英字新聞

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2013年12月

張成沢氏処刑 失政への不満封じる恐怖政治

The Yomiuri Shimbun December 17, 2013
North Korea’s reign of terror aimed at containing people’s frustrations
張成沢氏処刑 失政への不満封じる恐怖政治(12月17日付・読売社説)

The latest developments in North Korea indicate that the country has become even more unstable since former leader Kim Jong Il died two years ago.
 金正日総書記の死から2年を経て、北朝鮮は一段と不安定化しているということだろう。

Jang Song Thaek, vice chairman of the National Defense Commission who was regarded as the No. 2 man in the Kim Jong Un regime, was sentenced to death for allegedly trying to take power by staging a military coup. He was executed the same day, just four days after he was ousted from all his posts and expelled from the Workers’ Party of Korea.
 金正恩政権のナンバー2と目されていた張成沢国防委員会副委員長が、解任・党除名処分の4日後、クーデター目的の国家転覆陰謀行為を働いたなどとして死刑判決を言い渡され、即刻処刑された。

These developments illustrate the coldhearted nature of Kim—the ruling party’s first secretary—who is trying to strengthen his dictatorship through a reign of terror that included liquidating his uncle, in the apparent belief that without doing so he would not be able to maintain control of the country.
 自身の叔父すら抹殺する「恐怖政治」で独裁体制の強化を図ろうとする金正恩第1書記の冷酷な本性と、そうでもせねば国内を統制できないとの危機感の表れだ。

North Korea’s state-run media reported the sentence, handed down at a special military court of the State Security Department—the country’s secret police—accusing Jang of attempting to bring about the collapse of the country’s economy and people’s livelihoods. It also said that if the state was driven to the verge of collapse, Jang believed he could grab the reins of power.
 国営メディアは、秘密警察・国家安全保衛部の特別軍事法廷の判決文を伝え、「国の経済と人民生活を破局に追い込もうとした」と張氏を糾弾した。国家が崩壊寸前になれば、政権簒奪(さんだつ)に成功するとの打算があったとしている。

Jang was accused in court of a diverse range of crimes, including an act of treason by cheaply selling off the country’s land with a 50-year lease to a foreign country—land in a special economic and trade zone in Rason near its borders with China and Russia—and triggering tremendous economic confusion with the redenomination of the currency four years ago.
 挙げられた罪状は、中露との国境に位置する羅先経済貿易地帯の土地を「50年期限で外国に売り飛ばす売国行為」や、4年前のデノミによる「途方もない経済的混乱の惹(じゃっ)起(き)」など多岐にわたる。

To what extent these accusations are true is not known. But the issuance of this statement itself is tantamount to North Korea admitting there are cracks in the regime and economic maladministration. Kim’s regime may be trying to lay all the responsibility on Jang to justify its legitimacy.
 どこまで事実か疑わしいが、こうした発表自体が体制内の亀裂と経済失政を自認したに等しい。全責任を張氏になすりつけ、政権の正当化を図る狙いではないか。

North Korea, which is reinforcing its state control at home, may adopt a policy of external provocations.
 国内統制を強める北朝鮮は、対外的には挑発路線に一層傾斜する可能性がある。

There are strong fears that the country may flaunt its nuclear deterrent by conducting its fourth nuclear test and fire yet another missile under the guise of launching an artificial satellite.
核抑止力の誇示へ、4回目の核実験や、「人工衛星打ち上げ」と称するミサイル発射に踏み切ることへの懸念は強い。

Nuclear missile development

In this respect, it has been learned through analyses of satellite photos that North Korea has restarted a plutonium reactor, while moving ahead with improving nuclear test and missile launch sites. The international community must pay close attention to such developments and cooperate to deal with them.
 事実、プルトニウム生産炉の運転再開や、核実験場、ミサイル発射場の整備を進める様子が衛星写真の分析で判明している。国際社会は、今後の動向を鋭意注視し、連携して対応せねばならない。

Now that Jang has been removed from the scene, Kim apparently intends to carry out economic activities under the Cabinet-led leadership.
 張氏の勢力一掃後、金第1書記は、内閣主導の名の下で、経済活動を展開する意向のようだ。

There are no signs of the country changing its policy of pursuing, in parallel, both economic reconstruction and the strengthening of its nuclear capability.
 経済再建と核戦力強化の二兎(にと)を追う「並進路線」を変える兆しは見られない。

As long as North Korea continues to pursue nuclear and missile development, international economic sanctions against the country will not be relaxed. The country will not be successful in wooing any foreign investment or foreign tourists.
 だが、核・ミサイル開発を続ける限り、北朝鮮への経済制裁は緩和されない。外国からの投資や観光客誘致の成果は上がるまい。

The North Korean people’s frustration will grow as economic hardships continue. The danger of the country collapsing from within is growing.
 経済の困窮によって、国民の不満は高まる。内部から崩壊に向かうリスクは増すばかりだ。

In its efforts to develop the northeastern part of China by helping stabilize North Korea, Beijing has been urging Pyongyang to carry out reforms and open its market. The execution of Jang, who had assumed the pivotal role in this scheme, is probably a major blow to China’s influence.
 中国は、北朝鮮を安定化させて中国東北部の開発につなげようと、改革・開放を促してきた。その中心人物でもあった張氏の処刑は、大きな誤算だろう。

The destabilization of a despotic state developing nuclear weapons could lead to the outbreak of domestic turmoil. This is an important phase when Japan should prepare itself for any emergency by firmly maintaining the Japan-U.S. alliance and reinforcing its defense capability.
 核武装する独裁国家の不安定化は、内乱など暴発の危険を伴う。日米同盟を堅持し、防衛力を強化して備えるべき重要な局面だ。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Dec. 17, 2013)
(2013年12月17日01時35分  読売新聞)

武器輸出新原則 防衛産業維持にも目を向けよ

The Yomiuri Shimbun December 16, 2013
Govt must consider how to maintain defense industry, production base
武器輸出新原則 防衛産業維持にも目を向けよ(12月16日付・読売社説)

Japan should reinforce its international cooperation in the area of defense equipment and maintain its defense technology and production base as national security priorities.
 防衛装備面での国際連携を強化し、日本の防衛生産・技術基盤を維持するという安全保障の観点を最重視すべきだ。

The government and ruling parties have started drastically reviewing the three principles on arms exports and drawing up new rules on arms exports.
 政府・与党が、武器輸出3原則を抜本的に見直し、新たな武器輸出の原則を策定する作業を開始した。

The three principles, confirmed in 1967 by the administration of then Prime Minister Eisaku Sato, prohibit Japan from exporting arms to countries in the Communist bloc, countries to which arms exports are banned by U.N. resolutions and countries involved in conflict.
 3原則は、1967年に佐藤内閣が共産圏諸国、国連決議による武器禁輸国、紛争当事国向けの武器輸出を禁止したものだ。

In 1976, the administration under then Prime Minister Takeo Miki went so far as to effectively ban all such exports, saying the nation must refrain from exporting arms to even countries not subject to the three principles.
76年に三木内閣が3原則の対象国以外への輸出も慎むとして、事実上の全面禁輸に踏み込んだ。

Since 1983, however, the government had made one exception after another to the principles, as confirmed in informal remarks made by chief cabinet secretaries, providing the United States with weapons technology, exporting mine detectors and patrol vessels for peace-building efforts and jointly developing and producing missile defense equipment with other countries.
 83年以降、武器技術の対米供与、地雷探知機、巡視船など平和貢献目的の輸出や、ミサイル防衛の国際共同開発・生産について、官房長官談話で次々と例外を設けてきた。

As a result, the whole system has become extremely complex and hard to understand.
その結果、極めて複雑で、分かりづらい制度となっている。

This time, the administration under Prime Minister Shinzo Abe is set to end the total ban and to narrow the list of countries subject to export restrictions, while at the same time making the whole system more consistent. Such efforts to meet the needs of the times are appropriate.
 安倍政権が今回、全面禁輸はやめて、禁輸対象国を絞り込むとともに、全体を整合性ある仕組みにするのは、時代の要請に応じたものであり、妥当である。

Enhance national security

The important thing is to create a standard that will enhance Japan’s national security.
 重要なのは、日本の安全保障に役立つ基準を作ることだ。

In light of the recent military developments in China and North Korea, the international situation surrounding Japan has become ever harsher.
 中国や北朝鮮の最近の軍事動向を踏まえれば、日本の国際情勢は厳しさを増している。

