英字新聞

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2014年07月

沖縄「密約」判決 文書管理と原則公開の徹底を

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Top court ruling must not impede information disclosure requests
沖縄「密約」判決 文書管理と原則公開の徹底を

Documents on a secret agreement may have existed, but that does not mean they were kept by the Foreign Ministry—this was the opinion expressed by the Supreme Court in a recent ruling regarding the disclosure of documents on a secret Japan-U.S. accord.
 「密約」文書が作成されたとしても、外務省が保有していたとは認められない――。最高裁はそう指摘した。

Former Mainichi Shimbun reporter Takichi Nishiyama and other plaintiffs have demanded the court order the government to disclose documents confirming the existence of a secret accord tied to the 1972 reversion of Okinawa Prefecture to Japan from U.S. control.
 沖縄返還に伴う日米間の密約を示す文書の開示を、元毎日新聞記者の西山太吉氏らが求めた訴訟の判決だ。

On Monday, the top court upheld a high court ruling which concluded that it was legitimate for the government to turn down an information disclosure request for the documents on the grounds that such documents “do not exist.”
最高裁は、「文書の不存在」を理由に開示しなかった国の決定を適法とした2審判決を支持した。

Despite the ruling, the high court acknowledged that the secret agreement did exist between Tokyo and Washington, and referred to the possibility that the documents were secretly destroyed by the Foreign Ministry or other parties.
 2審判決は、文書の存在を認めた上で、外務省などが秘密裏に文書を廃棄した可能性に言及した。

But Monday’s ruling did not go that far, and we believe the top court was duly careful to avoid making assumptions.
最高裁判決はそこまでは踏み込まなかった。推測を交えず、慎重に判断したと言えよう。

The papers in question include one showing that Japan, during the negotiation process with the United States for the 1972 reversion, has agreed to pay $4 million for the restoration of land occupied by the U.S. military.
 問題となったのは、1972年の沖縄返還に至る日米交渉の過程で、米軍用地の原状回復費400万ドルを日本側が肩代わりすることなどを申し合わせた文書だ。

Nishiyama obtained a copy of the relevant documents from a Foreign Ministry official. Based on the copy, an opposition party lawmaker questioned the government in the Diet.
 西山氏が関連文書の写しを外務省職員から入手し、野党議員がそれを基に国会で追及した。

Nishiyama was later convicted for violating the National Civil Service Law.
西山氏は国家公務員法違反で有罪となった。

These series of events are now known as the “Nishiyama incident.”
「西山事件」である。

The government denied the existence of the secret accord when suspicions were raised.
 日本政府は当時、密約を否定した。

The decision was apparently not easy—we assume that the government decided to deny the suspicion so the reversion of Okinawa would smoothly proceed.
沖縄返還を円滑に実現するため、苦渋の選択をしたという一面もあったろう。

There are always secrets in diplomatic negotiations, which have a huge impact on national interests.
国益をかけた外交交渉に秘密はつきものだ。

Govt’s irresponsible attitude

In 2000, an official document indicating the existence of the secret accord was discovered in the United States.  2000年になって、米国で密約の存在を示す公文書が発見された。

Later, a former director of the Foreign Ministry’s American Bureau who was in charge of negotiations with the United States for the handover admitted Japan’s payment for land restoration during a media interview.
沖縄返還協定の対米交渉責任者だった元外務省局長は、報道機関のインタビューで、日本側の肩代わりを認めた。

However, the government continued to deny the existence of the secret accord.
 日本政府はその後も、密約自体を否定し続けた。

There is no way to avoid criticisms that the government had dodged its responsibility to explain the incident.
国民に対する説明責任に背を向けたと批判されても仕方ない。

Examination of the case took place under the Democratic Party of Japan-led administrations from 2009 to 2010, and a Foreign Ministry advisory panel admitted that Tokyo and Washington exchanged “a secret pact in a broad sense.”  民主党政権下の2009~10年に検証作業が行われ、外務省の有識者委員会は、日米間に「広義の密約」があったと認定した。

The ministry also conducted an in-house investigation but failed to find documents of the secret accord itself.
一方、外務省の内部調査で、密約文書そのものは発見されなかった。

Considering the circumstances, the top court likely decided to cautiously approach the issue.
 こうした経緯から、最高裁は、慎重な姿勢に徹したのだろう。

There is one concern over the ruling, however: The top court ruled that those requesting information disclosures bear the burden of proving the existence of the documents in question.
 疑問が残るのは、最高裁が、文書の存在を立証する責任を開示請求者側に負わせた点だ。

But it is extremely difficult for an ordinary citizen to know how administrative bodies handle the documents they are seeking.
一般国民が、行政機関の文書管理の状況を把握するのは極めて難しい。

We are afraid that Monday’s ruling may raise the bar for people wishing to access government documents through the freedom-of-information system.
 今回の判決で、情報公開のハードルが、これまでよりも高くならないだろうか。

The system is able to exist on the condition that administrative organs preserve their documents appropriately.
 情報公開制度は、行政機関が文書を適切に保存していることを前提に成り立っている。

It is impermissible for such organs to arbitrarily destroy their documents to avoid them being disclosed to the public.
仮にも、行政機関が恣意しい的に文書を廃棄し、情報公開を免れるようなことはあってはならない。

The principle must be reasserted once again that diplomatic documents should be disclosed to the public after a certain period of time to let posterity examine them.
 外交文書は原則、一定期間後に公開して、後世の検証を受けられるようにする必要がある。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, July 16, 2014)

集団的自衛権 国会の論議をさらに深めたい

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Diet debate must be deepened on collective self-defense right
集団的自衛権 国会の論議をさらに深めたい

Diet debate must be intensified further on what can or cannot be done under the government’s new interpretation of the Constitution that would enable a limited exercise of the right of collective self-defense.
 集団的自衛権の行使を限定的に容認する新たな政府見解により、何ができ、何ができないのか。国会での議論をさらに深めることが重要だ。

The first Diet discussions on the matter since the Cabinet approval of the new interpretation were held at the House of Representatives Budget Committee on Monday. Banri Kaieda, president of major opposition party the Democratic Party of Japan, expressed strong opposition to the Cabinet’s decision on the new interpretation, arguing: “The government has made an about-face in constitutional interpretation without holding Diet discussions. Is it all right to make a decision without listening to the people’s opinions?”
 新見解の閣議決定後初の国会論戦が、衆院予算委員会で行われた。民主党の海江田代表は、閣議決定について「国会の議論をせず、憲法解釈を百八十度変える。国民の声を無視して決めて良いのか」と反対する考えを強調した。

Countering that 70 lawmakers had been involved in question-and-answer sessions, including intensive deliberations, in addition to discussions by an expert panel and consultative talks between the ruling parties, Prime Minister Shinzo Abe brushed aside the criticism that the Cabinet decision was made “with more haste than caution.”
 安倍首相は、有識者会議の議論や与党協議に加え、国会の集中審議などで議員70人の質疑があったとし、「閣議決定が拙速だとの指摘は当たらない」と反論した。

