英字新聞

読売、毎日、朝日各社英字新聞の主として社説を学習研究します

2011年12月

金正日総書記死去―混乱回避へ各国は協調を

--The Asahi Shimbun, Dec. 20
EDITORIAL: Cooperation needed to prevent chaos in Pyongyang
金正日総書記死去―混乱回避へ各国は協調を

North Korean leader Kim Jong Il has died.
 金正日総書記が死去した。

Under Kim's rule, North Korea developed nuclear weapons, ignoring international rules. Its economy is in tatters, with people suffering from acute food shortages. The country also abducted many Japanese citizens and still repeatedly violates human rights. Its government strictly controls the information made available to the public.
 世界のルールを無視して核を開発する。経済は苦境にあり、食糧も足りない。日本人を拉致し、人権侵害を繰り返す。国民への情報は厳しく統制する。

Kim was a dictator who held absolute power in this outlandish and outrageous country.
 そんな異様な国、北朝鮮ですべての権力を握っていた独裁者だった。

It is still unclear how the transition of power will play out in the secluded nation. But there is no doubt that Kim's death offers an opportunity for North Korea to change itself dramatically. At the same time, however, it creates a precarious situation that could throw the nation into serious turmoil.
 後継体制がどう動き出すのかは、まだわからない。だが、北朝鮮そのものが大きく変わり得る機会であるとともに、国内が一気に動揺する恐れもある事態であることは確かだ。

There have been no signs of unsettling developments in the country, at least so far.
 今のところ、不穏な動きは見えないようだが、

But South Korea and the United States have put their armed forces on emergency alert. Japan and other countries concerned should work in close cooperation in dealing with any situation that may arise following the dictator's death.
韓国は米軍とともに非常警戒態勢に入った。日本をはじめ関係国は、緊密な連携を図らねばならない。

It seems that Kim died suddenly. According to local media, he suffered a heart attack on a special train as he was traveling to the country during an "on-site guidance" tour, a practice that was introduced by his father, Kim Il Sung, who founded the country after the end of World War II.
 急死だったようだ。父の金日成主席をまねた「現地指導」と呼ばれる地方視察に向かう特別列車内で、心筋梗塞(こうそく)を起こしたという。

Three generations of hereditary rule
■異様な3代世襲

Kim was long one of the world's most enigmatic leaders.
 世界で長く「謎の多い指導者」の筆頭格だった。

He was chosen as the successor to his father in a secret meeting of the Korean Worker's Party in 1974 and appeared in public for the first time in the party convention in 1980.
 1974年の朝鮮労働党の秘密会で後継者に決まり、80年の党大会で初めて公に姿を現した。

Kim solidified his grip on power by taking advantage of his father's powerful backing and established a dictatorship based on a personality cult like that of a feudal dynasty.
父の威を借りて権力を掌握していき、個人崇拝の封建王朝のような独裁を敷いた。

Kim drastically changed his image as a leader who remains behind the scenes through a series of high-profile diplomatic actions he started taking in 2000.
 「表に出ない指導者」像を一変させたのが、2000年からの一連の首脳外交だった。

As a starter, he met with then South Korean President Kim Dae-jung in the first summit between the leaders of the two Koreas. His spirited exchanges were televised and immediately earned the North Korean leader a reputation as a person well informed about international affairs. Kim Jong Il also met with the leaders of both China and Russia, as well as a U.S. Secretary of State. He held talks with then Japanese Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi twice.
 韓国の金大中大統領と初の南北首脳会談を持ち、画面に流れる丁々発止のやり取りから、一躍、世界情勢に通じた人物とされた。中国やロシアの首脳、米国務長官とも会い、小泉首相とは2回会談した。

Kim's diplomacy was described as "brinkmanship diplomacy" or "saber-rattling diplomacy" because he used his nuclear and missile programs as leverage to extract concessions from other countries.
 外交はもっぱら、核兵器開発やミサイルを武器にした危うい手法で、「瀬戸際外交」「恫喝(どうかつ)外交」とも言われた。

