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2013年09月

原発汚染水対策 政府は廃炉まで積極関与せよ

The Yomiuri Shimbun September 21, 2013
Govt must take more active role in handling N-contaminated water
原発汚染水対策 政府は廃炉まで積極関与せよ(9月20日付・読売社説)

Resolving the problems at Tokyo Electric Power Co.’s ruined Fukushima No. 1 nuclear power plant is a process requiring as many as 30 to 40 years before plant’s reactors can be dismantled.
 東京電力福島第一原子力発電所の事故対応は、廃炉まで30~40年もの取り組みになる。

During that time, the government must retain the ability to involve itself responsibly in resolving problems at the complex.
政府が責任を持って関与する体制を整えるべきだ。

Visiting the plant on Thursday, Prime Minister Shinzo Abe inspected items such as tanks that leaked water contaminated with radioactive substance. He also gave workers words of encouragement.
 安倍首相は福島第一原発を訪れ、汚染水漏れを起こした貯蔵タンクなどを視察し、現場の職員を激励した。

Abe urged TEPCO management to push forward with cleaning up the tainted water by instituting deadlines for the task. He also called for the decommissioning of the Nos. 5 and 6 reactors, which have remained idle even though they did not suffer meltdowns or hydrogen explosions after the March 11, 2011, Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami.
東電に対しては、期限を決めて汚染水の浄化を進めることや、停止している5、6号機の廃炉を要請した。

It seems Abe has taken the bull by the horns and resolved to beef up countermeasures against the vast amounts of tainted water. It is only natural and reasonable that, after the on-site inspections, he reiterated that the government “must take the lead and fulfill its responsibility” in tackling the crisis.
 汚染水対策を強化する姿勢を自ら示したと言える。視察後、首相が「国が前面に出て責任を果たしていかなければならない」と改めて述べたのも当然だ。

The government has decided to allocate about ¥47 billion to try to address the contaminated water problem. Its steady budgetary implementation is imperative.
 政府は、汚染水の対策費として約470億円の国費投入を決めている。着実な実施を求めたい。

Until now, the government has left the task of handling the crisis, including tainted water disposal, in TEPCO’s hands.
 政府は、汚染水対策など事故処理を東電にゆだねてきた。

There can be no denying that the government’s inaction slowed efforts to deal with the accident and ensuing turmoil.
政府が積極的に関与してこなかったことが、対応の遅れや混乱につながったのは間違いない。

The Liberal Democratic Party, for that matter, has begun considering enacting a special law to share responsibility for the clean up between the government and TEPCO and clarify a chain of command. Passage of such a law will provide the government with the mandate to extend fiscal support to end the crisis.
 自民党は、汚染水対策で国と東電の責任分担を定め、指揮系統を明確にする特別措置法の検討を始めた。特措法が制定されれば、財政支援する根拠にもなろう。

Just beginning of resolution

What is of high importance in this matter is that the special law should not be limited to countermeasures against contaminated water, but should cover the entire process of resolving the crisis.
 重要なのは、特措法を汚染水対策に限定せず、事故収束まで視野に入れた総合的な内容にすることだ。

The task of containing the tainted water is nothing more than the beginning of resolving the crisis.
汚染水の封じ込めは、事故収束への「入り口」に過ぎない。

Given the colossal expenses and manpower needed for reactor decommissioning, decontamination and related challenges, it would be unrealistic to leave everything to TEPCO. The system of extending assistance to the utility must be drastically revamped.
 廃炉や除染に巨額な費用がかかり、人材確保も必要になることを考えれば、東電にすべて任せるのは無理だ。支援体制を抜本的に見直す必要がある。

At the International Olympic Committee general meeting earlier this month in Buenos Aires, Abe said the tainted water problem at the plant “is under control.”
 首相は、ブエノスアイレスでの国際オリンピック委員会総会で、福島原発について「状況はコントロールされている」と語った。

In a bid to win the right to host the 2020 Summer Olympics and Paralympics, the prime minister’s remark was based on the idea that contaminated water is limited to the port adjacent to the plant. After Thursday’s inspection, he said the message was intended to “assure the world that the situation is safe and secure and poses no risk to human health.”
 五輪招致にあたり、汚染水の影響は原発の港湾内にとどまっているとのメッセージだった。首相は原発視察後、「健康への被害はなく安心してもらいたいと世界に発信した」とも説明した。

The Democratic Party of Japan, for its part, has criticized the prime minister’s message, saying the current situation at the plant “is far from being under control.” However, the public will surely take such remarks as little more than frivolous objections.
 民主党は、コントロールされている状況とは程遠いなどと批判しているが、揚げ足取りと受け取られても仕方あるまい。

First of all, it was the DPJ administration that set the pattern of leaving crisis resolution to TEPCO.
 そもそも、東電任せの事故処理の枠組みを作ったのは民主党政権だ。

It has been brought to light that DPJ leader Banri Kaieda, while serving as economy, trade and industry minister two years ago, acknowledged TEPCO’s decision to postpone plans to install protective walls to prevent tainted water leaks at the Fukushima plant.
2年前、汚染水流出を防ぐ遮水壁の設置を先送りする東電の判断を、当時経済産業相だった海江田代表は容認していた。

The top priority for both the ruling and opposition camps should be to come up with better ways to resolve the issue.
 今優先すべきは、より良い対策となるよう与野党が知恵を絞ることである。

Discussions should be deepened between the ruling and opposition blocs about such issues as how the crisis should be addressed and how the burden should be shared between the government and TEPCO, through such venues as meetings during the Diet recess and deliberations in the extraordinary Diet session, which will be convened in mid-October.
国会の閉会中審査や、10月中旬に始まる臨時国会の審議では、原発対応のあり方や、政府と東電の役割分担についても議論を深めてもらいたい。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Sept. 20, 2013)
(2013年9月20日01時30分  読売新聞)

南シナ海情勢 日米ASEANで対中連携を

The Yomiuri Shimbun September 20, 2013
Japan, U.S. and ASEAN must team up to counter China’s maritime advance
南シナ海情勢 日米ASEANで対中連携を(9月19日付・読売社説)

It is becoming apparent that China intends to strengthen its hegemony in the South China Sea while stalling for time in drawing up a code of conduct to avoid hostilities.
 紛争を避けるルール作りで時間稼ぎをする間に南シナ海での支配力を強める。中国のそんな意図が見えてきた。

China and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations held the first official talks among senior officials to move toward deciding on a code of conduct to regulate the activities of countries concerned in the South China Sea.
 中国と東南アジア諸国連合(ASEAN)は、南シナ海で各国の行動を規制する「行動規範」の策定に向けた初の公式高官協議を行った。

Yet China remained halfhearted over the issue throughout the talks, with the meeting only deciding on the establishment of a meeting of experts.
だが、中国は消極的態度に終始し、専門家会合設置を決めるにとどまった。

In the South China Sea, China is in conflict with such ASEAN countries as the Philippines and Vietnam regarding sovereignty over the Spratly Islands and other islands and reefs.
 南シナ海では、南沙諸島などの領有権を巡り、中国と、フィリピン、ベトナムなどASEAN加盟国が対立している。