Abe’s contention is reasonable because the government and ruling parties went through adequate procedures before making the Cabinet decision.
 政府・与党は十分に手順を踏んでおり、首相の主張は妥当だ。

Diet deliberations will be conducted on bills related to a limited exercise of the right of collective self-defense. We hope to see that the planned sessions will serve as forums to hold intensive discussions about specific cases in which the right will be exercised, so as to win over a greater number of the people on the new constitutional interpretation.
 今後、関連法案の国会審議も行われる。より多くの国民が新見解を理解するよう、具体的事例に即して集中的に議論する機会としたい。

It is also indispensable to hold discussions on the security environment around Japan, which has been growing more severe due to such factors as North Korea’s recent series of ballistic missile launches.
最近の北朝鮮の相次ぐ弾道ミサイル発射など、厳しさを増す国際情勢の論議も欠かせない。

Referring to the three conditions newly set for exercise of the right of collective self-defense, including “there is a clear danger that the people’s rights will be fundamentally undermined,” Abe presented criteria for judgment on whether to approve an exercise of the right.
 「国民の権利を根本から覆す明白な危険」などの集団的自衛権行使の新3要件について首相は、行使の可否の判断基準を示した。

Abe said the government will make judgments by “comprehensively considering” such factors as “the intention and capability of a country threatening to attack, and the location, scale and situation of a contingency,” and in light of “the seriousness and graveness of damage anticipated to be suffered by the people.”
 「攻撃国の意思、能力、事態の発生場所、規模、態様」などを政府が「総合的に勘案」し、「国民が被る犠牲の深刻性、重大性」などから判断する、と語った。

Too many constraints harmful

The DPJ’s Katsuya Okada, a former deputy prime minister, criticized the government, saying, “The criteria for judgment are ambiguous, and this leaves much room for [the government’s] discretion.”
 民主党の岡田克也前副総理は「基準があいまいで(政府の)裁量の余地が大きい」と批判した。

Limiting the exercise of the right of collective self-defense is unavoidable to maintain the legal consistency of constitutional interpretation. However, if too much emphasis is placed on restraints for their own sake, it would lead to excessively restricting the scope of Self-Defense Forces activities and the effectiveness of their operations would be lost.
 集団的自衛権の行使を限定的にするのは、憲法解釈の法的整合性を保つためにやむを得ない。だが、限定のための「歯止め」ばかりを重視すれば、自衛隊の活動を過度に制約し、実効性が失われる。

Giving the government a certain level of discretionary power is a realistic option to make it possible to deal with various situations effectively.
 様々な事態に効果的に対処できるよう、政府に一定の裁量権を認めることが現実的である。

While stressing that the SDF will not take part in international military operations such as those during the Persian Gulf and Iraq wars, Abe showed an interest in the SDF’s participation in minesweeping operations, saying that they are “passive and limited and different in nature [in terms of the use of force].”
 首相は、イラク・湾岸戦争のような海外での武力行使には参加しないと強調する一方で、機雷除去には意欲を示した。掃海活動は「受動的、限定的で、(武力行使の)性格が違う」と語った。

The idea of differentiating between attacks on other countries and minesweeping operations is understandable. We hope to see the government provide more detailed and comprehensible explanations on the matter.
 他国への攻撃と掃海を区別する考え方は理解できる。より丁寧で分かりやすい説明を求めたい。

The DPJ is opposed to the government resorting to changing the constitutional interpretation to approve the exercise of the right of collective self-defense, but has yet to reach a conclusion of its own on whether to approve a limited use of the right. This is because the party has avoided internal discussions of national security due to intraparty differences of opinion. The party should present a unified view of national security as soon as possible.
 民主党は、憲法解釈の変更という手法には反対しているが、集団的自衛権の限定容認の可否については結論を出せていない。党内に賛否両論を抱え、安全保障論議を避けてきたツケである。早く党の統一見解を示すべきだ。

Nippon Ishin no Kai (Japan Restoration Party) and Your Party have already decided to endorse the limited exercise of the right of collective self-defense. The government and ruling parties must make steady efforts to compile relevant bills that would enable the limited use of the right.
 日本維新の会やみんなの党は既に、限定容認への支持を決めている。政府・与党は、関連法の整備を着実に進めてもらいたい。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, July 15, 2014)

滋賀県知事選 与党の緊張感欠如も響いた

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Shiga election results highlight complacency in ruling parties
滋賀県知事選 与党の緊張感欠如も響いた

A government and a Liberal Democratic Party that had grown overconfident were apparently handed a rebuke when a former Democratic Party of Japan lawmaker defeated a candidate supported by the two ruling parties in Sunday’s Shiga gubernatorial election.
 政府・自民党の慢心を戒める結果だった、と言えるのではないか。

Taizo Mikazuki, an independent candidate and a former member of the House of Representatives with the DPJ, was elected to his first term in a poll contested by two other independents, including Takashi Koyari, who had the backing of the LDP and New Komeito.
 滋賀県知事選は、無所属で前民主党衆院議員の三日月大造氏が、自民、公明両党が推薦する無所属の小鑓隆史氏らを破り、初当選した。

Mikazuki’s victory owes much to his election tactic of positioning himself clearly as the successor to Gov. Yukiko Kada, who served two terms, and criticizing the political stances of the government and the LDP.
 三日月氏は、2期務めた嘉田由紀子知事の後継者との立場を明確にするとともに、政府・自民党の政治姿勢を攻撃する選挙戦術をとったことが奏功した。

Mikazuki was also supported by a timely tailwind, especially after criticism mounted against Environment Minister Nobuteru Ishihara for his comments last month that “money will be what matters most after all” in negotiations between the central and local governments over selecting locations for the construction of temporary storage facilities for contaminated soil in Fukushima Prefecture.
Much criticism has also been directed toward LDP members of the Tokyo Metropolitan Assembly and the lower house Committee on Internal Affairs and Communications who made sexist jeers.
 特に、福島県での中間貯蔵施設建設を巡る石原環境相の「金目」発言や、東京都議会や衆院総務委員会での自民党議員のセクハラヤジに対する批判が高まったことが三日月氏への追い風となった。

Voters apparently felt that these words and deeds, which lacked respect for women, and residents seriously affected by the Great East Japan Earthquake, demonstrated the arrogance and complacency of the ruling parties.
 東日本大震災の被災者や女性への配慮を欠いた言動は、与党の傲おごりや緊張感の欠如の表れ、と受け止められたのだろう。

The LDP is the sole powerful party in the Diet, occupying an overwhelming majority of seats, and the Cabinet of Prime Minister Shinzo Abe still enjoys a high approval rating. Nonetheless, the government and the LDP should be more humble and take every necessary step to carry out policies.
 国会は自民党が圧倒的多数を占める「1強」体制で、安倍内閣の支持率もなお高いが、政府・自民党は、より謙虚な姿勢で手順を尽くし、政策を遂行すべきだ。