Kim also started diplomatic efforts to build a formal relationship with the United States and revive his country's dilapidated economy as a way to maintain his autocratic regime. But he died before achieving the goals.
 みずからの体制護持を目的とした、米国との関係構築と経済再生は、道半ばに終わった。

His third son, Kim Jong Un, has been groomed as his anointed successor.
 後継の指導者に三男の金正恩氏が座ることは既定路線だ。

The younger Kim may not assume the official leadership posts held by his father until after the period of national mourning expires.
 正式な後継ポスト就任は、まだ先の喪明けになるかもしれない。

But the dictator's son is likely to attain supreme power as a third-generation hereditary ruler--a striking anomaly in a country that claims to stand for socialist principles.
だが、社会主義を標榜(ひょうぼう)する国で、特異すぎる3代世襲が実現しそうだ。

The process of the transition of power to Kim Jong Un, who has yet to turn 30, began only three years ago when his father suffered a stroke.
 まだ30歳前の金正恩氏は、3年前に父が脳卒中で倒れてから後継体制づくりが本格化したばかりだ。

In stark contrast, Kim Jong Il had some 20 years to solidify his position as the successor to his father.
約20年間かけて先々代から権力を着実に引き継いだ先代とは事情が違う。

It is probably reasonable to assume that the nation will be under de facto collective leadership for the time being. A group of close aides will support the younger Kim's rule behind the scenes while ensuring that the new leader will stand at center stage.
 おそらく、金正恩氏を表舞台で立てつつ、側近陣が支える事実上の集団指導で進むと考えるのが自然だろう。

We cannot, of course, tolerate North Korea's nuclear tests and test-firing of ballistic missiles. We also cannot overlook Pyongyang's attempt to intimidate the international community by suddenly launching an artillery attack on a neighboring country. We are opposed to the country's system of keeping a close watch on citizens and sending anyone it doesn't like to dreadful concentration camps.
 もちろん、私たちは核実験や弾道ミサイルの発射実験をする姿勢は許せない。いきなり隣国に砲撃を加えて国際社会を威嚇することも看過できない。住民を監視し、過酷な収容所に送るような体制にも反対だ。

Road map to get rid of North Korea's nukes
■核廃棄の道筋を

The demise of the dictator should not be allowed to unsettle North Korea and destabilize surrounding areas.
 独裁者の喪失で北朝鮮が動揺し、周辺が不安定になってもいけない。

Is it possible that Kim's death will trigger a fierce power struggle within the military or among the party elite during the period of transition?
 後継体制への移行期に、軍や党のエリート内で金総書記死去を機に権力争いが激しくならないか。

It has long been assumed that North Koreans, despite their deep anger and resentment over their destitution and the regime's tight control on their lives, are unable to organize themselves because of close mutual surveillance. But is it possible now that people in the country will put up organized resistance against the regime and flee the country as refugees in droves?
困窮と規制に不満を募らせつつも、厳しい相互監視のために組織化できないとされてきた住民たちが抵抗し、難民として大挙して流出するような事態に陥らないか。

Such confusion must be averted at any cost.
 こうした混乱は何としても避けねばならない。

The big question now is whether North Korea will make serious efforts to improve its relations with neighboring countries in order to attain economic and social stability at home.
 そのうえで、北朝鮮が経済と社会の安定を図って、周辺国との関係改善に、真摯(しんし)に臨むのかどうか。それが当面の大きな課題になる。

To tackle the formidable challenges it is facing, North Korea needs to shift its foreign policy toward cooperation with other countries and change itself into a country that respects international rules and follows common sense.
 課題を解くには、まず北朝鮮が対外協調にかじを切り替え、「常識の通ずる国」に変わらなければならない。

The international community has an important role to play in leading Pyongyang in the right direction. In dealing with this erratic nation, other countries should put the priority on ensuring that the nuclear materials produced and stockpiled by the regime will be strictly controlled to prevent their proliferation.
 同時に、国際社会の役割も大きい。北朝鮮が開発し貯(た)めている核物質を厳重に管理し、拡散させないことを最優先に対応すべきだ。