China asserts a claim of exclusive sovereignty over not only the Spratly Islands but nearly all of the South China Sea. Yet it has not brought the international community around to its point of view.
 中国は、南沙諸島だけでなく、南シナ海ほぼ全域で独占的な権益を持つと主張しているが、国際的な理解は得られていない。

For over a decade, the ASEAN countries have been trying to secure agreement from China on the establishment of rules of conduct to prevent overt hostilities in the South China Sea. Yet, with its overwhelming military and economic power, China refused to hold such a meeting until recently.
 ASEANは中国に対して、10年以上にわたり紛争防止のためのルール作りを働きかけてきた。しかし、軍事的にも経済的にも圧倒的な力を持つ中国は協議を受け入れてこなかった。

It is regrettable that even when China finally did come to the negotiating table, it proposed discussing other issues instead and would not go into a detailed discussion on the code of conduct.
 ようやくテーブルに着いたものの、中国が別の議題を提示し、行動規範で突っ込んだ議論をしようとしなかったのは残念である。

Scarborough stare-down

In the South China Sea, with no code of conduct for concerned countries, the crisis is only deepening. The current focal point lies in the conflict between the Philippines and China.
 ルールなき南シナ海で、危機は深まる一方である。現在の焦点は、フィリピンと中国の対立だ。

Around the disputed Scarborough Shoal, over which both countries claim sovereignty, naval vessels from the two sides faced each other for two months. The government of the Philippines said that after it moved its vessels away, China placed concrete blocks on the shoal.
 係争地スカボロー礁では、昨年、両国の艦船が2か月間にらみ合った。比政府によると、フィリピンが艦船を引き揚げた後、中国がコンクリートブロックを据え付けたという。

Earlier this year, the Philippines filed a request for arbitration under the U.N. Convention on the Law of the Sea, asserting that China’s claim of sovereignty over the shoal is unlawful. This month, China held an exhibition inviting heads of ASEAN member countries. But the president of the Philippines was not invited.
 フィリピンは今年に入り、国連海洋法条約に基づき、中国の領有権の主張は不当であるとして、仲裁裁判を申請した。今月、中国では、ASEAN首脳らを招いた博覧会が開かれたが、比大統領は招待されなかった。

The snub must be interpreted as an attempt by China to rebuke the Philippines over the country’s having taken legal action against China.
 法的手段に訴えたフィリピンへの、中国の嫌がらせと取られても仕方がない。

It is understandable that the Philippines, pressured physically by China, has been intensifying relations with the United States and Japan.
 中国に物理的圧力をかけられたフィリピンが、米国や日本へ接近を強めているのは理解できる。

While having expanded a joint military exercise with the United States, the Philippines is moving ahead in talks with the United States that are likely to lead, in effect, to the stationing of U.S. forces in the Philippines again. There is a possibility that the Subic naval base, once a strategic foothold for the United States, will again be used for the deployment of U.S. forces.
 米比共同軍事訓練を強化したほか、実質的な米軍再駐留につながる協議を進めている。かつての米戦略拠点だったスービック海軍基地が再び米軍の展開に使われる可能性もある。

Prime Minister Shinzo Abe, since he took office last December, has intensively visited ASEAN countries and presented his plan of providing 10 patrol vessels to the Philippines.
 安倍首相は就任以来、ASEAN諸国を重点的に歴訪し、フィリピンには巡視船10隻を供与する方針を示した。

For both Japan and the United States, which face the expanding presence of China in the East China Sea and the western Pacific, the significance of cooperating with ASEAN member countries by taking concerted actions with them is not limited to the South China Sea. It will help their efforts to check China from expanding its maritime activities elsewhere as well.
 東シナ海や西太平洋で中国の膨張に直面する日米両国にとって、歩調を合わせてASEAN諸国と連携する意味合いは、南シナ海にとどまらない。中国の海洋進出全体を牽制(けんせい)することにもなろう。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Sept. 19, 2013)
(2013年9月19日01時32分  読売新聞)

園児犠牲訴訟 津波への予見と情報があれば

The Yomiuri Shimbun September 19, 2013
Kindergartens must ensure safety of children when disasters occur
園児犠牲訴訟 津波への予見と情報があれば(9月18日付・読売社説)

A private kindergarten in Miyagi Prefecture has been taken to task in a court ruling on a lawsuit filed by parents whose kindergarten children died in the March 2011 disaster. The ruling blamed the kindergarten for failing to protect its pupils from the tsunami triggered by the catastrophic Great East Japan Earthquake, and the facility’s operator was ordered to pay compensation. This may serve as a wake-up call for facilities taking care of small children.
 津波から園児の命を守れなかった責任は、幼稚園にある。幼い子供を預かる施設への警鐘と言える賠償命令だ。

On Tuesday, the Sendai District Court ordered the kindergarten’s operator to pay about ¥177 million in compensation to the parents of four children who died along with a kindergarten employee when the tsunami engulfed their school bus immediately after the earthquake.
 東日本大震災の直後、宮城県石巻市の私立幼稚園の送迎バスが津波に巻き込まれ、園児らが死亡した事故で、仙台地裁は幼稚園側に約1億7700万円の損害賠償を命じた。

The lawsuit had been filed by the parents, who argued that the deaths were caused by the kindergarten’s failure to take appropriate action to protect their children’s lives. In supporting the plaintiffs, the district court concluded that the kindergarten had neglected to gather information about the likelihood of a tsunami following the quake.
 死亡した園児4人の両親が「園の対応の悪さが引き起こした人災だ」と訴えていた。判決は「津波に関する情報収集義務を怠った」と結論付け、訴えを認めた。

Kindergarten pupils are far less competent in avoiding danger than grown-ups. It is difficult for them to escape to safety at their own discretion in an emergency.
 幼い園児は、危険を回避する能力が大人ほど発達していない。津波襲来の際などには、自らの判断で避難することは困難だ。

The court ruling was quite reasonable in stating that there was no way for kindergarten children to ensure their safety other than to trust the school’s director and teachers and follow their instructions.
 判決が「園長、教諭を信頼して指導に従うほかに生命身体を守る手立てがない」と指摘したのは、もっともである。

Kindergartens are duty-bound to protect the safety of their pupils. In fact, the court ruling stated that kindergartens are obliged to anticipate possible danger and do their utmost to avert any threat.
 手立てがない以上、幼稚園には、子供の安全を守る高度な義務が課される。判決も「危険性を予見し、回避する最善の措置を取る義務を負う」と判断した。

Based on this, the court placed the blame on the kindergarten in Ishinomaki, arguing that the facility should have expected the arrival of a tsunami considering that an earthquake with a maximum seismic intensity of lower 6 on the Japanese scale of 7 had continued for about three minutes. The ruling said the kindergarten should have listened closely to the radio and the community public address system to gather information about a possible tsunami.
 その上で、最大震度6弱の揺れが約3分間も続いたことを考えれば、園側が津波襲来を予見するのは可能であり、「ラジオや防災無線を正確に聴く必要があった」と、園側の落ち度を認定した。

No preparations made

During the trial, the kindergarten insisted that the tragedy was an unavoidable accident caused by a devastating tsunami that could not have been foreseen.
 園側は「予測不可能な異常な津波で引き起こされた不可抗力による事故」と主張してきた。