Taking national politics local

A gubernatorial election is generally expected to hinge on the capabilities of the candidates, and their stances on important issues facing the prefecture. LDP Secretary General Shigeru Ishiba said, “[The election] was influenced by some factors other than those directly connected to the candidates and prefectural administration.” It is regrettable that the race unfolded the way he described.
 知事選は本来、候補者の資質や県政の問題を問うものだ。自民党の石破幹事長が「候補者、県政に直接、影響があること以外で影響が出ている」と指摘したような展開になったのは残念である。

Mikazuki’s move to call for a phaseout of nuclear power, as Kada did, is questionable, because nuclear policies should be left to the government to decide from a broader perspective. Governors have no legal authority over decisions to resume operations at nuclear power plants.
 疑問なのは、三日月氏が、嘉田知事と同様、段階的に原子力発電から脱却する「卒原発」を唱えたことだ。原発政策は、政府が大局的観点から判断すべきものだ。原発の再稼働などには、知事の法的権限は及ばない。

There are no nuclear power plants currently operating in Japan, which has led to higher fuel costs for thermal power plants and higher electricity charges.
 現状は、原発が稼働せず、火力発電の燃料費がかさみ、電気料金は上昇し続けている。

The government must expedite efforts to restart nuclear reactors by persuading relevant municipal governments to give their consent.
政府は、関係自治体の理解を得て、原発の再稼働を急がねばならない。

Koyari, a former official of the Economy, Trade and Industry Ministry, pledged to revitalize the Shiga prefectural economy, while stressing the achievements of the Abe administration’s economic policies, known collectively as Abenomics.
 経済産業省出身の小鑓氏は、安倍政権の経済政策「アベノミクス」の成果を強調し、「滋賀県の経済を再生する」と訴えた。

He failed to garner wide support, however, as the effects of Abenomics remain limited in communities away from the country’s major urban centers—a reminder of the government’s need to revitalize local communities in earnest.
 ただ、アベノミクスの効果が地方では限定的なこともあり、支持は広がらなかった。政府は、地域活性化にも力を入れるべきだ。

The Shiga race came on the heels of the Cabinet’s approval of the government’s new constitutional interpretation allowing for limited exercise of the right of collective self-defense.
 知事選は、集団的自衛権を限定的に容認する新たな政府見解を閣議決定した直後に行われた。

Given the recent deterioration in Japan’s security environment, strengthening the Japan-U.S. alliance and international cooperation by making it possible for the nation to exercise this right is a significant development.
 日本の安全保障環境の悪化を踏まえれば、集団的自衛権の行使を可能にし、日米同盟や国際連携を強化する意義は大きい。

The Mikazuki election camp criticized the new interpretation as part of its attacks on the Abe administration, dragging the campaign fight “outside the ring.”
 だが、三日月陣営は、政権批判の一環で新見解に反対し、「場外戦」に持ち込んだと言える。

The government and ruling parties should not dwell on the outcome of this election, but instead try to win wider acceptance among the public for the right of collective self-defense by sparing no efforts to explain why it is necessary to permit its exercise.
 政府・与党は、知事選の結果にとらわれず、行使容認の必要性を丁寧かつ積極的に説明し、国民の理解を広げる必要がある。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, July 14, 2014)

日豪首脳会談 「特別な関係」築く安保協力を

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Japan-Australia partnership crucial to improve defense of Asia-Pacific
日豪首脳会談 「特別な関係」築く安保協力を

Japan and Australia are strategic partners that share the responsibility of fostering peace and stability in the Asia-Pacific region. We urge the two countries to deepen their mutual relationship on the occasion of Prime Minister Shinzo Abe’s visit to Australia.
 日本と豪州は、アジア太平洋の平和と安定への責任を共有する戦略的パートナーだ。安倍首相の訪豪を機に、協力関係を一層深化させたい。

In his talks with Australian Prime Minister Tony Abbott on Tuesday, Abe explained Japan’s reinterpretation of the Constitution to allow limited exercise of the right of collective self-defense.
 安倍首相はアボット豪首相に、集団的自衛権行使を限定的に容認する新たな政府見解を説明した。

Abe stressed that the aim of the reinterpretation was to “protect the lives and peaceful livelihood of the people and let Japan play a more proactive role in the international community.”
「国民の命と平和な暮らしを守り抜くとともに、国際社会でより積極的な役割を果たすことを可能とするものだ」と強調した。

Abbott welcomed Japan’s move and credited Japan as being a peace-loving country, saying that “Japan has been...an exemplary international citizen in the postwar era.”
 アボット首相は日本の取り組みを歓迎した。共同記者会見では「日本は戦後、ずっと模範的な国際市民だった」と述べ、平和国家としての歩みを評価した。

The reinterpretation enables Japan to exercise its collective self-defense right and order the Self-Defense Forces to protect Australian vessels when an emergency occurs on the Korean Peninsula or elsewhere.
 新見解により、朝鮮半島有事などの際、自衛隊が集団的自衛権を行使し、豪軍艦船などを防護できるようになる。

During a speech to the Australian Parliament, Abe said, “Australia and Japan have now freed ourselves from one old layer and are now moving towards a new ‘special relationship.’” We concur with Abe’s view.
安倍首相が豪議会での演説で「日豪は新たな『特別な関係』へ、歴史的脱皮を遂げた」と指摘したのも、うなずける。

Abe and Abbott signed an accord on the joint development of defense equipment. Australia is interested in Japan’s submarine technology, and the two countries are scheduled to conduct a joint study on the fluid mechanics of ships. We urge the two nations to steadily continue cooperation in this respect.
 両首脳は、防衛装備品の共同開発に関する協定に署名した。豪州は、日本の潜水艦技術に関心を示しており、当面、船舶の流体力学分野を共同研究する。こうした装備協力を着実に進めるべきだ。

Trilateral cooperation

It also is essential to expand joint exercises between the SDF and the armed forces of Australia and the United States, an ally of both Japan and Australia.
 自衛隊、豪軍と、両国の同盟国である米軍による3か国の共同訓練の拡充も欠かせない。

China has been trying to change the status quo in the East and South China seas by force. Australia has strong economic ties with China, but like Japan and the United States it places emphasis on the rule of law. It is important for the three nations to join hands and tenaciously press China to exercise restraint.
 中国は東・南シナ海で、力による現状変更を試みている。豪州は、中国との経済関係は強いが、「法の支配」を重視する立場では、日米と足並みをそろえている。日米豪の協力により、中国に粘り強く自制を促すことが重要である。

Abe and Abbott also signed an economic partnership agreement. Japan will reduce tariffs on Australian beef, while Australia’s tariffs on Japan’s medium-sized cars will be removed. The two nations will work for early enforcement of the agreement.
 日豪首脳は、経済連携協定(EPA)にも調印した。日本は豪州産牛肉の関税を引き下げる。日本製中型車などの関税は撤廃される。早期の発効を目指す。

The two leaders also agreed to cooperate to bring about the early conclusion of the Trans-Pacific Partnership multilateral trade negotiations.
 環太平洋経済連携協定(TPP)交渉の早期妥結へ、日豪が協力することでも合意した。