First of all, the six-party talks that have mapped out a plan for North Korea to abandon its nuclear ambitions should be put back on track. Then, concrete steps should be taken according to the plan.
 まずは、核放棄の道筋を描いた6者協議を再び軌道に乗せる。そして実際の行動を積み重ねていくことだ。

The issue of North Korea's development of nuclear weapons has gained more urgency as the country has admitted to enriching uranium.
 北朝鮮の核問題は、ウラン濃縮が新たに加わって、危機がより高まっている。

Kim Jong Il died just when the United States and North Korea were beginning to take the first step toward breaking the current impasse. But this window of opportunity should be taken to resume talks over Pyongyang's nuclear ambition.
米国と北朝鮮が状況を動かす端緒をつかみかけた段階での総書記死去だったが、核協議の再開へつなげていく必要がある。

Solving the abduction issue
■拉致解決の糸口探れ

Cooperation among the countries concerned is crucial for preventing confusion in North Korea.
 北朝鮮の混乱回避にも、関係国の協調が欠かせない。

China is North Korea's largest ally, while the United States holds the key to the country's national security.
 中国は北朝鮮の最大の後ろ盾であり、米国は北朝鮮の安全保障の鍵を握っている。

Russia is raising its economic profile in the Far East, while South Korea, which is pursuing a vision of future unification of the Korean Peninsula, is directly affected by what is happening in the North. All the countries concerned should work together in dealing with North Korea through a combination of pressure and dialogue.
 ロシアは経済的にも極東で存在感を強め、韓国は朝鮮半島の将来的な統一も視野に入れた当事者だ。各国が歩調を合わせて、圧力と対話を組み合わせ、北朝鮮と向き合うことだ。

Japan, also a victim of Pyongyang's abduction of foreign nationals, has a direct interest in peace and stability in the region.
 日本ももちろん、この地域の平和と安定に直接かかわる。そして拉致の被害者でもある。

North Korea has made no serious effort to honor its promise three years ago to carry out a fresh investigation on the fate of Japanese citizens it abducted decades ago. There has been no progress either in the talks between Tokyo and Pyongyang toward establishing a formal diplomatic relationship.
 北朝鮮が3年前に約束した拉致被害者の再調査も、国交正常化に向けた日朝協議も全く進んでいない。

Japan should develop a new strategy to find a way to make real progress toward a solution of the abduction issue.
総書記の死去を契機に、拉致問題の進展を図る糸口をつかむ戦略を立てなければならない。

Japan needs to prepare itself to make flexible and bold responses to any significant changes that might happen in North Korea.
 北朝鮮の変化に、柔軟かつ大胆に動く備えと知恵が必要だ。

日韓首脳会談 慰安婦で安易な妥協は禁物だ

The Yomiuri Shimbun (Dec. 20, 2011)
Don't make easy compromise on 'comfort women' issue
日韓首脳会談 慰安婦で安易な妥協は禁物だ(12月19日付・読売社説)

Japan absolutely must refrain from making an easy compromise on the issue of so-called comfort women.
 いわゆる従軍慰安婦の問題で、日本が安易な妥協を図ることは、厳に慎む必要がある。

Prime Minister Yoshihiko Noda met with South Korean President Lee Myung Bak in Kyoto on Sunday.
 野田首相と韓国の李明博大統領が京都で会談した。

During their talks, the president sought the prime minister's "decision" on the issue, insisting that resolving it should be given priority while some former comfort women are still alive.
大統領は慰安婦問題について、元慰安婦が生きている間に「優先的に解決すべきだ」と述べ、「首相の決断」を求めた。

The prime minister reiterated Japan's position that the issue had been legally settled but called for using wisdom from a humanitarian standpoint.
 首相は、賠償問題は法的に解決済みとする一方、「人道的な見地から知恵を絞ろう」と語った。

The president apparently brought up the comfort women issue with a view to recent developments in his country, such as a stiffening of public sentiment after South Korea's constitutional court ruled that it was unconstitutional for the government not to make an effort to have Japan pay compensation to the comfort women.
 大統領が慰安婦問題を提起したのは、韓国政府に解決への努力を求める憲法裁判所の決定や韓国世論の硬化などの事情があろう。