It should be noted, however, that the bus taking the children home was headed toward the sea after leaving the kindergarten, which was on elevated ground. It was reasonable for the four children’s parents to argue that the loss of life should be attributed to the kindergarten’s thoughtless conduct, especially as the facility itself was not affected by the tsunami.
 だが、幼稚園は高台にあるのに、園児を自宅に送り届けようとバスは海側に向かった。園自体は津波被害を受けなかっただけに、園児の両親が「園の行為で犠牲が出た」と訴えたのは理解できる。

A manual prepared by the kindergarten to protect its pupils whenever a major earthquake occurs requires its employees to ensure the children take refuge in the facility’s play area at first, and then allow them to return home with their parents when they arrive to pick them up. However, most of the kindergarten’s staff had not known of the manual. No disaster drills had been carried out in accordance with the manual, either.
 大地震の際は園庭に避難し、保護者が迎えに来てから園児を引き渡すとの園のマニュアルがあるにもかかわらず、教職員の大半が存在を知らず、マニュアルに沿った訓練も実施しなかったという。

Evidently, the kindergarten lacked preparations regarding a massive earthquake and possible tsunami.
 大地震と津波への備えを欠いていたのは明らかだろう。

If the kindergarten appeals to a higher court, a new round of hearings will start. It remains to be seen whether the kindergarten will be able to pay the massive amount of court-ordered compensation.
 園側が控訴すれば、訴訟は続くが、多額の賠償命令に対し、園側に支払い能力はあるのかという問題は残る。

If a feared massive Nankai Trough earthquake actually strikes, a tsunami is predicted to follow that would cause damage in excess of that incurred by the Great East Japan Earthquake.
 南海トラフ巨大地震では、東日本大震災を上回る規模の津波被害が想定されている。

Kindergartens must secure evacuation sites and routes in preparation for such a disaster, while also conducting periodic disaster drills to make sure their teaching staff and pupils know how to use them. This task should be tackled immediately by all facilities that take care of children, including day-care centers and primary schools.
 避難場所や経路を確保し、日ごろの訓練で教職員や子供に徹底させる。幼稚園だけでなく、保育所や小学校など、子供のいる施設が早急に取り組むべき課題だ。

At municipally run kindergartens in Kushimoto, Wakayama Prefecture, children, teachers and all other staff conduct drills in which they evacuate to higher ground almost every day. This is the kind of effort that should be made in other parts of the country.
 和歌山県串本町の町立幼稚園では、ほぼ毎日、園児と職員全員が高台への避難訓練を続けている。こうした取り組みを広げたい。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Sept. 18, 2013)
(2013年9月18日01時28分  読売新聞)

法科大学院 優秀な人材をどう集めるか

The Yomiuri Shimbun September 18, 2013
Nation’s law schools must improve for the good of the profession, society
法科大学院 優秀な人材をどう集めるか(9月17日付・読売社説)

If things are left as they are, talented young people may no longer be attracted to careers in law. The nation’s law schools, meant to be the core of efforts to foster legal professionals, have fallen into a critical situation.
 このままでは、優秀な人材が法曹界に集まらなくなるのではないか。
 法曹養成の中核である法科大学院が、危機的な状況に陥っている。

The number of people who passed this year’s national bar exam after graduating from law school stood at 1,929. The pass rate remains low. Hovering around 26 percent, it is a far cry from the 70-80 percent rate originally assumed.
 今年の司法試験で、法科大学院の修了生の合格者は1929人、合格率は約26%と低迷を続けている。当初想定された7~8割という合格率には遠く及ばない。

In light of such a reality, students are becoming less interested in going to law school. The number of applicants for law school enrollment this spring has fallen to one-fifth of what it was at its peak.
 こうした現状から、学生の法科大学院離れは進む一方だ。入学志願者は減少し、今春はピーク時の5分の1に落ち込んだ。

The popularity of law departments at universities is also declining. At national and other public universities, the number of students applying to law departments has fallen by about 10 percent over the past two years.
 大学の法学部人気も低下しており、国公立大学では法学部の志願者がこの2年で約1割減った。

As one of the three branches of government depends on a strong pool of legal talent, the foundation of a state under the rule of law may be shaken if the number of young people who aspire to enter legal circles declines.
 三権の一角を担う法曹界を目指す若者が減れば、法治国家の根幹が揺らぎかねない。

The first law schools opened in 2004 to further judicial system reform by “fostering an ample source of legal professionals both in terms of quality and quantity.” The schools were initially expected to produce work-ready law practitioners equipped with specialized knowledge and legal analytical abilities.
 法科大学院は、「質・量ともに豊かな法曹を育てる」という司法制度改革の理念の下、2004年に開校した。専門知識と法的分析力を備えた即戦力の実務家を育成することが期待された。

Yet as the Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology Ministry broadly allowed many academic institutions to open law schools, as many as 74 law schools with varying levels of quality have opened. As a result, a number of schools had only single-digit numbers of their students pass the national exam for the year.
 ところが、文部科学省が広く参入を認めた結果、74校が乱立し、司法試験の合格者数が1けたにとどまるところが続出した。

Weed out subpar schools

Next fiscal year, the education ministry is set to cut its subsidies to 18 law schools that have failed to produce strong results, as the pass rate of their students remains low. The cut is designed to urge these schools to integrate with other schools or leave the field altogether. Law schools that fail in fostering legal professionals must inevitably be weeded out.
 文科省は来年度、司法試験の合格率低迷など、実績を上げられない法科大学院18校の補助金を減額する方針だ。統廃合を促す狙いがある。養成機能を果たせない法科大学院の淘汰(とうた)はやむを得ない。

Meanwhile, the number of people who passed the bar exam without graduating from law school has been increasing sharply. Such people become eligible to take the bar exam after passing a preliminary qualification test. This year, the number who succeeded surged to 120, nearly double last year’s figure.
 一方、法科大学院を修了せずに司法試験の受験資格を得られる「予備試験」経由者の合格が急増している。今年は前年の約2倍の120人を数えた。

The preliminary test system was introduced to open the way for people unable to enroll in law school for economic reasons to tackle the bar exam. Despite this purpose, many law school students used the preliminary exam to take and pass the bar exam without graduating from law school.
 予備試験は、経済的理由で法科大学院に通えない人にも司法試験に挑戦する道を開くために設けられた。にもかかわらず、今年の司法試験に合格した予備試験組には法科大学院在学生が目立つ。

If an increasing number of people use the preliminary test as a shortcut to pass the bar exam without completing their law school studies, the hollowing out of law schools will only accelerate.
 法科大学院で学ぶ過程を省く「近道」として予備試験を利用する人が増え続ければ、法科大学院の空洞化が進むだけだ。

If the law school system is to be maintained, it is necessary to review it, such as by allowing law school graduates to take the bar exam more often, so that students will become more willing to go on to law school.
 法科大学院制度を維持するなら、修了者に対し、司法試験の受験回数の制限を大幅に緩和するなど、学生が法科大学院に進みたいと思うような見直しが必要だ。

Needless to say, law schools, for their part, are asked to strive to improve their quality of education.
 無論、法科大学院にも教育の質向上の取り組みが求められる。