Expanding cooperation in the area of defense equipment with such countries as the United States, an ally of Japan, European countries and Australia will stimulate the improvement of Japan’s defense technology and the reinforcement of international cooperation, thus contributing to the peace and security of Japan.
 同盟国の米国や、欧州諸国、豪州などとの装備面の協力を拡大することは、日本の防衛技術の向上や国際連携の強化を促し、日本の平和と安全に寄与しよう。

It is important to expand international cooperation by making it possible for Japan to export finished products, and parts and components of arms, in addition to joint development and production of arms with other countries.
 武器の国際共同開発・生産に加えて、武器の完成品や部品の輸出も可能にすることで、国際協力を拡大することが大切である。

It is also necessary to establish procedures appropriately to prevent the arms from being transferred to a third country and to tighten export controls on general-purpose parts that can be used either militarily or commercially.
 無論、武器の第三国移転を防止する手続きや、武器に転用されかねない汎用品の輸出管理を厳格化するなどの「歯止め」措置も適切に定める必要がある。

The government and ruling parties must discuss these issues properly and work out a conclusion soon.
 政府・与党できちんと議論し、早期に結論を出すべきだ。

It must be kept in mind that because the government’s defense budgets were cut back for 10 years in a row up to fiscal 2012, Japan’s defense technology and domestic production base has been undermined.
 留意すべきは、昨年度まで10年連続で防衛予算が削減されたことで、日本の防衛生産・技術基盤が揺らぎ始めていることだ。

In the past 10 years, nearly 90 private companies have pulled out of the defense industry, making it hard in some areas to secure technicians with specific skills.
 ここ10年で90社近くの民間企業が防衛分野から撤収し、一部では特殊な熟練技術者の確保が困難になりつつある。

As tanks, destroyers and fighter planes become ever more technologically advanced, the unit price of the equipment rises. Repair and maintenance costs for the equipment have also been rising. As a result, the government has no choice but to reduce the amount of such equipment procured, putting a strain on the management of companies in the defense industry.
 戦車や護衛艦、戦闘機の高性能化に伴い、装備の単価は上昇する。装備品の修理や整備費も増えている。その結果、装備の調達数を減らさざるを得なくなり、防衛産業の経営を圧迫している。

The decline in the nation’s defense technology and its production base will directly lead to the decline in the nation’s overall defense capability. The government needs to discuss ways to maintain and foster the nation’s defense industry in earnest under the constraint of limited defense spending.
 防衛生産・技術基盤の衰退は、国家の総合的な防衛力の低下に直結する。政府は、限られた予算で防衛産業を維持・育成する方策を真剣に検討する必要がある。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Dec. 16, 2013)
(2013年12月16日01時22分  読売新聞)

日・ASEAN 海と空で対中連携が強まった

The Yomiuri Shimbun December 15, 2013
Japan, ASEAN strengthen ties in bid to counter China in air and at sea
日・ASEAN 海と空で対中連携が強まった(12月15日付・読売社説)

In a success in his Southeast Asian diplomacy, Prime Minister Shinzo Abe saw a summit meeting of Japan and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations agree to jointly urge China to abide by international rules.
 中国が国際ルールを順守するよう、連携して働きかけることについては認識を共有できた。安倍首相の東南アジア外交の成果と言える。

At a special summit meeting among Japan and 10 ASEAN nations held in Tokyo, the leaders adopted a joint statement saying it is important to ensure the safety of seas and the freedom of navigation as well as to resolve conflicts in accordance with the “universally recognized principles of international laws.”
 日本と東南アジア諸国連合(ASEAN)10か国の首脳らが参加した特別首脳会議が東京で開催され、海上の安全、航行の自由及び、国際法の原則に基づく紛争解決などの重要性をうたった共同声明を採択した。

The statement clearly stated the nations will cooperate to ensure the “freedom of overflight” and “civil aviation safety” in air zones over the high seas—with China’s air defense identification zone in mind, although it did not specifically refer to China.
 名指しは避けたものの、中国の防空識別圏設定を念頭に、公海上空での「飛行の自由」や「民間航空の安全」を確保するため、協力する方針も明記された。

Some Southeast Asian nations, such as Cambodia and Laos, have close ties with China. Nonetheless, it was significant that Japan and the ASEAN member nations issued the joint statement with the aim of holding China in check, which has heightened tensions not only on the seas but also in the air.
 東南アジアにはカンボジアやラオスなど中国と結びつきが強い国もある。だが、海のみならず、空でも緊張を高める中国を牽制(けんせい)する上で、日本とASEAN各国が共同声明を出した意義は大きい。

Without consulting with its neighbors, China unilaterally set its ADIZ over the East China Sea and threatened to adopt “emergency defensive measures” by the Chinese military against any aircraft that refuses to obey its instructions. It also hinted at setting another ADIZ over the South China Sea.
 中国は周辺国と協議せずに一方的に東シナ海に識別圏を設け、全ての航空機を対象に、指示に従わなければ中国軍による緊急措置を取ると威嚇した。南シナ海での識別圏設定も示唆している。

“Without free ocean and air [navigation], we can’t expect to have active trade,” Abe stressed at a press conference.
 安倍首相は、記者会見で「自由な海や空がなければ、活発な貿易は期待できない」と強調した。

‘Proactive pacifism’

During his separate meetings with the ASEAN leaders and during the summit sessions, Abe said Japan will contribute to regional stability based on “proactive pacifism” and proposed holding a meeting of defense ministers from Japan and the ASEAN members.
 首脳会議や各国首脳との個別会談では、「積極的平和主義」に基づき、地域の安定に貢献すると表明し、日本とASEAN各国との防衛相会合も呼びかけた。

It is imperative for Japan to deepen cooperative security ties with the ASEAN countries to deal with China and North Korea.
 中国や北朝鮮と向き合うためには、東南アジア諸国と安全保障での協力を深める必要がある。

ASEAN and China are considering setting legally binding codes of conduct in the South China Sea, where they have prolonged territorial disputes, but Beijing is reluctant to accept such codes. Japan should cooperate with the United States in backing ASEAN efforts to conclude an early agreement on codes of conduct with China.
 ASEANと中国は、領有権争いの続く南シナ海での行動を法的に拘束する「行動規範」を検討中だが、中国は消極的だ。早期策定に向けて、日本は米国と連携し、ASEANを後押ししなければならない。

During the special summit meeting, participants also made progress in the area of economic cooperation. They broadly agreed in the two fields of investment and service in negotiations for a Japan-ASEAN economic partnership agreement.
 特別首脳会議では経済面での協力も前進した。日・ASEANの経済連携協定交渉が、投資とサービスの2分野でほぼ合意した。

Abe expressed Japan’s support for an economic community ASEAN aims to create by the end of 2015 and pledged to actively provide official development assistance to the body.
 安倍首相は、2015年をめどとするASEANの経済共同体設立を支援する意向を表明し、政府開発援助(ODA)供与も積極的に進めると約束した。

Absorbing the vigor of rapidly growing Southeast Asia will provide a springboard for Japan’s economic growth.
 成長著しい東南アジアの活力を取り込むことが、日本の経済成長にも弾みとなる。

The leaders also formulated a mid- and long-term plan for cooperation not only in political and economic fields but also in the area of antidisaster measures. They also plan to have more active exchanges in culture, arts, tourism and sports.
 特別首脳会議で中長期ビジョンもまとまった。政治・経済だけでなく、防災面での協力を強化し、文化・芸術、観光、スポーツなどで交流を促進するとしている。

Japan and ASEAN have just observed the 40th anniversary of their friendship this year. It is hoped that they will strengthen their strategic ties even further.
 日本とASEANの友好協力は40周年を迎えた。戦略的な連携を一層強めていきたい。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Dec. 15, 2013)
(2013年12月15日01時25分  読売新聞)

与党税制大綱 家計と景気への目配り十分か

The Yomiuri Shimbun December 13, 2013
Reduced consumption rate system must be at same time as hike to 10%
与党税制大綱 家計と景気への目配り十分か(12月13日付・読売社説)

 ◆消費税10%と同時に軽減税率を

We are concerned that increasing the consumption tax rate to 8 percent from April may dampen personal spending. The latest tax policy agreement between the ruling coalition parties has left unresolved problems regarding measures to shore up business activities.
 来年4月に消費税率を8%に引き上げた後、個人消費の失速を招かないか。景気下支えに課題を残したと言えよう。

The Liberal Democratic Party and coalition partner New Komeito decided Thursday on an outline for tax system revisions for fiscal 2014. The decision signifies the ruling parties’ endorsement of a government budget draft for next fiscal year and a set of tax revision bills to be presented to the Diet early next year.
 自民、公明の与党は2014年度の税制改正大綱を決めた。政府の来年度の予算案と、税制改正法案を裏付けるものだ。