===

Already a settled matter

However, Japan and South Korea already signed a bilateral accord stating that the right to demand wartime compensation had been "fully and finally settled" when the two countries normalized diplomatic ties in 1965.
 だが、戦時中などの賠償請求権問題については、既に1965年の日韓国交正常化の際、「完全かつ最終的に解決された」との国際協定を締結している。

The government must firmly maintain this position. The issue involves recognizing the facts of history. So, even if Japan were to take half measures from a "humanitarian standpoint," it would be difficult to satisfy South Korea and would only be likely to further complicate the problem.
 政府は、この立場を堅持すべきだ。歴史認識にもかかわる問題であり、仮に「人道的な見地」から中途半端な措置を取っても、韓国側を満足させることは困難で、問題を複雑化するだけだろう。

More problematic is the South Korean government's tacit approval of a South Korean private organization setting up a statue of a girl symbolizing comfort women in front of the Japanese Embassy in Seoul.
 むしろ問題は、韓国の民間団体がソウルの日本大使館前に慰安婦を象徴する少女像を設置し、韓国政府が黙認していることだ。

In their meeting, Noda requested of Lee that the statue be removed as soon as possible. But the president objected, saying that unless Japan takes sincere measures, another statue will be added every time a former comfort woman dies.
 野田首相は会談で、少女像の早期撤去を要請した。大統領は「日本の誠意ある措置がなければ、元慰安婦が亡くなるたびに、第2、第3の銅像が建てられるだろう」などと反論した。

South Korea's argument makes no sense. The Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations stipulates that "the receiving State is under a special duty to take all appropriate steps...to prevent any disturbance of the peace of the mission or impairment of its dignity."
 この韓国側の主張はおかしい。外交関係に関するウィーン条約は、外交公館の「安寧の妨害または威厳の侵害を防止する適当な措置」を取る「特別の責務」が受け入れ国にある、と定めている。

The Japanese government believes the South Korean government's tacit approval of the statue violates the convention. Noda was quite right to demand the statue's removal. The Japanese government must tenaciously urge the South Korean side to remove it.
 日本政府は、少女像設置の黙認は条約違反とみている。首相の主張は当然だ。今後も、粘り強く撤去を促さねばならない。

===

Other important topics sidelined

The comfort women issue wound up taking a conspicuously long time in the bilateral summit meeting, which failed to deepen discussions on other important issues. The South Korean side is responsible for this result.
 会談で慰安婦問題が突出し、他の重要議題の議論が深まらなかった原因は、韓国側にある。

However, it is also important to keep the comfort women issue from causing the Japan-South Korea relationship to stagnate.
ただ、慰安婦問題が、日韓関係を停滞させるのを避けることも重要だ。

As for the stalled negotiations on the economic partnership agreement between the two countries, Noda called for accelerating discussions to resume the talks as soon as possible, but the president did not give a positive response.
 中断している経済連携協定(EPA)交渉について野田首相は、早期再開へ議論を加速させることを提案したが、大統領から前向きな回答はなかった。

Apparently wary of a further increase in its trade deficit with Japan, South Korea remains cautious about resuming the negotiations. However, if Japan moves forward by boldly opening its market, it will benefit both countries quite a lot.
 韓国は、対日赤字の拡大を警戒し、交渉再開に慎重だ。だが、日本が大胆な市場開放に踏み出せば互いに得るものは大きい。

If Japan and South Korea fail to keep in step with each other on issues involving North Korea, such as its nuclear development program and abduction of Japanese nationals, it could only benefit North Korea.
 北朝鮮の核と拉致の問題も、日韓の足並みが乱れれば、北朝鮮を利する展開になりかねない。

The two countries should cooperate on economic and security issues from a broader viewpoint to steadily move forward on various problems.
 日韓双方が大局的見地から経済や安全保障問題で協力し、着実に前進させることが求められる。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Dec. 19, 2011)
(2011年12月19日01時10分  読売新聞)