Furthermore, the current situation in which many of those who have passed the bar exam and become lawyers are unable to find jobs is serious.
 司法試験に受かり、弁護士になっても、働き口が見つからない状況も深刻だ。

It is naturally expected that students will tend to shy away from entering the legal profession as long as there is little prospect of employment.
将来の展望が開けないのでは、学生が法曹界を敬遠するのも無理はない。

The government and legal circles must discuss ways to expand the range of activities for lawyers by, for instance, expanding their job opportunities in local governments and private businesses as soon as possible.
 自治体や企業による雇用拡大など、弁護士の活動領域を広げる方策について、政府と法曹界は早急に検討すべきだ。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Sept. 17, 2013)
(2013年9月17日02時11分  読売新聞)

米露外相合意 シリアに時間稼ぎを許すな

The Yomiuri Shimbun September 17, 2013
U.S.-Russia agreement should not permit Syrian regime to buy time
米露外相合意 シリアに時間稼ぎを許すな(9月16日付・読売社説)

Military strikes against Syria have been averted, at least for now, apparently in a move aimed at achieving a political settlement to that country’s civil war. However, quite a few problems must be overcome.
 軍事攻撃は当面回避され、内戦の政治解決に向けて一歩を踏み出した。だが、まだまだ不透明な点が少なくない。

The foreign ministerial talks between the United States and Russia that were held in Geneva for three days until Saturday produced an agreement designed to formulate a framework to eliminate Syria’s chemical weapons.
 ジュネーブで3日間にわたって開かれた米露外相会談は、シリアの化学兵器全廃を目指す枠組みで合意した。

Under the Washington-Moscow accord, Syria must hand over a complete list of its chemical weapons arsenal within a week, and the U.N.-backed Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) is scheduled to embark on inspections of Syria’s chemical weapons sites by November. Complete destruction of the arsenal is planned for the first half of 2014.
 アサド政権に、すべての化学兵器を1週間以内に申告させ、11月までに化学兵器禁止機関が査察を開始する。2014年前半までの完全廃棄を目標としている。

The accord, however, leaves one major question after another unanswered.
Is there any guarantee Syrian President Bashar Assad’s regime, which did not acknowledge until recently the existence of chemical weapons in the country, will unequivocally declare a list of its chemical weapons and live up to its promise to do away with them?
Will it be possible for OPCW inspectors to carry out effective inspections in the midst of a civil war?
 ただ、化学兵器の存在すら認めてこなかった政権が正直に申告し、廃棄する保証があるのか。国内各地で戦闘の続く内戦下で、果たして実効性のある査察ができるのか。次々と疑問が浮かぶ。

In regard to North Korea’s nuclear weapons development program, we recall that Pyongyang, after committing to abandoning the program, maneuvered to have it delayed and eventually refused to accept inspections.
 北朝鮮の核問題でも、北朝鮮はいったん核放棄を約束しながら、核計画の申告を遅らせ、査察を受け入れなかった。

The Assad government must never be allowed to buy time to prolong the life of the regime by deliberately delaying the implementation of the inspection accord.
アサド政権が、合意の履行を意図的に遅らせて、政権延命への時間稼ぎをするような事態を許してはなるまい。

UNSC resolution essential

The latest agreement came after Russia, the patron of the Assad administration, embarked on diplomatic arbitration in the wake of U.S. President Barack Obama’s announcement of plans to launch punitive military action against Syria following the Assad regime’s alleged use of chemical weapons.
 今回の合意は、オバマ米大統領が、化学兵器使用への懲罰的軍事攻撃を表明したために、アサド政権の後見役のロシアが外交調停に乗り出し、実現したものだ。

After striking the deal with Moscow, Washington agreed to delay military operations against Damascus. The question over whether the Assad regime used chemical weapons has been shelved.
 合意を受け、米国は軍事攻撃を当面先送りした。アサド政権が化学兵器を使用したかどうかは、棚上げされたままである。

The agreement stipulates that if the Assad administration fails to comply with the terms of the accord, including a ban on the use of chemical weapons and their transportation without prior permission, the U.N. Security Council would take measures based on Chapter VII of the U.N. Charter, which will pave the way for military sanctions.
 合意文書には、化学兵器の使用や無許可の移送など、アサド政権が合意不履行の場合は、国連安全保障理事会が、武力制裁に道を開く国連憲章第7章に基づく措置を取るべきだと明記されている。

This means that strong pressure, including the threat of military strikes, is essential to ensure the Assad regime abides by the agreement to eliminate chemical weapons.
 政権に合意を履行させるには、なお軍事行動を含む強力な圧力が必要ということだろう。

In a statement released after the agreement, Obama said, “If diplomacy fails, the United States remains prepared to act,” implying that the United States retains the option of carrying out military strikes.
 オバマ大統領も、合意後の声明で、「外交が失敗すれば、米国は行動する用意がある」と述べ、米国として軍事攻撃の選択肢を維持する方針を強調した。

The U.N. Security Council, for its part, is set to draw up a resolution in response to the U.S.-Russia accord. The resolution must be adopted promptly, as it is indispensable for the international community as a whole to continue to exert pressure on the Assad regime to honor the accord.
 安保理では、合意を受けた決議案を作成する。早期に採択し、国際社会全体でアサド政権に履行を促す努力が欠かせない。

The civil war has already claimed the lives of 100,000 people, and refugees total 2 million. It is imperative to end the war as soon as possible.
 内戦では既に、10万人が犠牲となり、200万人が難民となった。一刻も早く戦闘を終わらせる方策を見つけなければならない。

The U.S. and Russian foreign ministers are scheduled to meet again in New York soon to discuss the feasibility of holding an international conference with both Assad regime officials and rebels taking part.
 米露外相は近くニューヨークで再会談し、アサド政権と反体制派双方が参加する国際会議の開催に向け協議する。

The rebels are far from united, as they comprise a multitude of forces, such as Islamist groups and secular organizations. Diplomatic negotiations to resolve these differences face many difficulties.
反体制側は、イスラム主義勢力や世俗派など様々な勢力が入り乱れている。外交交渉の前途は多難である。

Japan, for that matter, should not stand idly by. It should expand its humanitarian aid, including refugee relief, to the Syrian people.
 日本も手をこまねいてはいられない。難民対策など人道支援を一層充実させる必要があろう。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Sept. 16, 2013)
(2013年9月16日01時41分  読売新聞)

原発事故不起訴 東電と政府の責任は免れない

The Yomiuri Shimbun September 16, 2013
Govt, TEPCO still bear responsibility for roles in Fukushima catastrophe
原発事故不起訴 東電と政府の責任は免れない(9月15日付・読売社説)

A decision by prosecutors has brought to light how difficult it is to establish criminal responsibility for the consequences of an unprecedentedly massive disaster.
 未曽有の大災害に伴う事故で刑事責任を問うことの難しさを示す結果になったと言えよう。

The Tokyo District Public Prosecutors Office announced Thursday it would not indict any of the 42 people against whom complaints had been filed seeking indictment on charges of professional negligence resulting in deaths and injuries in connection with the nuclear crisis at Tokyo Electric Power Co.’s Fukushima No. 1 nuclear power plant. Among them were top executives of TEPCO and government leaders at the time of the outbreak of the nuclear crisis.
 東京電力福島第一原子力発電所の事故を巡り、業務上過失致死傷容疑などで告訴・告発された当時の東電経営陣や政府関係者ら計42人全員を、検察が不起訴とした。