The LDP-Komeito agreement has fallen short of deciding on a specific date to introduce a reduced consumption tax rate system to curb the tax rate on food and other daily necessities to benefit low-income people. The agreement also has incorporated such items as income and residential tax levies on salaried workers. Steps to impose heavier tax burdens on households are conspicuous in the accord.
 低所得者対策として、食料品などの消費税率を低く抑える軽減税率の導入時期の決定を見送ったほか、会社員を対象にした増税などを盛り込んだ。家計の負担を増やすメニューが目立つ。

Specific timing ambiguous
 ◆導入時期は曖昧なまま

The biggest focus in the tax revision discussions was whether a reduced tax rate system should be introduced at the same time as an increase in the sales tax to 10 percent scheduled for October 2015.
 最大の焦点は、政府が15年10月に予定通り消費税率を8%から10%へ上げる場合、同時に軽減税率を導入するかどうかだった。

In January, the ruling coalition reached an agreement to “make efforts to introduce” a tax break on necessities when the planned hike to 10 percent occurs.
 与党は今年1月、10%増税時の「導入を目指す」と合意した。

The ruling parties' accord, this time, however, said a reduced tax rate system “will be introduced at a time when the consumption tax rate is 10 percent, after necessary financial resources and understanding from the public, including businesses, are secured.” It added that the ruling camp will “reach a conclusion on the matter by December 2014.”
 だが、今回の大綱は「必要な財源を確保しつつ、事業者を含む国民の理解を得た上で税率10%時に導入する」と記し、「14年12月までに結論を得る」ことにした。

The proviso added to the ruling coalition’s accord, such as “understanding from the public,” will weigh heavily on future discussions on a reduced tax rate, since the wording in the accord can be interpreted as either “at the same time as the hike to 10 percent” or “sometime after” the hike.
 導入に「国民の理解」などの条件を付けた意味は重く、「10%に引き上げと同時」とも「10%に引き上げ後のいつか」とも解釈できる。

This is the product of compromise between the LDP, which has remained wary of implementing a reduced tax rate, and Komeito, which has strongly insisted the proposed tax break on such items as food and newspapers be introduced when the rate is raised to 10 percent.
 導入に慎重姿勢を崩さない自民党と、10%への増税の時期と合わせて食料品や新聞などを対象に導入すべきだとする公明党との妥協の産物にほかならない。

A reduced tax rate system would mitigate tax burdens on all taxpayers, including lower-income people, helping shore up a broad spectrum of household budgets.
 軽減税率は、低所得層を含む国民全体の税負担を幅広く和らげて家計を下支えする。

It is also problematic that the tax system revision outline this time has come short of discussing specifics, such as which items would be eligible for a lower tax rate.
 今回の大綱が、軽減税率の対象品目など具体的な検討に踏み込めなかったのも問題である。

Decisions on specific items to be covered and plans to put the reduced rate system into practice must not be postponed unnecessarily. A decision should be made quickly to introduce a reduced tax rate at the same time the rate is increased to 10 percent.
 いたずらに対象品目や制度設計などの決定を遅らせてはならない。10%増税と同時の導入を速やかに決断すべきだろう。

During the ruling camp’s tax discussions, the LDP’s Tax System Research Commission and the Finance Ministry pointed out the introduction of the reduced tax rate system would make it necessary to employ an invoice system to log the tax rates and amounts item by item, leading to complicated clerical work for businesses.
 今回、自民党税調と財務省は、軽減税率の導入には、商品ごとに税率や税額を記載したインボイス(税額票)が必要で、企業の事務負担が増すと指摘した。

Given that business deals free from the consumption tax, including land transactions, and those subject to the tax have been in place even under the existing tax system, Komeito refuted that argument in the discussions, noting a reduced tax rate system could be realized without an invoice system. The LDP tax panel and the Finance Ministry should have more aggressively addressed resolving impediments to employing a reduced tax rate.
 ただ、今でも土地売買など非課税取引と消費税を課す取引は混在しており、公明党はインボイスは不要だと反論した。自民党税調と財務省は積極的に課題解決へ取り組むべきだったのではないか。

The tax system revision outline also includes steps to reduce the income tax breaks for company employees and other salaried workers, and raising their income and residential taxes. People whose annual income exceeds ¥12 million will be subject to heavier taxes from 2016, and those whose annual income is more than ¥10 million will be subject to them from 2017.
 大綱は、会社員などの給与所得控除を削減し、所得税や住民税を増税する方針も盛り込んだ。16年から年収1200万円超の人を対象とし、17年からは1000万円超の人まで拡大する。

According to a trial calculation by the Finance Ministry, people with an annual income of ¥15 million are estimated to have an additional tax burden of ¥70,000 to ¥110,000 a year. There are fears this will dampen their motivation to spend in anticipation of an increase in the burden on household budgets.
 財務省の試算では、年収1500万円の場合、年7万~11万円の負担増となる見込みだ。将来の家計の負担増を見越し、消費意欲は減退する恐れがある。

As the planned consumption tax hike is expected to increase the perceived burden on low-income earners, the ruling parties seem to have tried to alleviate the sense of unfairness by imposing increased tax burdens on high-income earners.
 消費増税で低所得者の負担感が増すため、与党は、高所得者への課税強化で不公平感を和らげることを狙ったようだ。

Fast and sloppy
 ◆拙速な所得控除見直し

However, full-scale discussions on the reexamination of tax deductions were conducted for merely a week. It cannot be helped if the ruling parties are criticized for targeting company employees, whose income can be easily ascertained, unlike that of the self-employed, to ensure tax revenue.
 だが、控除見直しを巡る本格的な議論は、わずか1週間だった。自営業者と違い、収入を把握しやすい会社員を狙い撃ちするのでは「取りやすいところから取る」と批判されても仕方がない。

Quite a few people are increasingly dissatisfied over the fact that the ruling parties quickly decided on a tax hike for salaried workers while not presenting a time frame for introducing the reduced consumption tax rates.
 軽減税率の導入時期を示さない一方で、サラリーマン増税を即決したことに、不満を募らせる人も少なくないだろう。

In the case of taxation on automobiles, the tax hike for light motor vehicles was incorporated into the outline of tax system revisions as a measure to secure fiscal resources needed to phase out the automobile acquisition tax from next fiscal year.
 自動車課税では、購入時に課す自動車取得税を来年度から段階的に縮小・廃止するための財源確保策として、軽自動車税の増税などを盛り込んだ。

The tax on light vehicles is less than that on compact cars. As long as light vehicles also impose burdens on roads and the environment, it is unavoidable for the light vehicle tax to be raised in line with the beneficiary-to-pay principle.
 軽自動車税は、小型車の税金に比べて納税者の負担が軽い。軽自動車も道路や環境に負荷をかける以上、受益者負担として引き上げられるのはやむを得まい。

In regard to lowering the corporate tax, which was regarded as a centerpiece of the government’s growth strategy, the outline said merely that the matter will “continue to be studied.” Discussions on concrete measures such as the timing and margin for a tax cut have not deepened.
 成長戦略の目玉とされた法人税率の引き下げは、「引き続き検討を進める」と記しただけで、減税の時期や引き下げ幅などの具体論は深まらなかった。

Japan’s corporate tax rates—even if excluding the special corporate tax for reconstruction from the 2011 disaster, which is planned to be abolished at the end of fiscal 2013, one year ahead of schedule as an economic measure—are higher than those in Europe and many other Asian countries.
 しかし、経済対策で1年前倒し廃止が決まった復興特別法人税を除いても、日本の法人税は欧州やアジアの多くの国より高い。

Cut corporate tax urgently
 ◆法人税率引き下げ急げ

To stem the hollowing out of industry and lure investments from overseas, it will be indispensable to lower corporate tax rates further. The matter must be studied at a faster pace.
 産業空洞化に歯止めをかけ、海外から投資を呼び込むため、税率の一層の引き下げが不可欠だ。検討の加速が求められよう。

Companies that will benefit from the early abolition of the special corporate tax for reconstruction should use improved profits for wage hikes and employment expansion, thereby spreading benefits to households.
 復興特別法人税の前倒し廃止の恩恵を受ける企業は、収益向上を賃上げや雇用拡大につなげ、家計に波及させていくべきだ。

The outline has also put forth a policy of approving up to 50 percent of entertainment expenses used by big businesses to entertain business partners and clients as necessary expenses with no tax levied.
 大綱は、大企業が取引先の接待などに使う交際費の5割までを税務上の経費(損金)として認め、非課税とする方針も掲げた。