米イラン制裁 懸念される原油取引への影響

The Yomiuri Shimbun (Dec. 19, 2011)
U.S. sanctions on Iran likely to affect Japan most
米イラン制裁 懸念される原油取引への影響(12月18日付・読売社説)

Iran has refused to comply with the international community's demands that the country prove it is not developing nuclear weapons. It is unavoidable for other nations to pressure Iran to reconsider its stance by strengthening sanctions.
 核兵器開発疑惑の解明を拒むイランに、国際社会が制裁強化の圧力をかけて翻意を促すのは当然のことだ。

However, if sanctions are introduced incorrectly, they could have a negative impact on other countries, including Japan, which imports oil from Iran.
 だが制裁のやり方を誤れば、イラン原油を輸入する日本などへの悪影響も懸念される。

We should carefully and thoroughly study the impact of the new U.S. sanctions on Iran, which were recently approved by Congress.
 米議会が可決したイランへの追加制裁案の効果については、慎重な見極めが必要である。

The sanctions, which were included in an annual U.S. defense authorization bill, limit dollar-based transactions between U.S. financial institutions and those in foreign countries, including Japan, which engage in transactions with the Central Bank of Iran.
 制裁は、イラン中央銀行と金融取引する日本など外国金融機関に、米金融機関とのドル取引を制限するという内容で、国防権限法案に盛り込まれた。

The sanctions will come into effect six months after U.S. President Barack Obama signs the bill into law.
オバマ大統領の署名で成立し、半年の猶予期間を経て発効するという。

The Central Bank of Iran is in charge of settling accounts for the nation's oil trade.
Therefore, it plays a crucial economic role as oil accounts for about 80 percent of the country's exports.
 イラン中銀は、イランの輸出総額の8割を占める原油取引の決済にあたる中枢機関だ。

If foreign banks stop doing business with the central bank to avoid being targeted by U.S. sanctions, it will be difficult for Iran to export oil.
米国の制裁対象になることを恐れて外国銀行がイラン中銀との取引を中止すれば、原油輸出は困難になる。

This is the aim of the United States--to prevent funds accrued from oil exports from being used to develop nuclear weapons.
 米国はこれにより、核開発資金への転用阻止を狙っている。

===

Negative effects of sanctions

However, if Iranian oil supplies decline due to the U.S. sanctions, international oil prices are likely to jump.
 しかし、制裁でイランの原油供給量が滞り、原油の国際価格の高騰を招く恐れもある。

The sanctions will be meaningless if the oil price increase benefits Iran or cools down the world economy.
その結果、イランが潤ったり、世界経済が冷え込んだりする事態を招けば、制裁は意味を失う。

What is more disconcerting is the influence sanctions could have on Japan, which is Iran's second-largest oil export partner after China.
 さらに気がかりなのは、イランにとって、中国に次ぐ第2位の原油輸出先である日本への影響だ。

About 10 percent of Japan's total oil imports come from Iran.
日本は総輸入原油の1割程度をイランから調達している。

Among U.S. allies, the sanctions are likely to affect Japan the most.
米の追加制裁によって、同盟国では最も甚大な影響を被る可能性がある。

If sanctions are imposed, Japan could be doubly hit by difficulty in procuring oil and high oil prices. This would hinder rebuilding the nation from the aftermath of the March 11 disaster. Our economy also may slow down.
 原油の調達不安に価格高騰が重なれば、震災復興に支障が出るし、経済も冷え込もう。

According to reports, some exemptions are permitted, such as removing foreign financial institutions from the sanctions list if they meet certain conditions. The U.S. president also is authorized to refrain from imposing sanctions for security reasons.
 制裁案には、一定の条件を満たした外国金融機関を制裁対象から外す特例措置や、安全保障の観点から制裁発動を避ける大統領権限が設けられているという。

The government must closely liaise with the U.S. administration and draw up measures to avoid Japan's oil imports being affected by the U.S. sanctions.
 政府は、原油輸入に支障が出ないよう、米国と緊密に協議し、万策を講じなければならない。