The prosecutors office said the gigantic tsunami triggered by the March 11, 2011, earthquake should be considered unpredictable and the failure of TEPCO management and nuclear regulatory authorities to take sufficient precautionary measures in advance did not constitute criminal negligence.
 東日本大震災による巨大津波は予測不可能で、東電首脳らが事前に対策をとらなかったことは過失とは言えない、という理由だ。

The office also said an on-the-spot inspection that then Prime Minister Naoto Kan conducted at the crippled nuclear plant immediately after the disaster could not be deemed to have hindered the venting of steam to lower pressure inside the reactors.
 菅元首相が事故直後に現地を視察したことも、原子炉内の圧力を下げるベント作業には影響を与えなかった、と判断した。

Given that the prosecution could not produce enough clear evidence to establish a case for criminal negligence, the decision not to indict should be considered inevitable.
 過失を裏付ける明確な証拠が集まらなかった点を考えれば、不起訴の結論はやむを得まい。

In the nuclear crisis, the power sources for the backup generators for the plant’s reactors were disabled, rendering them unable to pump cooling water and eventually leading to reactor core meltdowns and hydrogen explosions in reactors Nos. 1, 3 and 4. The result was that radioactive substances were spewed from the tsunami-wrecked plant, exposing a large number of residents in the vicinity to radiation.
 原発事故では、原子炉の電源喪失で冷却装置が機能不全となったため、炉心損傷と水素爆発が起きた。放射性物質が拡散し、多くの周辺住民が被曝した。

After determining the loss of power supply was caused by the tsunami, the prosecutors office, after hearing the opinions of seismologists, concluded the colossal scale of the tsunami was unforeseeable even by experts.
 検察は、この電源喪失が津波によって引き起こされたと認定した上で、地震学者への聴取結果から、今回のような規模の津波の発生は、専門家の間でも想定されていなかったと結論づけた。

Be ready for the unforeseen

To establish a case for professional negligence in such a situation, there must be evidence to prove failure to take necessary steps despite being aware of the potential danger of the tsunami, instead of merely a nebulous feeling that a crisis could occur.
 業務上過失致死傷罪として立件するには、漠然とした危機感ではなく、具体的に津波が襲来する危険を認識しながら、必要な対策を怠っていた証拠が求められる。

The fact that the tsunami was an unpredictable natural disaster posed a high hurdle for the prosecutors.
 想定外の天災という要素が、捜査を進める上で、高いハードルになったのは間違いない。

It is noteworthy that probes into professional negligence focus on individuals, which was another hurdle in this case. The extremely chaotic nature of the crisis made it very hard for prosecutors to charge a particular individual with criminal responsibility for the accident.
 過失犯の捜査では、個人の処罰が焦点になる。混乱を極めた事故後の状況下では、特定の個人に刑事責任を負わせるのは難しいという側面もあったのだろう。

In the United States, courts sometimes award huge punitive damages for unscrupulous corporate behavior to prevent similar harmful actions. In Japan, however, there is no such system even in civil litigation.
 米国には、悪質な企業に巨額の賠償金を支払わせて制裁を加え、再発抑止を図る懲罰的損害賠償の制度がある。日本には、民事訴訟でもこうした仕組みはない。

In light of the grave impact the nuclear crisis has had on society and the nation’s economy, both TEPCO and the government still bear heavy responsibility for the disaster, even though they are exempt from criminal responsibility.
 だが、法的責任は認められなくとも、原発事故が社会・経済に与えた深刻な打撃を考慮すれば、東電や政府の責任は重大である。

The government panel tasked with investigating the accident has pointed out that TEPCO had been complacent about safety. It also noted that the Economy, Trade and Industry Ministry’s former Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency and other nuclear power generation regulators had left the task of implementing safety measures up to TEPCO. Both the government and regulators left the studies of risk factors on a back burner. The Diet commission that investigated the accident declared in its report that the disaster was “man-made.”
 政府の事故調査委員会は、東電が安全神話にとらわれ、経済産業省の旧原子力安全・保安院など規制当局も対策を電力会社に任せ、リスクの検討を後回しにしていたと指摘した。国会事故調は「事故は人災」とまで断じている。

Bearing the lessons of the crisis deeply in mind, both the government and TEPCO must urgently address the task of creating effective safety procedures to cope with unforeseen situations.
 政府も東電も、事故の教訓を踏まえ、想定外の事態にも対処し得る安全管理態勢の構築を急ぐ必要がある。

The Fukushima No. 1 nuclear plant is struggling to contain highly radioactive water flowing out of the wrecked reactors.
福島第一原発は今も汚染水漏れ問題を抱えている。

Countermeasures as well as operations to decommission the reactors must steadily be implemented.
その対策や、廃炉に向けた作業を、着実に進めなければならない。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Sept. 15, 2013)
(2013年9月15日01時31分  読売新聞)

宮崎監督引退 アニメ芸術の志引き継ぎたい

The Yomiuri Shimbun September 15, 2013
Filmmakers must inherit Miyazaki’s aspirations for artistic animation
宮崎監督引退 アニメ芸術の志引き継ぎたい(9月14日付・読売社説)

Fans of Hayao Miyazaki’s animation undoubtedly want him to continue making movies. He will be greatly missed after his retirement.
 世界中のファンは、まだまだ作品を見たいに違いない。惜しまれる引退である。

Miyazaki, who has enchanted people around the world with a variety of spectacular masterpieces, has decided to retire from the production of full-length anime movies. The currently showing “Kaze Tachinu” (The Wind Rises) will be his last film.
 スケールの大きい数々の名作で人々を魅了し続けてきた宮崎駿監督が、現在公開中の映画「風立ちぬ」を最後に、長編アニメーションの仕事から身を引く決断をした。

Miyazaki said, “No matter how much I get in shape, the number of hours I can concentrate has been decreasing year by year.” He has probably recognized that at 72, he has reached his limit physically.
 宮崎さんが「どんなに体調を整えても集中している時間が年々減っていく」と言うように、72歳は体力的に限界だったのだろう。

Sticking to hand drawing, he has taken extra care in drawing even the effects of wind, the motion of water and the play of light. Drawing requires long hours of work with great strain on the eyes and hands. Miyazaki has also thought about story lines while proceeding with production, without deciding on the conclusion at the outset. Hence anime production was extremely hard work for him.
 宮崎さんは手描きにこだわり、風や水、光まで丁寧に描いた。目や手を酷使し、長時間にわたる作業が強いられる。結末を決めずに、制作しながらストーリーを考えていく手法を取った。アニメ制作は「つらい仕事」でもあった。

Miyazaki also said, “I’m free and there are many things I want to do and try.”
 その一方で、宮崎さんは「ぼくは自由です」と言い、「やってみたいことや試したいことが色々ある」とも述べている。

We hope he will display his talents again in other fields besides production of animated feature films, which require long hours of work and impose a heavy physical burden.
 時間的、肉体的に負担の大きい長編アニメとは別の分野で再びその本領を発揮してもらいたい。