Prior to his visit to Australia, Abe held talks in New Zealand with Prime Minister John Key. Abe and Key confirmed that they will work proactively for a conclusion of the TPP talks.
 豪州に先立ち、首相はニュージーランドを訪問し、キー首相との会談の中でも、TPP交渉の妥結に向けて精力的に取り組む方針を確認した。

Promotion of free trade is one of the main pillars of the Abe administration’s growth strategy. It is imperative that the administration work hard on opening up its market on farm produce and other products and play an active role in concluding the TPP talks as early as possible.
 自由貿易の推進は、安倍政権の成長戦略の重要な柱だ。農産物の市場開放などに努め、早期妥結へ役割を果たさねばならない。

Abe will next head for Papua New Guinea. It will be the first time in 29 years for a Japanese prime minister to visit the island nation. In talks with Prime Minister Peter O’Neill, the two leaders are expected to reach an agreement to cooperate on natural gas development.
 首相は今回、島嶼とうしょ国のパプアニューギニアも訪れる。日本の首相の訪問は29年ぶりだ。オニール首相と会談し、天然ガス開発の協力などで一致する見通しだ。

In the western Pacific, China is increasing its influence over the Pacific Islands by supporting the building and renovation of harbors and ports. It therefore is important for Japan to build trust in the region through cooperation in such fields as disaster prevention and human resources development.
 西太平洋では、中国が島嶼国の港湾整備などを支援し、影響力を強めている。日本は、防災や人材育成などの分野で協力し、各国と信頼関係を築くことが大切だ。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, July 9, 2014)

香山リカのココロの万華鏡:使用一瞬、依存一生 /東京

July 06, 2014(Mainichi Japan)
Kaleidoscope of the Heart: Addiction recovery can take a lifetime
香山リカのココロの万華鏡:使用一瞬、依存一生 /東京

A man recently drove his SUV onto a sidewalk in Tokyo's Ikebukuro area, leaving a woman dead and seven others injured. The man has admitted to purchasing and smoking a so-called "legal loophole herb," and it is believed that he was under its influence when he caused the crash. What he did is unforgivable.
 東京・池袋で車が暴走し、8人が死傷する事件が起きた。運転していた男性は「脱法ハーブ」を購入して使用していたことを認めており、暴走はその影響と考えられている。許されない話だ。

Although the substance is called an herb, it is no simple plant concoction. These drugs, which are not technically illegal, are made of leaves processed with chemicals, resulting in a product with effects similar to those of stimulants and marijuana. Most of these chemicals were first developed for medical uses including as pain killers for people with cancer or other diseases.
 「ハーブ」という名前はついているが決して植物性のものではなく、覚醒剤や大麻と似た作用のある化学物質を植物のかけらにまぶしたりした加工製品である。それら化学物質の多くはがんの鎮痛など当初は医療用に開発されたものが不法な経路で流出し、加工されて売られているのだ。

Some people try them out thinking they are made of natural ingredients and that they are simply relaxing, but the chemicals with which these leaves are laced are strong. Examples of these drugs' symptoms include hyperactivity, hallucinations, tremors, nausea and disorientation. Repeated use may cause chronic psychological illnesses, and those who become addicted to the substances oftentimes end up destroying their lives. The strength of these loophole drugs and the horror they can cause are incompatible with the deceptively innocuous term "herb."
 あたかもリラックス効果のある安心な天然素材というイメージで手を出す人もいるようだが、含まれる成分は非常に強力だ。摂取してすぐの急性症状としては興奮、幻覚、けいれんや嘔吐(おうと)、意識障害などが起き、頻回の使用で慢性の精神病状態に陥ったり、心身の依存が形成されて手を切れなくなったりして人生が崩壊してしまうケースも少なくない。その強烈さと恐ろしさは一般の「ハーブ」のイメージとはほど遠い。

The Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare has designated over 1,300 chemicals as harmful drugs and bans the use and possession of such substances like marijuana and stimulants. However, the ministry is having a hard time keeping up with new chemicals that evade existing regulations and controlling the circulation of new substances.
 厚生労働省はこれまで1300種以上の化学物質を有害な「指定薬物」として覚醒剤や大麻と同様に所持や使用を禁止しているが、それをすり抜けるかのように新しい化学物質が出回り、取り締まりが困難となっている。

There used to be a road safety ad that went, "It only takes a moment to pay attention, but it takes a whole lifetime to recover from a car accident." When I see patients suffering from the aftereffects of addiction to these "herbs," I'm reminded of that ad and always think, "It only takes a moment to take a drug, but it takes whole lifetime to recover from addiction."
 かつて交通事故撲滅を呼びかけるコピーで「注意一瞬、事故一生」というのがあった。脱法ハーブの後遺症で苦しむ人を見ると、私はいつも「使用一瞬、依存一生」だと思う。

They might have used the hallucinatory herb for only a short time in their lives, but addiction patients must use a lot of energy trying to beat their dependence on the drug. They must pay the price for abusing these loophole drugs, including but not limited to quitting their job due to the substance's aftereffects. In other words, by the time a user regrets taking the drug, it's already too late.
使ったのは人生の中のほんの一時期であったとしても、その人はその後、薬をやめるために多大なエネルギーを使ったり、ぶり返す精神病のような後遺症で仕事もできなくなったり、あまりにも大きな“ツケ”を払わなければならなくなる。「あのとき、誘いに応じて気軽に手を出したばっかりに」と悔やんでもどうにもならない。

You may come across pills and drinks that are labeled as "herbs," "aromatherapy goods" or "supplements." Some people take these substances without thinking very much about it, especially when they come from friends or significant others, possibly worrying that to refuse would endanger these relationships.
 「ハーブ」「アロマ」「サプリ」といった名で「飲んでみない?」と差し出される錠剤や液体。とくに相手が恋人や友人の場合、断ったら人間関係にヒビが入るのでは、と「一度だけなら」と義理で応じてしまう人もいる。

That one sip or one pill may be the beginning of the end of the person's life. I want readers to refuse to take these substances. Make excuses if you have to. Say you have an allergy. If the person offering the pill takes offense, that person does not care about you in the first place. We have to do whatever it takes to prevent "loophole" drugs from spreading throughout our society.
しかし、その最初の一錠が不幸の扉を開けるかもしれないのだ。よくわからないものは「私、アレルギーがあるから」とでも言ってとにかく口に入れないでほしい。それで「なんだ、もう友だちじゃないよ」などと言う相手は、はじめからあなたのことなど大切にしていないのだ。脱法ハーブのまん延は何としても防がなければならない。

(精神科医)
(By Rika Kayama, psychiatrist)
毎日新聞 2014年07月01日 地方版

中韓首脳会談 地域の安定損なう「反日共闘」

The Yomiuri Shimbun
China-ROK anti-Japanese campaign threatens to bring regional instability
中韓首脳会談 地域の安定損なう「反日共闘」

China’s intention to drive a wedge into cooperative ties among Japan, the United States and South Korea by wooing Seoul to its side has become more clear than ever.
 韓国を取り込み、日米韓の連携にくさびを打ち込む。そんな中国の狙いが浮き彫りになった。