It is understandable that the outline aims to expand the tax exemption system, which has been applied to part of the entertainment expenses of small and midsize companies as impairment costs, to big businesses. We hope sales for drinking and eating establishments will increase by making it easier for firms to increase entertainment expenses and that this will prove effective in curbing the adverse effects of the consumption tax hike.
 これまで中小企業の交際費の一部について損金扱いを認めてきた措置を大企業に拡充する狙いは理解できる。企業が交際費を増やしやすくなることで、飲食店などの売り上げが伸び、消費増税の影響を抑える効果に期待したい。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Dec. 13, 2013)
(2013年12月13日01時39分  読売新聞)

マンデラ氏死去 今こそ継承したい寛容の精神

The Yomiuri Shimbun December 12, 2013
World must learn from, carry on Mandela’s legacy of forgiveness
マンデラ氏死去 今こそ継承したい寛容の精神(12月12日付・読売社説)

About 100 heads of state and other world leaders mourned the death of Nelson Mandela at a memorial service for the former South African president in Johannesburg on Tuesday, showing how Mandela was revered all around the world.
 約100人の国家元首や首脳級の要人が集い、その死を悼んだ。世界中で尊敬される指導者だった証しである。

Mandela, a Nobel Peace Prize laureate honored for his strenuous fight against apartheid and eventual success in ending his country’s system of racial segregation, died last Thursday. He was 95.
 南アフリカで、アパルトヘイト(人種隔離政策)を撤廃に導いて、ノーベル平和賞を受けたネルソン・マンデラ元大統領が、95歳で死去した。

The global dignitaries at the national memorial service held for Mandela at a stadium in South Africa’s largest city included Crown Prince Naruhito and former Prime Minister Yasuo Fukuda. In a memorial address, U.S. President Barack Obama praised the anti-apartheid icon’s achievements, describing him as “a giant of history, who moved a nation toward justice and in the process moved billions around the world.”
 ヨハネスブルクで行われた追悼式には、皇太子さまが、福田康夫元首相とともに参列された。オバマ米大統領は演説で、マンデラ氏を「歴史上の巨人だった。国家を正義に導き、世界の何十億の人々を揺り動かした」と称賛した。

During the second half of the 20th century, Afrikaner whites, the South African minority that ruled the country, repressed the black majority under legislation based on the apartheid policy. Black members of the population did not possess the right to vote and were even restricted in where they could live.
 20世紀後半の南アでは、支配権を握る少数派の白人が、アパルトヘイトに基づき、多数派の黒人を法的に抑圧した。黒人には参政権がなく、居住地も制限された。

A lawyer, Mandela fought racial discrimination in his country after joining the anti-apartheid activities of the African National Congress, then a political party struggling for the freedom of black South Africans. Mandela’s adherence to his cause despite 27 years in prison for treason provokes amazement.
 弁護士だったマンデラ氏は、黒人解放組織、アフリカ民族会議(ANC)の反アパルトヘイト活動に参加して、人種差別と闘った。反逆罪で、27年間も獄中生活を強いられたにもかかわらず、節を曲げなかったのは、驚嘆に値する。

The true worth of Mandela’s political leadership was demonstrated when and after he was asked by his nation’s white government to help end apartheid. By that time, the South African government could no longer endure the international sanctions imposed on the country.
 マンデラ氏が政治指導者としての真骨頂を発揮したのは、国際社会の制裁に耐えかねた白人政権から、アパルトヘイト撤廃への協力を求められて以降だ。

The power of forgiveness

Mandela ended the ANC’s pursuit of an armed struggle and negotiated with the white government, which resulted in an end to apartheid and a national election open to all races. This enabled the ANC to take the reins of government, with Mandela becoming South Africa’s first black president. However, he urged the black majority not to retaliate against whites.
 ANCの武力闘争路線を終わらせ、政権との交渉で、アパルトヘイト廃止と全人種参加選挙にこぎつけた。ANCが政権を掌握したのに伴い、黒人として初の大統領に選出されたが、白人に対する報復を強く戒めた。

In his inaugural address as South African president in 1994, Mandela pledged to “build the society in which all South Africans, both black and white, will be able to walk tall, without any fear in their hearts.” In fact, the position of vice president was assumed by Mandela’s predecessor, a white president.
 1994年の大統領就任演説で「黒人や白人ら全ての国民が、胸を張って歩ける社会を建設する」と約束し、副大統領には白人の前大統領が就いた。

Mandela’s spirit of tolerance—with which he sought to transform South Africa into a nation in which all ethnic groups could live in harmony—deeply affected people around the world.
多人種共存を目指す寛容の精神が、世界の人々に深い感銘を与えたと言える。

In 1995, South Africa hosted the rugby World Cup. Mandela cheered for his country’s national team, which comprised mostly white players—an episode that helped create a sense of unity among South Africans. The story was later made into an American film that became known to many people around the world.
 南アで開催されたラグビー・ワールドカップ(W杯)で、白人主体の代表チームを自ら応援し、国民の一体感を育んだ逸話は、映画化され、よく知られている。

Mandela’s achievements also included his successful post-apartheid economic policies, which included efforts to skillfully utilize the vitality of white industrialists instead of depriving them of management rights. He did not persist in his own view that his country’s mines should be placed under state control. All this contributed to economic growth.
 白人の企業家から経営権を奪わず、むしろその活力を生かした経済政策も実績である。持論だった鉱山国有化などには固執せず、南アの経済成長につなげた。

However, today South Africa seems to be experiencing what may be regarded as the adverse effects of the ANC’s prolonged rule, including corruption within its administration and abuse of privilege. Little progress has been made in narrowing economic disparities between the white minority and the black majority.
 だが、現在の南アでは、ANC政権が長期化するに伴い、政権内で腐敗や特権乱用の傾向が目立っている。白人と黒人の間の経済格差の解消も進まない。

Ethnic conflicts and bloodshed attributable to religious differences continue to rage in many parts of the world. Not only South Africans but also people around the world must remind themselves of the precious lessons taught by Mandela.
 世界各地では、民族や宗教の違いに根ざす流血が続く。南アに限らず、国際社会全体で、マンデラ氏の残した教訓を改めてかみしめる必要がある。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Dec. 12, 2013)
(2013年12月12日01時27分  読売新聞)

TPP交渉 日米対立が招いた合意先送り

The Yomiuri Shimbun December 11, 2013
Final TPP accord postponed due to conflict between Japan, U.S.
TPP交渉 日米対立が招いた合意先送り(12月11日付・読売社説)

As participating countries failed to reconcile a variety of conflicts, including one between Japan and the United States, an accord on creating a new free trade zone in Asia and the Pacific region has been postponed till next year. A rough road lies ahead for the negotiations.
 日米などの対立が解けず、アジア太平洋地域での新たな自由貿易圏作りの合意は、来年に先送りされた。交渉の前途は多難である。

A ministerial meeting of the Trans-Pacific Partnership trade talks ended in Singapore on Tuesday.
 シンガポールで開かれていた環太平洋経済連携協定(TPP)交渉の閣僚会合が閉幕した。

Japan, the United States, Australia and nine other nations in the talks abandoned their goal of reaching an accord by the end of this year, which they originally hoped for. The countries will continue intensive discussions and hold a ministerial meeting again in January, they said in a joint statement issued after the meeting.
 日米、豪州など12か国は、当初目指した年内妥結を断念し、「交渉の妥結に向けて集中的に作業を続ける。閣僚会合を1月に開く」との声明を発表した。

As the administration of U.S. President Barack Obama had given the highest priority to reaching a final accord within this year, U.S. Trade Representative Michael Froman continued pressing Japan and emerging countries on tariff elimination and market liberalization.
 オバマ米政権は年内合意を最優先し、フロマン通商代表が、日本や新興国に関税撤廃や市場開放を求める圧力をかけ続けた。

But it is difficult to settle negotiations on issues on which the participants’ interests are complexly tangled. It can be said the latest talks highlighted the reality that the talks will not proceed as Washington hoped.
 しかし、参加国の利害が複雑に絡み合う交渉のとりまとめは難しい。米国の思惑通りに進まない現実を浮き彫りにしたと言える。

In particular, the conflict between Japanese and U.S. interests became clear. There is no denying that the conflict between the two countries may have held up negotiations as a whole.
 とくに鮮明になったのが日米両国の対立だった。全体の交渉も停滞させた印象が否めない。

Sticking points

The Liberal Democratic Party has been asserting that rice, wheat and barley, and three other sensitive agricultural products should be regarded as “sanctuaries” exempt from tariff elimination. Bearing this in mind, Japan rejected the U.S. call for full tariff elimination, with no exceptions.
 自民党はコメ、麦など農産品5項目を関税撤廃の聖域扱いとするよう主張している。これを踏まえた日本は、全品目の関税撤廃を求める米国の要求を拒否した。