Insightful messages

Miyazaki’s greatest achievement was his contribution to raising the production of entertainment anime, initially designed for children, to the level of art backed by deep insightful messages and creating a new Japanese anime culture that is preeminent in the world.
 宮崎さんの業績は、子ども向けと思われていた娯楽アニメを、深い思想性に裏打ちされた芸術に高め、世界に冠たる日本の新しいアニメ文化を創造した点にある。

His productions have also proved successful in terms of box office returns. This could be attributed to the fact that he was extremely fortunate in his producers, many staff members and investors.
 興行的にも成功を収めた。プロデューサーや多くのスタッフ、出資者にも恵まれたからだろう。

“Kaze no Tani no Naushika” (Nausicaa of the Valley of the Wind), released in 1984, depicted a world after the collapse of a great civilization and contained philosophical insights into nature and civilization. It also criticized Japanese society, which tends to be preoccupied with economic wealth.
 巨大文明崩壊後の世界を描いた1984年の「風の谷のナウシカ」は、自然や文明についての哲学的考察に貫かれている。経済的な豊かさにばかりとらわれがちな日本社会への批判でもあった。

Miyazaki depicted a poetic world in “Tonari no Totoro” (My Neighbor Totoro, 1988), which featured the rich natural environment of the countryside. He broke new ground with “Mononoke Hime” (Princess Mononoke), released in 1997, which featured battles between malevolent gods and humans in medieval Japan.
 田園の豊かな自然を背景にした「となりのトトロ」では、詩情あふれる世界を描き上げた。
 90年代に入ると、日本の中世を舞台に、荒ぶる神々と人間の戦いをテーマにした「もののけ姫」で新たな境地を開いた。

“Sen to Chihiro no Kamikakushi” (Spirited Away, 2001) achieved the highest box office returns in Japanese movie history and won the Golden Bear at the 2002 Berlin International Film Festival and the 2003 Academy Award for Best Animated Feature. The film was highly acclaimed as a refined and powerful fantasy.
 日本映画史上、最高の興行成績を残した2001年の「千と千尋の神隠し」は、ベルリン国際映画祭金熊賞と米アカデミー賞も受賞した。「洗練され、パワーのあるファンタジー」と絶賛された。

Influenced by children’s literature, Miyazaki has provided a dreamy beautiful world for children. He is said to have wanted to tell them “this world is worth living for.” This desire underlies his anime movie production.
 宮崎さんは、児童文学の影響を受けて、子どもたちに夢のある美しい世界を提供してきた。アニメ制作の根幹には「この世は生きるに値する」ことを伝えたいとの思いがあったという。

As a message to the next generation of anime producers, he said, “Never stop trying to achieve more universal and profound expressions of humanity.”
 次世代に向けて、「より普遍的で、より深い人間性の表現に挑むという方向性は絶対に捨ててはいけない」とも語っている。

We hope to see the emergence of filmmakers who will inherit this aspiration and grow to receive international acclaim.
 そうした意志を引き継ぎ、世界で評価される人材が育つことを期待したい。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Sept. 14, 2013)
(2013年9月14日01時35分  読売新聞)

国家安保戦略 日本の将来へ包括的指針示せ

The Yomiuri Shimbun September 14, 2013
Comprehensive security strategy must be drawan up
国家安保戦略 日本の将来へ包括的指針示せ(9月13日付・読売社説)

It is imperative for this country to clearly designate the national interests and goals of its diplomatic and security policies for the medium- and long-term, and create a comprehensive set of policy guidelines for their realization.
 中長期的な外交・安全保障上の国益と目標を明示し、その実現に向けた包括的な政策指針を掲げることが肝要である。

Prime Minister Shinzo Abe has instructed relevant Cabinet members to draw up a national security strategy as the basis for the nation’s security policy. A panel of diplomacy and security policy experts met for the first time Thursday at the Prime Minister’s Office to discuss specifics of the envisioned strategy.
 安倍首相が「国家安全保障戦略」の策定を関係閣僚に指示した。その中身を議論する有識者会議の初会合が開かれた。

The government plans to submit a bill to create a Japanese version of the U.S. National Security Council to an extraordinary Diet session this autumn. The newly established body is scheduled to make its national security strategy public around the end of the year.
 秋の臨時国会で国家安全保障会議(日本版NSC)設置法案を成立させ、NSCが今年末に国家安保戦略を発表する。

A new version of the Defense Program Guidelines, an outline of the nation’s long-term defense policy, which the government will also present at year’s end, will be compiled to translate the strategy into reality.
年末に作成する新防衛大綱も、この戦略を具体化する内容にする予定だ。

The government worked out the first Defense Program Guidelines in 1976, having revised the key security document three times so far.
 政府は1976年に防衛大綱を策定し、3回改定している。

The main purpose of the guidelines concerns the buildup of the nation’s defense capabilities. The envisaged comprehensive national security strategy encompassing diplomatic and economic issues as well as defense will be the first of its kind. Along with the planned NSC, a control tower to address national security tasks, the forthcoming national security strategy will surely be extremely significant.
だが、大綱は防衛力整備が目的だ。外交、経済を含む総合的な国家安保戦略の策定は初めてで、安保の司令塔となるNSCの創設と合わせて、画期的な意義を持つ。

The United States has been formulating its national defense strategy since 1987. The government of President George W. Bush, the predecessor of the administration of President Barack Obama, had a strategy of preemptive strikes against terrorism-sponsoring countries. However, the Obama administration follows a goal of international collaboration. Other countries, such as Britain, Russia, South Korea and Australia, have set similar strategies.
 米国は87年以来、国家安保戦略を策定している。ブッシュ前政権はテロ国家への先制攻撃論、オバマ政権は国際協調を掲げた。英露韓豪各国も同様の戦略を持つ。

More ‘active’ pacifism

Given the rapidly deteriorating security environment surrounding Japan in recent years, this country should have drawn up its own national security strategy sooner.
 日本も、近年の安全保障環境の悪化を踏まえれば、もっと早く戦略を立てるべきだった。

China, aiming to become a major maritime power, has been ramping up its military, conducting menacing and provocative activities in the East China Sea and elsewhere. In addition to North Korea’s nuclear weapons and missile development programs, the threat of terrorist activities and cyber-attacks have also increased.
 中国は、海洋強国を目指し、軍備を増強して、東シナ海などで示威活動を展開する。北朝鮮の核・ミサイル開発に加え、テロ、サイバー攻撃の脅威も増している。

To ensure the peace and prosperity of Japan and the Asian region, what goals should be set up and what approach should be taken to that end?
 日本とアジアの平和と繁栄を確保するには、何を目標に掲げ、どんなアプローチを取るべきか。

The chief cabinet secretary, foreign and defense ministers, other relevant Cabinet members and members of the expert panel are strongly urged to have deep discussions in crafting a national strategy.
官房長官、外相、防衛相ら関係閣僚や、有識者はしっかりと議論し、戦略をまとめてもらいたい。

Of high importance to the ministries and agencies involved will certainly be the ability to share priority tasks and awareness of problems among themselves, in a feasible manner to be reflected adequately in policies.
 その作業を通じて、関係府省が外交・安保の優先課題や問題意識を共有し、その後の政策に適切に反映することが重要である。