Chinese President Xi Jinping has visited Seoul for talks with South Korean President Park Geun-hye, and the two leaders confirmed their nations’ “firm opposition” to the development of nuclear weapons on the Korean Peninsula in connection with their policies toward North Korea.
 中国の習近平国家主席がソウルを訪問し、韓国の朴槿恵大統領と会談した。北朝鮮政策で、朝鮮半島での核開発に断固反対する方針で一致した。

It was the first time that a top Chinese leader has visited South Korea ahead of North Korea, a traditional friend of the communist state. Xi played up the impression that China was placing importance on South Korea and that the two nations were forging a cooperative relationship.
 中国の最高指導者が、伝統的友好国の北朝鮮より先に韓国を訪れるのは初めてだ。「韓国重視」と「中韓協調」を演出した。

In an article he contributed to South Korean newspapers just before his visit, Xi said it was essential for the two nations to take joint steps for the security of Asia. The proposal is based on his “Asian security concept,” in which “Asian security must be protected by Asian people.” It is a clear indication that China is trying to exclude the United States from the security framework of Asia.
 習氏は訪韓直前に韓国紙に寄稿し、アジアの安全保障で中韓の共同対処の重要性を強調している。「アジアの安全はアジアの人々が守る」という自らの「アジア安全観」に基づく提案で、米国を排除しようとする意図が明らかだ。

Japan, the United States and Southeast Asian nations are sharply criticizing China for its unilateral attempts to change the status quo in Asia, which have increasingly isolated the nation. Given the situation, Bejing apparently wants to gain Seoul’s cooperation in creating a China-led Asian order through strengthened relations with South Korea, whose economy increasingly depends on that of China.
 アジアでは、一方的な現状変更を試みる中国に対し、日米や東南アジア諸国が批判を強めている。孤立傾向にある中国は、経済面で対中依存を深める韓国との関係を強化し、中国主導の秩序作りへの協力を得たいのだろう。

Limited results

But a joint statement merely said the two nations will regularly hold high-level strategic dialogue on security and diplomatic issues. As South Korea naturally sought to avoid causing cracks in its relations with its ally, the United States, Xi’s diplomatic strategy was not fruitful.
 しかし、中韓共同声明は、「外交・安保上級戦略対話の定例化」と記述するにとどまった。韓国が同盟国・米国との亀裂を避けるのは当然であり、習氏の外交戦略が奏功したとは言えまい。

As for the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank that Xi is proposing, the joint statement only said the two nations will continue talks on the matter. China will not easily realize its ambitions to lead efforts to build a financial order in Asia to counter the Asian Development Bank, which is led by Japan and the United States.
 習氏が提唱する「アジアインフラ投資銀行」についても「継続協議」とされた。日米が主導するアジア開発銀行に対抗し、中国主導の金融秩序を築くという目論見もくろみも簡単には実現しないだろう。

Above all, Japan should be alarmed by the fact that China and South Korea agreed to conduct joint research on materials related to so-called comfort women as spelled out in a supplementary note to their joint statement.
 日本が警戒すべきは、共同声明の付属文書に、いわゆる従軍慰安婦問題に関する資料の共同研究の実施が盛り込まれたことだ。

China has already submitted an application to register materials related to comfort women with UNESCO’s Memory of the World. South Korea is also preparing to make a similar application.
 中国は既に、慰安婦の関連資料について、国連教育・科学・文化機関(ユネスコ)の世界記憶遺産に登録申請している。韓国も、同様の申請を準備中だ。

Of serious concern is the fact that China and South Korea are expanding their joint anti-Japanese campaigns by using historical issues—which they have interpreted for their own convenience—in their efforts to sway international opinion to their sides.
 両国が、自ら都合良く解釈した歴史カードに基づく「反日共闘」を拡大し、国際社会での世論戦を展開することは、日本にとって憂慮すべき事態である。

During his speech at Seoul University, Xi called on the South Korean people to join anti-Japanese campaigns by saying, “Japanese militarists carried out barbarous wars of aggression against China and Korea.”
 習氏はソウル大学での講演で、「日本の軍国主義者は、中韓に対する野蛮な侵略戦争を仕掛けた」などと主張し、韓国国民にも共闘を呼びかけた。

Park was cautious about China’s maneuver to scuttle ties among Japan, the United States and South Korea in the areas of security and finance, but actively responded to China’s calls to bash Japan over historical issues.
 朴氏は、中国による日米韓の分断工作に対し、安全保障、金融両面では慎重姿勢を見せたが、歴史分野では積極的に呼応した。

Park apparently intends to use her anti-Japanese stance to buoy her approval rating, which has dropped due mainly to her administration’s poor handling of the sinking of a ferry in April. Park’s irresponsible move in becoming closer to China has been met with unveiled expressions of concern from the United States.
 旅客船沈没事故などで低下した支持率の回復を図る思惑もあるのだろうが、そうした安易な対中接近には米国も懸念を隠さない。

This is a good time for Park to rethink how important coopera-tive ties are among Japan, the United States and South Korea.
 朴氏は、日米韓の連携の重要性を改めて考える時ではないか。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, July 5, 2014)

集団的自衛権 抑止力向上へ意義深い「容認」

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Constitutional reinterpretation enhances Japan’s deterrent power
集団的自衛権 抑止力向上へ意義深い「容認」

The government has made a historic decision that will reinforce our coordination with the United States and other members of the international community. It is also likely that the decision will contribute to solidifying Japan’s peace and security.
 日米防衛指針に適切に反映せよ
 米国など国際社会との連携を強化し、日本の平和と安全をより確かなものにするうえで、歴史的な意義があろう。

On Tuesday, the Cabinet approved the government’s reinterpretation of the Constitution to allow limited exercise of the right of collective self-defense.
 政府が、集団的自衛権の行使を限定的に容認する新たな政府見解を閣議決定した。

At a press conference that day, Prime Minister Shinzo Abe expressed his resolve to “consolidate Japan’s path as a peace-seeking nation.” He also pledged to establish “a seamless legal framework on national security to protect the lives and daily livelihood of the people.”
 安倍首相は記者会見で、「平和国家としての歩みを、さらに力強いものにする。国民の命と暮らしを守るため、切れ目のない安全保障法制を整備する」と語った。

There have been gaps between the Liberal Democratic Party and New Komeito over the issue. While the LDP has supported permitting Japan to exercise its right of collective self-defense, Komeito held onto a cautious approach. We would like to praise both parties’ efforts to find middle ground and reach an agreement.
 行使容認に前向きな自民党と、慎重な公明党の立場は当初、隔たっていたが、両党が歩み寄り、合意に達したことを歓迎したい。

Baseless accusations
 ◆「解釈改憲」は的外れだ◆

It is safe to say that Abe’s fiery devotion to the cause, as well as his persistent and unyielding position on the reinterpretation of the Constitution, has made it possible for the ruling parties to overcome difficulties and reach an agreement.
 安倍首相が憲法解釈の変更に強い意欲を示し、最後まで揺るぎない姿勢を貫いたことが、困難な合意形成を実現させたと言える。