Instead, Japan reportedly proposed, as a concession, to the U.S. side that it would raise its liberalization rate—the percentage of trade items that will be tariff-free—to about 95 percent. But the United States reportedly rejected the proposal.
 その代わり、全品目のうち関税撤廃に応じる自由化率を約95%に引き上げる譲歩案を提示した模様だが、米国は拒んだという。

On the other hand, Washington, which aims at expanding sales of U.S. automobiles in Japan, called on Tokyo to ease regulations on vehicle safety and environmental standards. But Japan steadily refused.
 一方、米国車の販売拡大を目指す米国が日本市場での自動車の安全や環境の基準緩和を求めた点では、日本が拒否を続けた。

With midterm elections slated for next November, the Obama administration, which wants to showcase a final TPP accord as its achievement, is not in a position to make easy compromises.
 来年11月の中間選挙を控え、TPP合意を成果としてアピールしたいオバマ政権には、安易に妥協できない事情があるのだろう。

Yet Japan needs to proactively tap into the vitality of fast-growing Asian economies and fuel its own growth, rather than merely maintaining a defensive stance.
 だが、日本も守りに徹するだけでなく、成長著しいアジアの活力を取り込み、成長に弾みをつける攻めの姿勢が必要である。

While trying to reinforce the international competitiveness of agriculture, a sector Japan has been called on to liberalize further, the government must make a strategic plan to promote free trade, centering around the TPP.
 一層の市場開放を求められる農業の競争力強化を図りつつ、TPPを軸に自由貿易を推進する戦略を練らなければならない。

Fierce conflicts between the United States and such emerging economies as Malaysia and Vietnam over the protection of intellectual property rights and competition policies can also be cited as reasons why the participating countries gave up on the final accord in Singapore.
 シンガポールでの妥結を断念した一因として、知的財産権や競争政策を巡り、米国と、マレーシア、ベトナムなど新興国が激しく対立した事情も挙げられる。

The conflicts among the 12 countries are deep-rooted, so there is little cause for optimism that they will be able to reach an accord at next month’s ministerial meeting. The major focus will be how flexibly the United States can respond to other countries’ assertions.
 12か国の対立は根深く、1月の閣僚会合での決着は楽観できない。米国がどこまで柔軟に対応できるかが最大の焦点になろう。

Meanwhile, South Korea’s next moves deserve close attention, as that country has made clear its intention to participate in the TPP.
 注視すべきは、TPPへの参加意向を表明した韓国の動きだ。

For South Korea to join the negotiations, it needs to win the approval of the 12 participating countries. That could happen as early as the spring. Before that happens, Japan needs to take the lead in formulating the trade rules and aim to reach an early accord to best take advantage of having already been a member.
 韓国の合流には12か国の同意が必要で、早くても来春になるが、日本はその前に貿易ルール作りを主導して早期妥結を図り、先行メリットを生かしたい。

Japan must demonstrate tough bargaining power in pursuit of its national interests.
 国益の追求へ、したたかな交渉力が日本に求められる。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Dec. 11, 2013)
(2013年12月11日01時43分  読売新聞)

みんなの党分裂 「江田新党」は野党再編序章か

The Yomiuri Shimbun December 10, 2013
Eda’s split from Your Party may trigger political realignment
みんなの党分裂 「江田新党」は野党再編序章か(12月10日付・読売社説)

Four years and four months after its inception, Your Party has split. This event has the potential of leading to a realignment of opposition parties.
 みんなの党が、結党4年4か月でとうとう分裂した。野党再編への序章となる可能性がある。

Former Secretary General Kenji Eda and 13 other members of the party have submitted letters of resignation to the party and announced plans to establish a new party before the end of the year. The 14 defectors—eight from the House of Representatives and six from the House of Councillors—account for 40 percent of the party’s 35 lawmakers. Mito Kakizawa, an independent in the lower house, will join the planned new party.
 江田憲司前幹事長らが離党届を提出し、年内に新党を結成する方針を表明した。離党するのは14人の衆参両院議員で、党所属35人の4割に上る。新党には無所属の柿沢未途衆院議員も加わる。

The primary reason for the split was a feud between party leader Yoshimi Watanabe and Eda over the party’s future course.
 分裂の主因は、路線を巡る渡辺代表と江田氏の確執である。

Watanabe has insisted on cooperating with other parties in one political bloc, while maintaining the independence of Your Party. Eda, on the other hand, does not hesitate to run the risk of dissolving the party to help realign opposition forces. Watanabe scorned Eda’s move as an “antiparty action.”
 渡辺氏は、みんなの党を存続させたまま、他の野党と連携する「政党ブロック」の構想を主張する。野党再編のためなら、解党も辞さないとする江田氏の動きを「反党行為」と攻撃してきた。

Watanabe removed Eda from the post of party secretary general in August and forced Eda’s close follower, Kakizawa, to leave the party later that month.
 8月には、江田氏を幹事長から外し、その後、江田氏の側近である柿沢氏を離党に追い込んだ。

The situation was brought to a head over the party leadership’s handling of the government-proposed legislation on protecting specially designated state secrets.
 特定秘密保護法を巡る対応が、分裂の直接の引き金となった。

Eda vehemently criticized Watanabe’s role in working out an agreement to amend the bill through talks with the Liberal Democratic Party and its coalition partner, New Komeito, as “wooing the LDP.”
 江田氏は、渡辺氏が主導した自民、公明の与党との法案修正合意について、「自民党へのすり寄り」と厳しく批判している。

Attention will be focused on whether Eda’s action will evolve into interparty tie-ups or a realignment of opposition parties involving the Democratic Party of Japan and Nippon Ishin no Kai (Japan Restoration Party).
 今後の焦点は、江田氏の動きが、民主党や日本維新の会を巻き込み、政党の枠を超えた連携や野党再編に発展するかどうかだ。

After submitting his letter of resignation to the party Monday, Eda said at a news conference that political forces should work together to compete with the LDP. This probably means he wants his new party to act as the foundation for future realignment of opposition parties.
 江田氏は離党届提出後の記者会見で、自民党に対抗する政治勢力を結集する必要性を指摘した。「江田新党」も将来の野党再編への布石とする考えなのだろう。

Fighting a behemoth

Given that the current political map is dominated by the LDP, leaving small and weak parties far in its wake, the unity of opposition parties is being put to the test. It is understandable that the opposition parties will try to rally their forces to increase their voice against the behemoth ruling party.
 自民党が突出した「1強多弱」の状況の下、野党の結束が問われている。巨大与党に対抗し、発言力を高めるために、野党が勢力結集を目指すのは理解できる。

But the question remains whether they can agree on political ideals and policies. Ishin no Kai’s acting secretary general, Yorihisa Matsuno, plans to form a parliamentary group with Eda’s new party. This is a realistic option.
 だが、政治理念、政策で一致できるのか。維新の会の松野頼久幹事長代行が、維新と「江田新党」による統一会派結成という緩やかな連携を呼び掛ける意向を示しているのは、現実的と言える。

Ishin no Kai, which was founded before the lower house election in December last year, is not a monolithic party either, as policy differences have emerged between its Osaka-based members, led by party coleader Toru Hashimoto, and a group of lawmakers in Tokyo.
 昨年の衆院選前に結党した維新の会も、橋下共同代表ら大阪の勢力と東京の国会議員団との間で政策の違いが表面化しており、一枚岩ではない。

If a unified parliamentary group can be realized by Eda’s party and Ishin no Kai, it will surpass the DPJ in strength in the lower house to become the second political force after the LDP. As the biggest parliamentary group of the opposition camp, it will have the strongest voice among opposition groups in the Diet.
 統一会派が実現すれば、衆院議席で民主党を上回り、自民党に続く勢力となる。野党第1会派として、国会での発言権は増そう。

Your Party, under Watanabe’s leadership, is expected to increase its cooperation with the administration of Prime Minister Shinzo Abe. Watanabe will reportedly offer advice to the Abe Cabinet in its reexamination of the constitutional interpretation of the right to collective self-defense.
 一方で、みんなの党の渡辺氏は、安倍政権と政策面での協調姿勢を強めるのではないか。集団的自衛権の憲法解釈見直しについても近く安倍内閣に提言するという。

DPJ President Banri Kaieda cannot sit back and calmly watch the split of Your Party without taking action. Quite a few DPJ members also lean toward a realignment of the opposition parties. Unless something is done to change the status quo, the DPJ’s leadership will see its power further wane.
 みんなの党の分裂劇を静観する構えの民主党の海江田代表も安閑とはしていられまい。党内にも野党再編を志向する議員は少なくない。今のままでは、執行部の求心力が一層弱まる可能性がある。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Dec. 10, 2013)
(2013年12月10日01時45分  読売新聞)