To be able to address the many security challenges facing this country, what must be tackled first is the bolstering of the Self-Defense Forces and the Japan Coast Guard’s capabilities to defend the integrity of Japan’s territory. Beefing up the SDF’s cooperation with U.S. forces to strengthen that bilateral alliance is also a must.
 山積する安全保障の課題に取り組むには、まず日本の領土・領海を守る自衛隊や海上保安庁の体制を拡充する必要がある。自衛隊と米軍の協力を拡大し、日米同盟を強化することも欠かせない。

Based on Abe’s initiative for a more “active” pacifist stance, Japan should play more roles than it has so far for such causes as international peacekeeping operations and actions to fight pirate activities, by boosting cooperation with the international community. International cooperation on economic and energy issues should also be steadily consolidated.
 首相の掲げる「積極的平和主義」に基づき、国連平和維持活動(PKO)や海賊対処行動などで日本が従来以上に役割を果たし、国際社会と連携することが大切だ。経済・エネルギー面の国際協力も着実に進めねばなるまい。

These must be systematically incorporated into the planned national security strategy.
 安保戦略には、こうした具体策を体系的に盛り込むべきだ。

Making Japan’s goals and key policies as clear as as possible is vital, at it will ensure their transparency both at home and abroad.
 重要なのは、日本の目標や政策をできるだけ明確にし、国内外への透明性を確保することだ。

By doing so, it will become possible to deepen public understanding of the national security strategy, while making it clear that the claim of Japan’s “drift to the right” is far off the mark. It will also differentiate Japan from China, which has been under criticism for the lack of transparency of its military.
 国家安保戦略に対する国民の理解を深めるとともに、日本の「右傾化」批判が的外れなことや、不透明な軍事力が批判される中国との違いを示すことにもなろう。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Sept. 13, 2013)
(2013年9月13日01時52分  読売新聞)

福島の除染計画 「1ミリ・シーベルト」への拘りを捨てたい

The Yomiuri Shimbun September 13, 2013
Don’t stick to ‘1 millisievert’ in decontamination work
福島の除染計画 「1ミリ・シーベルト」への拘りを捨てたい(9月12日付・読売社説)

We want the government to advance its decontamination work in Fukushima Prefecture swiftly and efficiently, looking ahead to the early return of residents who are still forced to live as evacuees.
 避難生活が続く住民の帰還を見据え、効率的な除染を迅速に進めてもらいたい。

As decontamination work has not been going as planned in municipalities around the Fukushima No. 1 nuclear power plant operated by Tokyo Electric Power Co., the Environment Ministry has announced it will revise its decontamination program.
 東京電力福島第一原子力発電所周辺の除染が思うように進まず、環境省が計画の見直しを発表した。

This is because the ministry cannot finish decontamination in seven out of 11 cities, towns and villages where decontamination has been conducted under its direct jurisdiction by the end of March next year, the date it initially scheduled to end the work. The ministry will formulate new programs for each of the seven municipalities within this year at the earliest.
 環境省直轄で除染を実施している11市町村のうち、7市町村で当初予定の来年3月末までに作業を終えるめどが立たないためだ。年内にも市町村ごとに新たな計画を策定するという。

Many owners of land lots that are subject to decontamination have evacuated to different areas, making it difficult to obtain their consent for the work. The ministry has also had trouble gaining residents’ understanding for the establishment of temporary storage sites for removed surface soil. As a result, the ministry does not have clear prospects for constructing interim facilities to store contaminated soil at temporary storage sites in an integrated manner.
 除染対象の土地所有者が各地に避難し、同意の取り付けが難航している。はぎ取った表土などを保管する仮置き場の設置に対し、住民の理解が得られない。仮置き場の汚染土を集約して保管する中間貯蔵施設の建設も見通せない。

Given these circumstances, reviewing the decontamination project is inevitable. The Environment Ministry must tenaciously explain the situation to residents to get their cooperation.
 こうした現状を考えれば、計画見直しはやむを得ない面がある。環境省は住民に粘り強く説明し、協力を得ていかねばならない。

It is also vital to make the decontamination work more efficient. The ministry needs to employ cutting-edge equipment in such efforts as removing surface soil and cleaning road surfaces to speed up the process in general.
 除染の効率化も欠かせない。表土の削り取りや路面洗浄などの作業に最新機材を投入し、スピードアップを図る必要がある。

In its review of the decontamination project, the ministry has expanded the range of decontamination in forests, in response to residents who asked for a greater area to be cleaned. However, if the residents’ early return is taken into consideration, the decontamination of forests should be limited to areas where people live and surrounding areas.
 今回の計画見直しで、環境省は森林除染の対象を広げた。除染拡大を求める住民の声を受けたものだ。だが、早期帰還のためには、森林の除染は極力、住民の生活圏周辺に限定すべきだ。

If forests are decontaminated on a large scale, it will be quite difficult to determine when such work will end and costs will swell out of control. It will also be hard to secure places to store the huge amount of contaminated soil. Removing plants and trees over a wide area brings a danger of sediment disasters such as landslides.
 大規模に森林除染を行えば、終了時期が見通せず、除染費用は際限なく膨らむ。大量の汚染土の置き場を確保するのも困難だ。草木を広範囲に取り除けば、土砂災害を引き起こす危険もある。

Understanding numbers

Among the 11 municipalities, meanwhile, decontamination work has finished in Tamura. In Naraha, Okuma and Kawauchi, decontamination is expected to be finished within the current fiscal year, which runs through March next year. These municipalities are required to promote such steps as improving infrastructure aimed at rebuilding residents’ lives.
 一方、11市町村のうち、田村市では、除染が完了した。楢葉町、大熊町、川内村では今年度内に作業を終える見通しだ。今後は、住民の生活再建を視野に入れたインフラ整備なども進めていくことが求められる。

The government has set a maximum annual dose of 20 millisieverts as a guideline for realizing residents’ return to the 11 municipalities, based on a recommendation by the International Commission on Radiological Protection.
 政府は、住民帰還の目安となる年間被曝(ひばく)線量を「20ミリ・シーベルト以下」としている。国際放射線防護委員会の提言に沿った数値だ。

In keeping with this recommendation, the government’s policy is to lower the guideline over the long term to 1 millisievert or less a year. However, many residents are demanding the standard for returning be set at 1 millisievert or less immediately.
 その上で、長期的には「年間1ミリ・シーベルト以下」に下げる方針だ。
 しかし、住民の中には、直ちに1ミリ・シーベルト以下にするよう拘(こだわ)る声が依然、少なくない。

Human beings are exposed to radiation from outer space and the ground every day. A CT scan at a hospital may expose a person to about 8 millisieverts in one test. Also, experts point out that no causal relationship has been established between the development of cancer and accumulated doses of radiation of 100 millisieverts or less in a follow-up study on atomic bomb victims in Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
 人間は宇宙や大地から放射線を浴びて生活している。病院のCT検査では、1回の被曝線量が約8ミリ・シーベルトになることがある。
 専門家は、広島と長崎の被爆者に対する追跡調査の結果、積算線量が100ミリ・シーベルト以下の被曝では、がんとの因果関係は認められていないと指摘する。

