also sent out notification encouraging local officials to explain the administrative services that people without family register records can access under certain conditions.
法務省は、無戸籍の人が一定の要件で受けられる行政サービスについて説明を尽くすよう通知もした。

Naturally, a careful explanation of the procedures is necessary, but the ministry should also think about drastic legal revisions that prevent people being left without family register records.
もちろん、手続きの丁寧な説明は必要だが、無戸籍の人を生まない抜本的な法律の見直しを考えるべきだ。

In today's society, divorce and remarriage have increased, and family relationships are often complicated.
現代社会では、離婚や再婚も増え、家族関係が複雑化している。

Violence toward spouses has also risen, with some 50,000 incidents recorded each year.
配偶者による暴力も増加し年間5万件に上る。

In such circumstances, it is hard to say that the Civil Code stipulations on presuming paternity fit in with the times.
そうした中で、妊娠時の夫を父とする嫡出推定の規定が時代に合っているとは言い難い。

Just last month, cases that questioned paternity on the grounds of DNA tests were heard in a Supreme Court appeal and presumed paternity emerged as a focus of the hearings. Four of the five justices submitted individual opinions stating a need for legislation.
先月、DNA型鑑定をめぐって父子関係を争い、嫡出推定の規定が焦点になった訴訟の上告審で、5人中4人の最高裁裁判官が個別意見で法整備の必要性に言及したのは記憶に新しい。

In 2007 the Tokyo Bar Association drafted a revision to the Civil Code under which presumed paternity would not apply if the space for the father's details was left blank when registering the child's birth, releasing this draft as a statement of its position.
東京弁護士会は2007年、戸籍の父欄が空白の出生届が出された場合、嫡出推定が及ばないとする民法改正試案をまとめ、意見書として公表した。

The Legislative Council of the Ministry of Justice should begin full-scale deliberation of such methods discussing ways to presume paternity of a child.
こうした方法を含め、父親の推認法について法制審議会などの場で本格的に議論すべきだ。

毎日新聞 2014年08月19日 02時31分

続きを読む
クリック募金^^
プロフィール
自己紹介・リンク

■近況

2009年の9月15日に脳梗塞を発症、右手が少し不自由になりました。
MRAで脳梗塞の部位を特定でき、素早い処置をとれたので大事に至りませんでした。
快復にむけてリハビリ中です。
(2011/01/01更新)

■自己紹介・リンク

[ はじめに ]
タイのスラチャイです。
英語学習に王道はありません。
毎日毎日の地道な努力の積み重ねが必要です。
スラチャイはNHKのラジオ英語会話で現在の英語力を身につけました。
一日僅か15分の学習でも数年間継続すれば相当な学習効果が期待できます。

[ 名前 ]
松井 清 (スラチャイ)

[ 略歴 ]
・福岡県出身
・国立高知大学卒業
・準大手建設会社に就職
・50歳で会社を早期退職
・99/10 タイ全土を旅行
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・03/07 カイちゃん誕生
・07/06 シーファーちゃん誕生
・現在タイ国コンケン在住

[ 座右の銘 ]
Slow and steady wins the race.
遅くとも着実な者が勝利する
(NHK基礎英語芹沢栄先生)

[ 学習の手引き ]
・音読して耳から英語を吸収
・Think in English.
・ネイティブ発音付辞書活用
・英英辞典を活用(英和も)
・翻訳和文で専門用語確認

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スラチャイ編曲のJ.S.Bachです

スラチャイの多国言語学習
初歩のタイ語
初歩の中国語
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初歩のビルマ語
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初歩のタガログ語

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基礎タイ語一覧(タイ文字、ローマ字)
seesaaサイト内リンク一覧:
01 あいさつ
02 別れのあいさつ
03 声をかけるとき
04 感謝の言葉と答え方
05 謝罪の言葉と答え方
06 聞き直すとき
07 相手の言うことがわからないとき
08 うまく言えないとき
09 一般的なあいづち
10 よくわからないときの返事
11 強めのあいづち
12 自分について述べるとき
13 相手のことを尋ねるとき
14 頼みごとをするとき
15 申し出・依頼を断るとき
16 許可を求めるとき
17 説明してもらうとき
18 確認を求めるとき
19 状況を知りたいとき
20 値段の尋ね方と断り方
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22 待ってもらいたいとき
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24 その他

基礎タイ語一覧(タイ文字、音声付き)
サイト外HPリンク一覧:
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05 謝罪の言葉と答え方
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08 うまく言えないとき
09 一般的なあいづち
10 よくわからないときの返事
11 強めのあいづち
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14 頼みごとをするとき
15 申し出・依頼を断るとき
16 許可を求めるとき
17 説明してもらうとき
18 確認を求めるとき
19 状況を知りたいとき
20 値段の尋ね方と断り方
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23 日時・場所・天候を尋ねるとき
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タイの文化一覧:
01 雨の日にも傘をささないタイ人
02 勉強熱心なタイ人女性たち
03 タイ人は敬謙な仏教徒
04 タイの市場
05 タイの食堂
06 タイ人は外食が大好き
07 果物王国タイランド
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