Komeito had to take time in building a consensus, including holding talks with its regional organizations, but in the end it was able to reach a responsible decision. We believe Komeito’s experience as a member of the ruling coalition has greatly helped the party reach such untiy.
 公明党は、地方組織を含む党内調整に時間を要したが、責任ある結論を出せたのは連立政権の一翼を担った経験の賜物たまものだろう。

Under the government’s reinterpretation of the Constitution, Japan will be permitted to use the minimum necessary force when an armed attack takes place against a foreign country with which Japan has close relations, and there is a clear danger that the basic rights of the people of Japan will be fundamentally undermined.
 政府見解は、密接な関係にある国が攻撃され、日本国民の権利が根底から覆される明白な危険がある場合、必要最小限度の実力行使が許容されると記した。

The interpretation that Japan “possesses, but cannot exercise” the right of collective self-defense has long stood. Allowing Japan to exercise the right is a major sea change, as it means Japan has overcome a national security problem that has long loomed over the nation.
 集団的自衛権は「保有するが、行使できない」とされてきた。その行使容認に転じたことは、長年の安全保障上の課題を克服したという意味で画期的である。

The reinterpretation does not touch on specific issues, but it will likely enable Japan to deal with all eight example scenarios cited by the government as cases in which the nation should be able to exercise its collective self-defense right. Those scenarios include protecting U.S. vessels under armed attack, minesweeping operations and missile defense.
 今回の政府見解には明記されていないが、米艦防護、機雷除去、ミサイル防衛など、政府が集団的自衛権を適用すべきとした8事例すべてに対応できるとされる。

The reinterpretation has also left rooms for Japan to participate in minesweeping operations authorized by a U.N. resolution under a collective security framework. If the government goes too far in narrowing the scope of the nation’s permissible exercise of the collective self-defense right, it would restrain the activities of the Self-Defense Forces and hollow out the significance of changing the interpretation of the Constitution.
 国連決議による集団安全保障に基づく掃海などを可能にする余地を残したことも評価できる。行使の範囲を狭めすぎれば、自衛隊の活動が制約され、憲法解釈変更の意義が損なわれてしまう。

The reinterpretation follows the core principle of the 1972 government view on the right of collective self-defense and is logically consistent with previous interpretations. It is clear that this reinterpretation was made within a reasonable range.
 新解釈は、1972年の政府見解の根幹を踏襲し、過去の解釈との論理的整合性を維持しており、合理的な範囲内の変更である。

This is not a case of using constitutional reinterpretation where actual amendments to the Constitution are required, and it differs fundamentally from such cases. This case is more a matter of the government making necessary adjustments to previous interpretations that were overly self-restrictive due to conditions in the Diet.
 本来は憲法改正すべき内容なのに、解釈変更で対応する「解釈改憲」とは本質的に異なる。むしろ、国会対策上などの理由で過度に抑制的だった従来の憲法解釈を、より適正化したと言えよう。

The reinterpretation is made based on the Cabinet’s right to an official interpretation of the Constitution. The Diet will play a role in this issue through deliberation of bills related to the reinterpretation, and when the government asks the Diet for approval of plans to exercise the right of collective self-defense. The judiciary also has a voice in the issue through the power of judicial review.
 今回の解釈変更は、内閣が持つ公権的解釈権に基づく。国会は今後、関連法案審議や、自衛権発動時の承認という形で関与する。司法も違憲立法審査権を有する。

Thus the issue will be handled consistently with the Constitution’s principle of separation of powers among the administrative, legislative and judicial branches. It is difficult to understand criticisms asserting that the reinterpretation is “counter to constitutionalism.”
 いずれも憲法の三権分立に沿った対応であり、「立憲主義に反する」との批判は理解し難い。

It is similarly off base to argue that the latest Cabinet decision would pave the way for war, a line of argument propagated by left-leaning and liberal voices. Exercising our nation’s right of collective self-defense does not mean using force to protect any other nation in a situation unrelated to our own defense. The government’s new stance on the right has categorically ruled out our nation’s involvement in military situations such as the Iraq War.
 「戦争への道を開く」といった左翼・リベラル勢力による情緒的な扇動も見当違いだ。自国の防衛と無関係に、他の国を守るわけではない。イラク戦争のような例は完全に排除されている。

Permanent dispatch law needed
 ◆自衛隊恒久法の検討を◆

The government’s revised view on the right has also expanded the range of cooperative international peace activities the SDF will be able to conduct.
 政府見解では、自衛隊の国際平和協力活動も拡充した。

For instance, the revised interpretation has narrowed the scope of a constitutional ban on SDF actions inseparable from the use of force by another country. The Cabinet decision has limited the ban to “activities in combat zones.”
 憲法の禁じる「武力行使との一体化」の対象を「戦闘現場における活動」などに限定した。

The decision has also made it possible for the SDF to conduct armed rescue operations during their involvement in U.N. peacekeeping missions and other overseas missions.

If civilians or foreign troops face an armed attack in areas distant from but accessible to SDF members engaged in such overseas tasks, these personnel will be able to go to their rescue. In such cases, they would be permitted to use weapons in their execution of such duties, under the latest Cabinet decision.
「駆けつけ警護」や任務遂行目的の武器使用も可能にしている。

We believe these changes will enable the SDF to better accomplish international missions such as supply, transport and medical support activities along with U.N. peacekeeping operations.
 自衛隊による他国部隊への補給・輸送・医療支援や、国連平和維持活動(PKO)で、より実効性ある活動が期待できよう。

The Cabinet decision also addresses some issues regarding SDF actions to be taken in what have been described as gray-zone situations, including a potential scenario in which foreign armed groups take control of remote Japanese islands. It expedites procedures for invoking SDF maritime patrol operations and other activities aimed at addressing such situations.
 武装集団による離島占拠などグレーゾーン事態の対処では、自衛隊の海上警備行動などの手続きを迅速化することになった。

We suggest the government consider expanding the list of SDF duties to include territorial patrols, thereby enabling our country to carry out “seamless activities” in the event that the nation’s peaceful situation is subverted by a military contingency.
 さらに、平時から有事へ「切れ目のない活動」を行うため、自衛隊に領域警備任務などを付与することも検討してはどうか。

The government and the ruling parties are set to begin implementing legislative measures to complement the Cabinet decision during this autumn’s extraordinary Diet session. Among those measures are amendments to the Self-Defense Forces Law and the Armed Attack Situations Response Law. It is important to create and refine laws to respond flexibly to a variety of situations.
 政府・与党は秋の臨時国会から自衛隊法、武力攻撃事態法の改正など、関連法の整備を開始する。様々な事態に柔軟に対応できる仕組みにすることが大切だ。

It is also worthwhile to consider establishing a permanent law on SDF dispatch for overseas missions—not only for U.N. peacekeeping missions, as sanctioned under the current legislation.
 PKOに限定せず、自衛隊の海外派遣全体に関する恒久法を制定することも検討に値しよう。