婚外子格差撤廃 配偶者の権利も尊重したい

The Yomiuri Shimbun December 9, 2013
Spouse’s rights must be respected despite change on inheritance rights
婚外子格差撤廃 配偶者の権利も尊重したい(12月8日付・読売社説)

The Diet has approved a bill to revise the Civil Code that will delete an article that discriminates against the inheritance rights of children born to unmarried parents.
 婚姻届を出していない男女の間に生まれた非嫡出子(婚外子)の相続格差をなくす改正民法が成立した。

For now, we can only praise the Diet’s swift action following a ruling by the Supreme Court’s Grand Bench that said the article “runs counter to the Constitution, which guarantees equality under the law.”
 「法の下の平等を保障した憲法に違反する」という最高裁大法廷の判断を受け、国会が速やかに対応したことを、まずは評価したい。

The revision will delete the article limiting the inheritance an out-of-wedlock child receives to half that of a child born in wedlock. Among major advanced nations, Japan was the only country that maintained such a discriminatory regulation.
 婚外子の遺産相続分を法律上の夫婦の子(嫡出子)の2分の1とする民法の規定を削除したのが、今回の改正である。このような格差が残っていたのは、主要先進国の中では日本だけだった。

In its ruling in September, the Supreme Court stressed, “Children born out of wedlock should not be at a disadvantage as a result of their parents not being married, a situation the children had no control over.”
 最高裁は9月に出した家事審判の決定で、「父母が婚姻関係になかったという、自ら選択・修正する余地のない事柄を理由として、子に不利益を及ぼすことは許されない」と強調した。

The number of so-called de facto marriages and single mothers has increased, and the narrow social view of perceiving children born out of wedlock as different has declined considerably. The court’s decision is in line with changing public awareness.
 事実婚やシングルマザーが増え、婚外子を特別視する風潮も薄れてきている。国民の意識の変化に沿った判断だったと言える。

At the same time, the court’s ruling does not diminish respect for de jure marriages, in which couples follow all legal procedures.
 しかし、最高裁決定は、法律上の手続きを経た「法律婚」の尊重まで否定したわけではない。

We should bear in mind that there is no change in this way of thinking under the revised Civil Code.
改正後の民法でも、この考え方自体には変更がない点に留意したい。

During discussions on the revision, strong concerns were voiced within the Liberal Democratic Party that the family system based on legal marriage could be undermined and that adultery could be encouraged.
 改正に向けた議論で、自民党内には「法律婚に基づく家族制度が揺らぎかねない」「不倫を助長する」といった懸念が強かった。

Even if a spouse of a deceased person has no previous acquaintance with an out-of-wedlock biological child, that child is still entitled to receive the same inheritance as the spouse’s child.
 仮に故人の配偶者と婚外子の間に面識がなかった場合でも、突然現れた婚外子が配偶者の子供と同じ額を相続することになる。

If the only asset is a house, some people have said there may be an increase in cases of a spouse selling the house to pay a portion of the inheritance to an out-of-wedlock child.
 家屋以外に財産がない相続では、配偶者が家屋を売却し、婚外子に相続分を支払うケースが増えるとの見方も出ている。

Importance of family ties

We can understand to some extent the concern expressed by the LDP and other parties that the deletion of the article could undermine the rights of a spouse—who had lived with his or her spouse for many years before that spouse died, built up their family and accumulated wealth together—and those of the spouse’s child.
 故人に長年連れ添って家庭を築き、共に財産を形成してきた配偶者と、その子供の権利が損なわれるという自民党などの指摘には、うなずける面がある。

To deal with these problems and to maintain the family system founded on legal marriage, other measures must be taken, besides those concerning discriminatory inheritance between in-wedlock and out-of-wedlock children.
 こうした問題に対処し、法律婚に立脚した家族制度を維持していくためには、嫡出子・婚外子の相続格差によってではなく、別の仕組みや手段を講じるべきだ。

The government and the LDP have decided to study what form the legal system for inheritance should take, particularly in regard to spouses, in an effort to protect family bonds, and to come up with a conclusion one year from now.
 政府・自民党は「家族の絆を守るための諸施策」として、配偶者に配慮した相続法制のあり方などを検討し、1年後をめどに結論を取りまとめることを決めた。

Granting a higher share of inheritance to a spouse than under the current system is a good option.
 配偶者の相続分を現行より手厚くすることも、有力な選択肢の一つではないか。

The family will remain the foundation of society. During and after the Great East Japan Earthquake, people once again recognized the importance of the family ties.
 家族が社会の基礎を構成することは、これからも変わるまい。東日本大震災では家族の絆の大切さを国民が再認識した。

We should deepen our discussion on family ties now that the Civil Code has been revised.
 今回の民法改正を機に、改めて家族のあり方に関する議論を深めていきたい。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Dec. 8, 2013)
(2013年12月8日01時23分  読売新聞)

秘密保護法成立 国家安保戦略の深化につなげよ

The Yomiuri Shimbun December 8, 2013
Make use of intelligence protection law to strengthen national security strategy
秘密保護法成立 国家安保戦略の深化につなげよ(12月7日付・読売社説)

 ◆疑念招かぬよう適切な運用を

A law to protect state secrets, comparable to those in other advanced countries, has finally been enacted in Japan.
 日本にもようやく米英など他の先進国並みの機密保全法制が整った。

The government must use the law to strengthen diplomatic and national security policies. At the same time, it should pay special attention in applying the law, so the general public does not feel as if its right to know will be limited.
 外交・安全保障政策の強化につなげる一方で、「知る権利」が損なわれるという疑念を国民から抱かれぬよう、政府は運用に十分配慮しなければならない。

The specially designated intelligence protection law, which strengthens punishments of public employees who leak classified information concerning national security, was enacted after a bill on the law passed a House of Councillors plenary session late Friday, with a majority of votes by the Liberal Democratic Party and New Komeito.
 安全保障に関わる機密情報を漏らした公務員らの罰則を強化する特定秘密保護法が6日深夜、参院本会議で自民、公明両党の賛成多数によって可決、成立した。

With the ruling and opposition parties in fierce confrontation over the bill, members of Your Party—which agreed to passage of the bill in the House of Representatives—walked out of the plenary session, criticizing the ruling camp’s way of managing Diet business as “high-handed.” We regret that this extremely important law was born in such unusual circumstances.
 与野党が激しく対立する中、衆院で賛成したみんなの党が与党の「強引な国会運営」を批判して退席した。極めて重要な法律が異例の事態で誕生したのは残念だ。

Unified rules clarified
 ◆統一的なルール明確に

As epitomized by China’s recent declaration of an air defense identification zone, the national security environment surrounding Japan has become increasingly severe.
 中国の防空識別圏設定の動きが象徴するように、日本の安全保障環境は厳しさを増している。

Japan needs to obtain important intelligence on the matter from the United States and other countries and must strengthen its cooperation with them. To do so, it is indispensable to enhance the credibility of its efforts to protect secret information.
 米国はじめ各国から重要な情報を入手し、連携を強めねばならない。それには、秘密保護への信頼を高めることが不可欠だ。

Japan already had rules in place to protect state secrets, including obligations for public officials to protect secrets under the National Civil Service Law, rules for special defense secrets in line with the Japan-U.S. Mutual Defense Assistance Agreement of 1954, and another set of rules for defense secrets under the Self-Defense Forces Law revised in 2001.
 既に国家公務員法の守秘義務や1954年の日米相互防衛援助協定に伴う特別防衛秘密、2001年の改正自衛隊法による防衛秘密などの法制はある。

However, these rules have not adequately protected important intelligence, and it has been pointed out that intelligence is easily leaked in Japan. With the new law, unified and full-fledged rules covering the entire government have been put in place to protect state secrets concerning defense, diplomacy and anti-espionage and antiterrorism activities.
 それでも十分ではなく、日本は情報が漏れやすいと指摘されてきた。今回、防衛、外交、スパイ活動防止、テロ防止に関する、政府全体の統一的かつ本格的な秘密保全ルールが整ったと言える。

The Japanese version of the U.S. National Security Council was launched Wednesday. To enhance the council’s intelligence gathering and analysis abilities, the new law is indispensable.
 今週発足した国家安全保障会議(日本版NSC)の情報収集と分析の能力を高めていく上でも、欠かせない法制度である。

However, the legislative intent of the law, which is to protect the Japanese people, has been made light of by some people.
 ところが、国民を守るための立法趣旨が軽んじられている。