It is important for the government to make people well aware of accurate information about radiation.
 政府は、放射能の正しい情報を周知していくことが大切だ。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Sept. 12, 2013)
(2013年9月12日01時31分  読売新聞)

尖閣国有化1年 毅然たる態度を貫くしかない

The Yomiuri Shimbun September 12, 2013
Remain resolute on Senkakus in face of China’s provocations
尖閣国有化1年 毅然たる態度を貫くしかない(9月11日付・読売社説)

Japan should remain undaunt-ed by China’s persistent menacing conduct and adhere to its resolute stance in dealing with that country.
 中国の威嚇にたじろがず、日本は毅然(きぜん)とした態度を貫くべきだ。

Wednesday marks one year since the government placed the Senkaku Islands in Okinawa Prefecture under state control. On 63 days during the past year, Chinese government ships have entered Japanese waters around the group of islands. Chinese aircraft also have intruded into Japan’s airspace during that time.
 政府が沖縄県・尖閣諸島を国有化して11日で1年になる。この間、中国の公船は、尖閣諸島周辺の日本領海に計63日侵入した。中国機の領空侵犯もあった。

On Sunday and Monday, two Chinese bombers and warships passed between Okinawa Island and Miyakojima—an island about 290 kilometers southwest of the former island. On Monday, an unmanned Chinese aircraft flew over waters off the Senkaku Islands, an incident that prompted an Air Self-Defense Force fighter to scramble. Such incidents could trigger an accidental conflict between the two countries.
 8、9両日には、中国軍の爆撃機と艦船が沖縄本島と宮古島の間を通過した。無人機が尖閣諸島沖まで飛来し、航空自衛隊機が緊急発進する事態も起きた。偶発的な衝突に発展しかねない。

One of the most important tasks facing Japan and China today is to rebuild bilateral relations. The two nations have close economic ties. They also need to promote cooperation in addressing such issues as North Korea’s nuclear weapons development and China’s environmental problems.
 日中関係の再構築は、最重要課題の一つである。日中間の経済関係の結びつきは深く、北朝鮮の核開発、環境対策などでの連携も必要だ。

If the hostile situation facing Japan and China continues, it is bound to adversely affect both nations.
険悪な状況が続くことは、双方にマイナスだろう。

However, Tokyo cannot yield to Beijing over issues related to this nation’s sovereignty. The Senkaku Islands—which China calls Diaoyu and Taiwan Tiaoyutai—inherently belong to Japan from the standpoint of both international law and historical facts. Therefore, no territorial dispute exists between Japan and China over the islands. By the same token, there is no need to leave the Senkaku issue to gather dust on the shelf, either.
 だが、主権を巡る問題で譲歩はできない。尖閣諸島は、国際法的にも歴史的にも日本固有の領土だ。日中間に領土問題は存在しないし、棚上げする必要もない。

Given this, Prime Minister Shinzo Abe had good reason to reject China’s offer to hold a Japan-China summit meeting “if [Tokyo] acknowledges there is a territorial dis-pute [over the Senkakus] and agrees to shelve the problem.”
 安倍首相が、中国側の「領土問題の存在を認めて棚上げすれば首脳会談に応じる」という誘いを拒否したのは当然である。

Better policing needed

The government is currently stepping up efforts by the Japan Coast Guard to better police waters surrounding the Senkaku archipelago. It is essential that Japan continue to do all it can to defend its territorial integrity, including improving its defense capability.
 政府は、周辺海域で海上保安庁による警備体制の充実を図っている。防衛力の整備も含め、今後も万全の備えが欠かせない。

The government’s recent signing of a fisheries agreement with Taiwan can be regarded as a certain measure of success in stopping Beijing and Taipei forming cooperative ties in dealing with the Senkaku issue. This is significant because Taipei also claims sovereignty over the Senkakus.
 中国と同様に尖閣諸島の領有権を主張する台湾と、漁業協定を締結したことは、中台の連携阻止で一定の成果を上げたと言える。

The Senkaku Islands are covered by the Japan-U.S. Security Treaty, which serves as the greatest deterrence to China. The Japan-U.S. relationship was unstable when the then Democratic Party of Japan-led government placed the Senkakus under state control. However, immediately after taking office as prime minister, Abe made an appropriate decision to try to bring the shaky bilateral alliance back on track.
 尖閣諸島は日米安全保障条約の適用対象であり、日米同盟こそ、中国に対する最大の抑止力だ。日米関係は、国有化当時、民主党政権下で不安定だったが、安倍首相がまず同盟の立て直しを進めたのは適切な判断である。

During talks in St. Petersburg last week, U.S. President Barack Obama urged Chinese leader Xi Jinping to resolve the Senkaku issue through diplomacy and dialogue rather than force. The U.S. president’s direct call for the top Chinese leader to exercise restraint in this respect is significant.
 オバマ米大統領は先週、ロシア・サンクトペテルブルクで習近平・中国国家主席と会談し、尖閣諸島について、「力ではなく、外交や対話による解決」を求めた。米大統領が中国トップに直接、自制を促した意味は大きい。

Japan and the United States must closely cooperate in dealing with China and refrain from making concessions to that country. By doing this, Beijing may be encouraged to change its strong-arm diplomatic tactics.
 日本が米国と緊密に協調しつつ、中国に一歩も引かない態度を堅持してこそ、中国が力ずくの外交を変える可能性が出てくる。

During a brief meeting with Abe in St. Petersburg, the Chinese president said he wanted to see progress in promoting what has been repeatedly called “strategically reciprocal relations” by the two countries’ top leaders in recent years. It was the first time the two leaders had spoken to each other.
 サンクトペテルブルクで安倍首相と初めて直接言葉を交わした習主席は、これまで日中首脳が確認してきた「戦略的互恵関係」を進めたいと語った。

What was the true motive behind the Chinese leader’s remark?
その真意はどこにあるのだろうか。

Xi’s administration has sought to stir nationalistic sentiment among the Chinese in trying to unite his people and gain popular support. This means he cannot adopt what his people may perceive as “a weak-kneed approach” in dealing with Japan. With this in mind, the Japanese government must be prepared to see China’s threatening and provocative conduct in waters around the Senkaku Islands continue for some time to come.
 習政権は、愛国主義を求心力としている。国民の目に「弱腰」と映るような対日政策は取れない。日本政府は、尖閣諸島周辺での威嚇や挑発行為が長期化することを覚悟しておかねばなるまい。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Sept. 11, 2013)
(2013年9月11日01時34分  読売新聞)

プロフィール

srachai

自己紹介・リンク

■近況

2009年の9月15日に脳梗塞を発症、右手が少し不自由になりました。
MRAで脳梗塞の部位を特定でき、素早い処置をとれたので大事に至りませんでした。
快復にむけてリハビリ中です。
(2011/01/01更新)

■自己紹介・リンク

[ はじめに ]
タイのスラチャイです。
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毎日毎日の地道な努力の積み重ねが必要です。
スラチャイはNHKのラジオ英語会話で現在の英語力を身につけました。
一日僅か15分の学習でも数年間継続すれば相当な学習効果が期待できます。

[ 名前 ]
松井 清 (スラチャイ)

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