At the end of the year, Tokyo and Washington are scheduled to revise the Guidelines for Japan-U.S. Defense Cooperation. The Japanese and U.S. governments must ensure the planned changes to the defense cooperation guidelines properly incorporate changes made to our nation’s defense policies as a result of the latest Cabinet decision. These changes include the newly granted approval for exercise of the right of collective self-defense and the reconsideration of the ban on SDF actions that are inseparable from the use of force by other nations.
 日米両政府は年末に、日米防衛協力の指針(ガイドライン)を改定する予定だ。集団的自衛権の行使容認や「武力行使との一体化」の見直しを、指針にきちんと反映させなければならない。

Public support essential
 ◆国民の理解を広げたい◆

We hope Japan and the United States will work together to deepen their defense cooperation. Japan should increase SDF support for U.S. forces, and U.S. forces should be more significantly involved in the defense of remote islands and other parts of our country.
 自衛隊の対米支援を拡大する一方、離島など日本防衛への米軍の関与を強め、双方向で防衛協力を深化させたい。

Drafting plans for military emergencies and repeating joint military exercises under the new defense cooperation guidelines will also function to shore up the Japan-U.S. alliance and increase the two nations’ combined deterrent potential.
新たな指針に基づく有事の計画策定や共同訓練を重ねることが、日米同盟を強化し、抑止力を高めていく。

Abe’s efforts to lift the self-imposed ban on our nation exercising its collective self-defense right has garnered support not only from the ruling parties, but from opposition lawmakers as well. The idea is endorsed by such opposition members as Nippon Ishin no Kai (Japan Restoration Party), Your Party and some members of the leading opposition Democratic Party of Japan. However, the DPJ’s top cadre remains noncommittal about whether to approve the exercise of the right, and has criticized Abe’s initiative in reinterpreting the nation’s fundamental law.
 集団的自衛権の行使容認は、与党のほか、日本維新の会、みんなの党や、さらに民主党の一部も賛成している。民主党執行部は、解釈変更を批判しながら、行使容認の是非は決め切れていない。

With the Cabinet’s decision completed, Abe should take every opportunity—ad-hoc parliamentary sessions that can be convened even during the the Diet’s recess, for example—to explain the significance of ending the ban on the collective self-defense right. It is crucial for the prime minister to make every effort to ensure that the public better understands the true meaning of revising the government’s official stance on the right.
 安倍首相は今後、国会の閉会中審査などの機会を利用し、行使容認の意義を説明して、国民の理解を広げる努力を尽くすべきだ。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, July 2, 2014)

社会福祉法人 地域貢献で存在意義を示せ

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Social welfare service corporations must step up role as local entities
社会福祉法人 地域貢献で存在意義を示せ

Criticism has surged recently against social welfare service corporations for failing to sufficiently fulfill their roles, despite having an easier time engaging in almost the same services as ordinary private-sector companies as a result of such measures as preferential tax treatment.
 税制上の優遇措置などを受けながら、民間企業と同じ事業に安住している。社会福祉法人が、十分に役割を果たしていないとの批判が多い。

To reform social welfare service corporations that run such facilities as nursing homes for the elderly and child care centers, an expert panel of the Health, Labor and Welfare Ministry has worked out a draft report containing a set of recommendations. The proposed report should be seen as a good opportunity to enhance the quality of their services.
 介護施設や保育所を運営する社会福祉法人の改革に向けて、厚生労働省の有識者検討会が報告書案をまとめた。事業を充実させる契機としたい。

Social welfare service corporations are nonprofit private-sector organizations based on the Social Welfare Law. They number about 20,000 nationwide. While being subject to strict regulations and supervision by administrative authorities, the corporations are entitled to receive preferential treatment in various areas, such as exemption from corporate tax and other public dues, and eligibility for subsidies to improve their facilities.
 社会福祉法人は、社会福祉法に基づく非営利の民間組織で、約2万の法人が存在する。行政による規制や指導監督が厳しい反面、法人税などの免除や施設整備の補助金を受けている。

Bodies authorized as social welfare service corporations have played pivotal roles in the nation’s social welfare programs since the 1950s, but recently an increasing number of businesses and nonprofit bodies from various fields have been entering the field of social welfare services. The environment surrounding social welfare service corporations has been changing drastically.
 1950年代から福祉サービスの中核となってきたが、近年は、同分野への企業やNPOなどの参入が進む。社会福祉法人を取り巻く環境は大きく変化している。

Because of such phenomena as the rapidly aging society and the instability of employment, tasks that cannot be fully handled through the existing government-run social welfare programs have been brought to the fore, such as the need to provide care for elderly citizens living alone and supporting hikikomori youths who have withdrawn from society.
 高齢化の進展や雇用の不安定化により、単身高齢者の見守りや引きこもりの若者の支援など、公的制度では対応しきれない課題も顕在化している。

As things stand, however, few social welfare service corporations have actually been meeting these new challenges in local communities.
 だが、こうした新たな地域ニーズに対応する社会福祉法人は、一部に限られているのが実情だ。

Reexamine mission

The draft report by the health ministry panel has rightly pointed out the need to make it obligatory for social welfare service corporations to engage in activities for the benefit of local communities. It is undoubtedly one of the principal duties of such corporations to address tasks in their fields that cannot be undertaken by profit-pursuing businesses.
 報告書案が、地域貢献活動の義務化を求めたのは、もっともである。利益を追求する企業にはできない分野に取り組むことが、社会福祉法人の本分だろう。

The draft has also deemed it problematic that tokuyo homes, which are operated by social welfare service corporations for elderly people who require around-the-clock nursing care, have amassed as much as ¥300 million on average in profits.
 社会福祉法人が運営する特別養護老人ホームで、平均3億円もの利益を蓄えていることも問題視されている。

It was quite reasonable for the draft report to stress as it did that the raison d’etre of the corporations would be called into question if they fail to make good use of such funds to provide their localities with better welfare services.
 こうした資金を活用して福祉サービスを地域に提供しなければ、存在意義が問われるという報告書案の指摘は、うなずける。

To make their activities more effective for the good of local communities, it is necessary to take such steps as expanding the scale of the corporations and facilitating joint operations by a larger number of corporations.
 地域貢献活動の効率的な実施には、法人の規模拡大や複数法人による共同事業の促進が必要だ。

Worthy of note in this respect are social welfare service corporations in Osaka Prefecture, which have been cooperating with each other by pooling funds to jointly offer counseling support services for people in need. They have also provided people in straitened circumstances with livelihood expenses and food. Their activities can serve as a positive model for other social welfare service corporations.
 大阪府では、複数の社会福祉法人が協力して資金を出し合い、生活困窮者に対する相談支援事業を展開している。生活資金や食料品などの援助も行う。他の地域の参考となろう。

Effective from fiscal 2015, the administration of some publicly run nursing care insurance services will be transferred to city, town and village entities. The law for helping disadvantaged people become self-reliant will also be put into force at the beginning of the next fiscal year, with city, town and village governments taking charge of providing the low-income residents with livelihood counseling and helping them find employment.
 2015年度から、介護保険サービスの一部が市町村の事業に移管される。生活困窮者自立支援法も施行され、市町村が相談や就労支援などを行う。