We were surprised that during Diet deliberations on the bill some opposition party members criticized the legislation, even comparing it to the prewar public order maintenance law, which was used to clamp down on ideological criminals. That is an extremely irrational opinion that ignores Japan’s postwar history as a democratic nation as well as changes in the political system and media coverage.
 審議の中で戦前、思想犯の弾圧に用いられた治安維持法になぞらえた批判まで出たのには驚く。戦後の民主主義国家としての歩みや政治体制、報道姿勢の変化を無視した暴論と言うほかなかろう。

In answer to a question during Diet deliberations on the bill, Prime Minister Shinzo Abe said: “The general public won’t have access to specially designated secrets, so prosecution of citizens under the law won’t be possible.” As he said, ordinary citizens will not be subject to the law.
 安倍首相が「一般国民が特定秘密を知ることはあり得ない。ゆえに処罰されることはあり得ない」と答弁したように、普通の国民が対象となることはない。

Yet, it cannot be denied that the people’s distrust of the government increased through the deliberations of the bill. The government must explain the intent of the secret intelligence protection law carefully to the people and seek their understanding.
 ただ、法案審議を通じ、政府に対する国民の不信感が増したことも否めない。政府は、秘密保護法の趣旨を国民に丁寧に説明し、理解を求めていくべきである。

Through discussions between the ruling parties and the opposition parties Nippon Ishin no Kai (Japan Restoration Party) and Your Party, the range of subjects that can be designated as special secrets was narrowed further, and the principles for disclosing them after they are declassified was made clear. This is praiseworthy.
 与党と維新の会やみんなの党との協議で、秘密指定対象がより絞られ、指定解除後の公開原則も明確になったことは評価できる。

Concern over right to know
 ◆知る権利とのバランス

The biggest point of contention in the upper house deliberations was whether bureaucrats would arbitrarily expand the range of secrecy.
 参院審議の最大の論点は、官僚が恣意(しい)的に秘密の範囲を拡大するのではないかという点だった。

Abe pledged to establish a third-party surveillance committee to check the validity of confidentiality designations. Chief Cabinet Secretary Yoshihide Suga also mentioned that an information oversight office with about 20 members will be established in the Cabinet Office. These appear to be the results of concessions made by the government thus far.
 秘密指定の妥当性をチェックする第三者機関として、首相は「保全監視委員会」を設けると約束した。菅官房長官も、内閣府に20人規模の「情報保全監察室」を発足させると言明した。政府側が次々と妥協を図ったと言える。

It is essential that the proposed third-party organ be equipped with functional capabilities. Due heed must especially be taken of the public’s strong concern about secrets handled by such organizations as the National Police Agency and the Public Security Investigation Agency, which are involved in dealing with terrorism and espionage activities.
 第三者機関には実効性を持たせることが肝要だ。特に、警察庁や公安調査庁などテロやスパイ活動を取り締まる分野での秘密については、国民の不安が強いことに留意しなければならない。

The Democratic Party of Japan has maintained that a third-party body, if established within the government, would be unable to perform its functions. However, it is doubtful whether a third-party committee comprising experts nominated by both the ruling and opposition parties, as proposed by the DPJ, would be able to adequately judge the secrecy of information.
 民主党は、政府内の組織では、機能を果たせないと言うが、民主党の提案するように与野党が指名した有識者による委員会で的確に検証できるのか、疑問だ。

High-level judgments on how to handle highly confidential state secrets can be made only in light of government policy and national strategy. We thus believe an oversight body established within the government is desirable in view of the high risk of an information leak.
 秘匿性の高い情報をどう扱うかという高度の判断は、政府の方針や国家戦略に基づいてこそ可能になる。情報漏えいリスクが高まる観点からも、政府内の監視組織の方が望ましい。

The biggest concern is whether government employees will become apprehensive about answering questions from the media out of fear of severe punishment, namely up to 10 years in prison imposed on people who violate the secrecy law. They also might use the law as an excuse to hide information.
 最も懸念されるのは、公務員が懲役10年以下という厳罰を恐れ、報道機関の取材に対して萎縮しかねないことだ。秘密保護法を理由に情報を秘匿する恐れがある。

Due to such overreaction to the Personal Information Protection Law, it is already difficult to share even information that needs to be shared for the good of society. This trend should not be accelerated.
 個人情報保護法に対する過剰反応で、社会に必要な情報まで流通しにくくなった。その傾向に拍車をかけてはなるまい。

Concrete steps needed
 ◆「原則公開」も問われる

The law calls for highly confidential state secrets to be disclosed in principle after 30 years of secrecy designation. An extension of up to 60 years will be allowed, with a few exceptions. Concrete measures, such as how to disclose or destroy documents after the secrecy period ends, have been left up in the air.
 特定秘密の公開は原則30年後だ。延長する場合も一部例外を除き最長60年である。指定解除後の文書をどう公開・廃棄するのか、具体的な方策はこれからだ。

There are also problems related to the freedom of information system that is supposed to be linked with the protection of secrets. The current system makes it difficult for people to access information because of the narrow range of disclosure.
 秘密保護とセットであるべき情報公開制度にも問題がある。現行の制度では公開の幅が狭く、国民が情報にアクセスしにくい。

Unless the system is changed to allow judges to see relevant documents in the event of a lawsuit filed over highly confidential secrets, the courts will be unable to fulfill their roles.
 特定秘密に関する訴訟が起きた場合、裁判官が対象文書を見ることができるようにしなければ裁判所としても役割を果たせない。

The Diet’s role also needs to be discussed. The ruling and opposition parties must deepen discussions on how to steer closed-door meetings in which highly confidential state secrets are provided, and how to relate such meetings to parliamentary rights to investigate state affairs.
 国会の関与のあり方も、検討課題である。特定秘密の提供を受ける秘密会をどう運営するか、国政調査権との関係をどう考えるか、与野党は議論を深めるべきだ。

The law will take effect within a year after its promulgation. We urge the ruling and opposition camps to hold consultations to improve the legal system regarding secrets.
 公布後、1年以内に施行される。与野党は協議を重ね、より良い法制に仕上げてもらいたい。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Dec. 7, 2013)
(2013年12月7日01時42分  読売新聞)

中国防空識別圏 習主席は日米の懸念に応えよ

The Yomiuri Shimbun December 7, 2013
President Xi must pay heed to Japan, U.S. concerns over ADIZ
中国防空識別圏 習主席は日米の懸念に応えよ(12月6日付・読売社説)

China must take seriously the explicit declarations by Japan and the United States of their intentions regarding Beijing’s announcement of its new air defense identification zone.
 日米両国の明確な意思表示を中国は重く受け止めるべきだ。

U.S. Vice President Joe Biden met with Chinese President Xi Jinping on Wednesday in Beijing, declaring that the United States does not recognize or accept the ADIZ recently established by China over the East China Sea, expressing Washington’s “significant apprehension.”
 米国のバイデン副大統領が、中国の習近平国家主席と北京で会談し、東シナ海に設定された中国の防空識別圏を認めないと述べた上で「深い懸念」を表明した。

In the talks, Biden reportedly called for Beijing to take measures to reduce tensions with countries concerned, prodding the Chinese leadership to exercise self-restraint to prevent a crisis over the zone.
 バイデン氏はさらに、中国に対し、関係国との緊張緩和に向けた措置を取り、この問題で危機を誘発するような行動を自制するよう要請したという。

Both of Biden’s calls were in line with what was confirmed in his talks with Prime Minister Shinzo Abe the previous day.
 いずれも、安倍首相との会談で確認した内容に沿ったものだ。

It was especially significant that Biden conveyed directly to Xi the strong sense of apprehension both Japan and the United States have over the way China declared the ADIZ and the rules of its implementation, which both Tokyo and Washington said deviate from international norms.
 中国の防空識別圏の設定の仕方や運用が国際常識から外れているとの日米両国の強い懸念を、習氏に直接伝えた点に意味がある。

In declaring the ADIZ, which changes the status quo in the East China Sea, China failed to consult with countries concerned beforehand. Rather, it unilaterally implemented the zone and abruptly announced it.
 中国は、現状を変更する識別圏設定に当たり、周辺国との事前調整をせず、一方的に発表した。

The means by which China implemented the new ADIZ strays from implementation protocol for air defense identification zones of other countries.
 その運用方法も、国際社会のやり方とは大きく異なっている。

In the ADIZs of countries other than China, including Japan, only aircraft found to be heading toward the countries’ territorial airspace are subject to alert. China, however, made it mandatory for all aircraft passing through its new ADIZ to report flight plans to Chinese authorities. Also, Beijing has warned it will make planes that fail to comply with its ADIZ rules subject to unspecified “defensive emergency measures.”
 日本などの防空識別圏では、領空に向かう航空機だけが警戒の対象となる。だが、中国は、識別圏内を飛行する全航空機に、飛行計画の提出を義務付けたばかりか、従わないと、「防御的緊急措置」の対象になると警告している。

Dangerous mind-set

Although most of the ADIZ is set above high seas, China’s warning is tantamount to treating the zone as part of its own airspace. We believe this is an illegitimate and dangerous mode of thinking.
 識別圏の大半は公海上空に設定されているのに、自らの領空のように扱っている。不当かつ極めて危険な考え方である。

In reply to calls from Biden, Xi was cited as reiterating China’s “principled stance” that its new ADIZ was established “in accord with international law and practice.” Does China intend to continue treating its air zone in its own fashion?
 バイデン氏に対し、習氏は、中国の「原則的な立場」を繰り返し、識別圏は「国際法や国際慣例に合致している」と述べたという。識別圏を引き続き、自己流で運用し続けるつもりなのだろうか。

As long as China takes such an attitude, it will never win the understanding of countries concerned, including Japan and the United States. First, Beijing should do away with its hard-line stance, which could invite the risk of an accidental military conflict.
 こうした態度では、日米をはじめ関係国の理解は得られまい。中国は、偶発的な軍事衝突を引き起こしかねない強硬な姿勢を、まず改める必要がある。

In his talks with Xi, Biden was also quoted as calling for China to create a crisis management mechanism in cooperation with Japan, with which China has an ongoing sovereignty row over the Senkaku Islands in Okinawa Prefecture, and other countries surrounding the new air zone.
 バイデン氏は習氏に、不測の事態を回避するために、沖縄県・尖閣諸島をめぐり対立する日本や周辺国と危機管理メカニズムを構築するよう促した。

It is crucial to expedite the opening up of communication channels among the countries concerned. The Chinese government has made an overture to the Japanese government to hold consultations with the aim of “securing safe flights” in the airspace where the two countries’ ADIZs overlap.
 関係国間で、意思の疎通を図ることは欠かせない。中国政府も日本に対して、「識別圏が重なっている空域での安全な飛行」のための協議を呼びかけている。

We worry, however, that in the process of such consultations, China will insist that Japan acknowledge China’s ADIZ, including airspace over the Senkakus, as if it were a fait accompli.
 ただ、気がかりなのは、話し合いの過程で、中国が、尖閣諸島上空を含む自らの防空識別圏を既成事実であるかのように主張してくると見られることだ。

Even if such consultations take place, Japan must not give up its stance of refusing to recognize China’s declaration of the air defense identification zone.
協議を行う場合でも、識別圏を認めないとの立場を崩してはならない。

In dealing with the ADIZ, it is important that Japan work closely with the United States in taking strategic measures against China.
 防空識別圏の問題を巡っては、米国との足並みをそろえながら、中国に戦略的に働きかけることが肝要である。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Dec. 6, 2013)
(2013年12月6日01時26分  読売新聞)

プロフィール

srachai

自己紹介・リンク

■近況

2009年の9月15日に脳梗塞を発症、右手が少し不自由になりました。
MRAで脳梗塞の部位を特定でき、素早い処置をとれたので大事に至りませんでした。
快復にむけてリハビリ中です。
(2011/01/01更新)

■自己紹介・リンク

[ はじめに ]
タイのスラチャイです。
英語学習に王道はありません。
毎日毎日の地道な努力の積み重ねが必要です。
スラチャイはNHKのラジオ英語会話で現在の英語力を身につけました。
一日僅か15分の学習でも数年間継続すれば相当な学習効果が期待できます。

[ 名前 ]
松井 清 (スラチャイ)

[ 略歴 ]
・福岡県出身
・国立高知大学卒業
・準大手建設会社に就職
・50歳で会社を早期退職
・99/10 タイ全土を旅行
・00/10 タイに移住
・03/07 カイちゃん誕生
・07/06 シーファーちゃん誕生
・現在タイ国コンケン在住

[ 座右の銘 ]
Slow and steady wins the race.
遅くとも着実な者が勝利する
(NHK基礎英語芹沢栄先生)

[ 学習の手引き ]
・音読して耳から英語を吸収
・Think in English.
・ネイティブ発音付辞書活用
・英英辞典を活用(英和も)
・翻訳和文で専門用語確認

[ English Newspapers ]
Yomiuri
Mainichi
Asahi
Japan Times
Washington Post
Newyork Times
Bangkok Post
The Nations
Phuket Gazette

[ 英字新聞の英和対訳学習 ]
英字新聞(読売)
英字新聞(毎日)
英字新聞(朝日)
英字新聞(朝日2)

[ スラチャイ編集の辞書 ]
タイ日辞書(改訂版)
日タイ辞書(改訂版)
ラオ日辞書
日ラオ辞書

[ 英字新聞リンク ]
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スラチャイの家族紹介
私の家族

スラチャイの手作りリンク集
スラチャイタイ在住14年目
New!中国語会話基礎(北京語)他
タイ日辞典(単語帳)
タイ語の子音
タイ語の母音
スラチャイ編曲のmidiのギター曲
スラチャイ編曲のJ.S.Bachです

スラチャイの多国言語学習
初歩のタイ語
初歩の中国語
初歩のラオス語
初歩のビルマ語
初歩のシンハリ語
初歩のタガログ語

タイ語の基礎
タイ文字
タイ日辞書
タイ語の副詞
タイ語の前置詞
タイ語の助動詞
タイ語の接続詞

基礎タイ語一覧(タイ文字、ローマ字)
seesaaサイト内リンク一覧:
01 あいさつ
02 別れのあいさつ
03 声をかけるとき
04 感謝の言葉と答え方
05 謝罪の言葉と答え方
06 聞き直すとき
07 相手の言うことがわからないとき
08 うまく言えないとき
09 一般的なあいづち
10 よくわからないときの返事
11 強めのあいづち
12 自分について述べるとき
13 相手のことを尋ねるとき
14 頼みごとをするとき
15 申し出・依頼を断るとき
16 許可を求めるとき
17 説明してもらうとき
18 確認を求めるとき
19 状況を知りたいとき
20 値段の尋ね方と断り方
21 急いでもらいたいとき
22 待ってもらいたいとき
23 日時・場所・天候を尋ねるとき
24 その他

基礎タイ語一覧(タイ文字、音声付き)
サイト外HPリンク一覧:
01 あいさつ
02 別れのあいさつ
03 声をかけるとき
04 感謝の言葉と答え方
05 謝罪の言葉と答え方
06 聞き直すとき
07 相手の言うことがわからないとき
08 うまく言えないとき
09 一般的なあいづち
10 よくわからないときの返事
11 強めのあいづち
12 自分について述べるとき
13 相手のことを尋ねるとき
14 頼みごとをするとき
15 申し出・依頼を断るとき
16 許可を求めるとき
17 説明してもらうとき
18 確認を求めるとき
19 状況を知りたいとき
20 値段の尋ね方と断り方
21 急いでもらいたいとき
22 待ってもらいたいとき
23 日時・場所・天候を尋ねるとき
24 その他

タイの文化一覧:
01 雨の日にも傘をささないタイ人
02 勉強熱心なタイ人女性たち
03 タイ人は敬謙な仏教徒
04 タイの市場
05 タイの食堂
06 タイ人は外食が大好き
07 果物王国タイランド
08 タイ人の誕生日
09 タイの電話代は高い
10 微笑みの国タイランド

14の戒律(テラワーダ仏教戒律)
seesaaサイト内リンク一覧:
第01番目の戒律
第02番目の戒律
第03番目の戒律
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第06番目の戒律
第07番目の戒律
第08番目の戒律
第09番目の戒律
第10番目の戒律
第11番目の戒律
第12番目の戒律
第13番目の戒律
第14番目の戒律

14の戒律(テラワーダ仏教戒律)
サイト外HPリンク一覧:
14の戒律解説
第01番目の戒律
第02番目の戒律
第03番目の戒律
第04番目の戒律
第05番目の戒律
第06番目の戒律
第07番目の戒律
第08番目の戒律
第09番目の戒律
第10番目の戒律
第11番目の戒律
第12番目の戒律
第13番目の戒律
第14番目の戒律


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[ HPリンク ]
cocolog 家族のアルバム
fc2 家族のアルバム
初歩の日本語(タイ人学生向け)
タイの小学三年生数学学力テスト(国家試験)
タイ語、中国語、ビルマ語
Preliminary Japanese lessons for Thai students
旅行のタイ語学習サイト
ラオ日・日老辞書
妻はタイ人/タイの文化/タイの仏教戒律

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