Social welfare service corporations are expected to be major bodies to be entrusted with such operations. This means that corporations must play even larger roles.
 社会福祉法人は、これらの事業の主要な委託先になると期待されている。果たすべき役割は、ますます大きくなる。

Some chief executives’ practice of treating social welfare service corporations like their exclusive property has become an issue. To ensure public trust, it is essential to enhance the transparency of their operations.
 一部の法人では、理事長による運営の「私物化」が問題となっている。信頼性の確保には、運営の透明性の向上が不可欠だ。

Only half of such corporations have disclosed their financial statements. As stated in the draft report, it is imperative to make it obligatory for the corporations to make them public.
財務諸表を公開している法人は半数にとどまる。報告書案が指摘したように、公開の義務化が急がれる。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, June 30, 2014)

イラク流動化 無秩序の拡大を食い止めたい

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Further chaos must be stemmed in face of deepening Iraq crisis
イラク流動化 無秩序の拡大を食い止めたい

The chaos in Iraq has been fast spreading across its border. To avoid this situation leading to destabilization of the Middle East as a whole, countries concerned such as Iraq and the United States must join hands in pressing ahead with addressing this challenge.
 イラクの混乱が、国境を越えて急速に広がっている。中東全体の不安定化を避けるため、イラクと米国など関係国は、協力して事態の収拾を図らなければならない。

The Islamic State in Iraq and Syria, a Sunni militant extremist group that claims to uphold the founding of a new state based on Islamic law, has taken control of towns and oil fields in the central and western regions of Iraq, and expelled Iraqi government forces from the Iraqi-Syrian border area.
 イスラム法に基づく新国家建設を標榜するスンニ派過激派組織「イラク・シリアのイスラム国(ISIS)」がイラク中・西部で都市や油田を制圧し、国境地帯からイラク軍部隊を排除した。

In the region near the border with Syria, the Al-Nustra Front, a terrorist organization affiliated with Al-Qaida that is fighting the administration of Syrian President Bashar Assad, has launched a joint struggle with ISIS. Members of the two extremist groups have reportedly moved freely between the two countries as if no border exists, thus aggravating the chaotic situation.
 シリア国境付近では、シリアのアサド政権と対立するアル・カーイダ系テロ組織「ヌスラ戦線」が、ISISと共闘を始めた。二つの過激派が、国境が存在しないかのように両国を自由に行き来し、無秩序状態を作り出している。

As a result, the Syrian military has carried out air strikes on the border region, which has been welcomed by the Iraqi government. The new development is indicative of a blending of the civil wars in the two countries stemming from conflicts between Shiite and Sunni militants, exposing how complex the confrontation really is.
 危機感を抱いたシリア軍が、イラク国境地帯を空爆し、イラクがこれを歓迎した。シーア派とスンニ派の対立に根ざす両国の内戦の一体化と、複雑な対立の構図を印象づけるものだ。

As if taking advantage of this turmoil, Kurdish forces, a minority group based in northern Iraq, have embarked on running one of Iraq’s main refineries and oil exports on their own, a highly alarming move that could end up splitting Iraq.
 こうした混乱に乗じるように、イラク北部の少数派クルド人が独自に油田管理や原油輸出を始めた。イラクの分裂につながりかねない、憂慮すべき動きだ。

Iraqi existence at stake

Also problematic in this connection are reports that huge amounts of cash have been flowing to Sunni extremists from Gulf states, including Saudi Arabia, a major Sunni power. Saudi Arabia’s decision to sever the flow of funds would be a key step toward resolving the imbroglio.
 ISISに、スンニ派の大国サウジアラビアなど湾岸諸国内から巨額の活動資金が流れているとされる点も問題だ。サウジがこの資金の流れを断つことが、混乱収拾への重要な一歩となろう。

It is only natural that U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry, on a tour of Middle East and European countries earlier this month, warned that the ongoing crisis could be fatal to “Iraq’s existence as a state, and it is also a threat to the wider region [of the Middle East as a whole].” As it has ruled out the option of deploying ground troops in Iraq, the United States should accelerate its diplomatic efforts.
 ケリー米国務長官が中東・欧州訪問で、「イラクが国家存亡の危機に直面し、中東全体が脅威にさらされている」と警告したのは、当然である。地上部隊を投入する選択肢を排除した米国は、外交努力を加速させるべきだ。

Washington, for that matter, has decided to extend financial assistance to Syria’s moderate rebels against the Assad regime. The decision appears to be aimed at blunting the capability of ISIS by helping the moderates hold the Al-Nusra Front in check.
 米国は、穏健なシリア反体制派に対する資金援助を決めた。穏健派によるヌスラ戦線への牽制を通じて、ISISの力を殺ぐ狙いがあるのだろう。

In the meantime, a 180-strong team of U.S. military advisers has begun operating in Iraq. Washington says the advisers will help rebuild the Iraqi forces, while collecting information about how ISIS is organized and its probable future moves, in an effort to eventually specify targets by armed drones, which are one of the options the United States may employ in the future.
 同時に、米国の軍事顧問団の約180人がイラクでの任務を開始した。イラク軍の立て直しを図りつつ、ISISの組織や動向に関する情報を集め、将来の選択肢である「無人機による空爆」の目標も特定するという。

To prevent the collapse of Iraq’s foundation as a state, the United States aims to rally states and other forces that have an influence over Iraq, but has still fallen short of completing the task of drawing up any feasible scenario.
 イラクの国家基盤が崩れる事態を防ぐため、米国は、イラクに影響力を持つ国や勢力の結集を目指しているが、実現可能なシナリオを描き切れていない。

Kerry has been persistently urging Iraqi Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki to form a government of national unity, including Sunni and Kurdish forces. The Iraqi prime minister must waste no time in realizing national reconciliation.
 ケリー長官はマリキ首相に、スンニ派やクルド人を含む挙国一致の内閣作りを改めて求めた。首相は国民融和を急ぐ必要がある。

The Japanese government, for its part, has decided to provide about ¥600 million in assistance to Iraqi refugees. This country should continue its cooperation to help stabilize the Iraqi situation.
 日本政府はイラク避難民支援に約6億円の緊急援助を決めた。イラク安定に日本も協力したい。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, June 29, 2014)

プロフィール

srachai

自己紹介・リンク

■近況

2009年の9月15日に脳梗塞を発症、右手が少し不自由になりました。
MRAで脳梗塞の部位を特定でき、素早い処置をとれたので大事に至りませんでした。
快復にむけてリハビリ中です。
(2011/01/01更新)

■自己紹介・リンク

[ はじめに ]
タイのスラチャイです。
英語学習に王道はありません。
毎日毎日の地道な努力の積み重ねが必要です。
スラチャイはNHKのラジオ英語会話で現在の英語力を身につけました。
一日僅か15分の学習でも数年間継続すれば相当な学習効果が期待できます。

[ 名前 ]
松井 清 (スラチャイ)

[ 略歴 ]
・福岡県出身
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・現在タイ国コンケン在住

[ 座右の銘 ]
Slow and steady wins the race.
遅くとも着実な者が勝利する
(NHK基礎英語芹沢栄先生)

[ 学習の手引き ]
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・Think in English.
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