Other countries share similar concerns, such as South Korea--which imports about 10 percent of its oil imports from Iran--Greece, Italy, Spain and other European countries.
 イランに輸入原油の1割を依存している韓国や、イタリアやスペイン、ギリシャなど一部の欧州諸国も事情は同じだ。
The Obama administration needs to implement the sanctions carefully.
オバマ政権は、追加制裁の運用に際して慎重な配慮をすべきである。

===

China's reactions key

We also need to keep an eye on Beijing's moves in relation to the U.S. sanctions, as China is the largest importer of Iranian oil.
 注視したいのは、イランにとって最大の原油輸出先である中国の出方だ。

China has been critical of imposing any sanctions on Iran.
中国は、制裁自体に否定的だ。

If the U.S.-China relationship becomes strained because of the new sanctions, it will become more difficult to form an international coalition against Iran.
追加制裁をめぐり米中関係が緊張すれば、対イラン包囲網の形成はますます難しくなる。

Iran is expanding its uranium enrichment activities after ignoring four U.N. Security Council resolutions imposing sanctions on that country.
 イランは、国連安全保障理事会の4度にわたる制裁決議を無視して、ウラン濃縮活動を拡大している。

The United States, China and other permanent members of the Security Council should double their diplomatic efforts to prevent Iran from possessing nuclear weapons.
核兵器保有を許さぬよう、米中など安保理常任理事国は外交努力を倍加すべきである。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Dec. 18, 2011)
(2011年12月18日01時10分  読売新聞)

社会保障改革案 負担増求める施策を避けるな

タイの医療費は個人で全額負担ですが、タイは医療費、薬価が安いのでやっていけるのです。
日本では医療費、薬価ともに高すぎるので10%、20%の個人負担分でも、タイの全額負担よりきついくらいのものなのです。要するに、日本の医療費、薬価は高すぎるということで、問題の本質はここにあるのです。

日本の老人たちは、病院で世間話しをするのが唯一の楽しみみたいな印象を受けますが、本来病院はそのような場所ではないはずです。世界に名だたる皆保険制度の弊害だと思います。自由化すべきです。

集客のためにディスカウントセールをして、後からそれは間違っていたから差額分を帰せって理論です。
ソクラテスは「法は悪法であっても守らなければならない」といって自ら毒をあおって天国へと旅立ったのです。
前回のが悪法なら今回の切り下げも悪法だと思います。
守らなければなりませんね^^。
(スラチャイ)

The Yomiuri Shimbun (Dec. 18, 2011)
Govt, DPJ must not shy away from increasing public burden
社会保障改革案 負担増求める施策を避けるな(12月17日付・読売社説)

Can progress be made on social security and tax reform by putting off decisions on such key issues as asking the public to accept higher tax burdens and lower pension benefits?
 国民に負担増や給付減を求める改革を軒並み見送ることで、改革は前進するだろうか。

The Democratic Party of Japan's research council on integrated reform of the social security and taxation systems and the DPJ Tax System Research Committee held a joint meeting Friday. The meeting approved an outline of the social security-related portion of a draft of overall reform plans that is scheduled to be worked out before the end of the year.
 民主党の「社会保障と税の一体改革調査会」と「税制調査会」が合同総会を開き、年内にもまとめる一体改革大綱素案のうち、社会保障分野に関する骨子を了承した。

The social security reform outline will likely be formally authorized by the government in a meeting early next week of five related Cabinet ministers.
 週明けの関係5閣僚会合で、正式に政府案となる見通しだ。

It is praiseworthy that the joint meeting of the two key DPJ panels reached an accord to take concrete steps to rectify the overpayment of pension benefits, a question that has been pending since before the change of government that brought the DPJ to power in 2009.
 政権交代前から懸案だった「年金特例水準」の解消に踏み切った点は評価できる。

Pension payouts are designed to fluctuate, in principle, in accordance with ups and downs in consumer prices. When the Liberal Democratic Party and New Komeito were in power, however, the government left payouts at the same level despite declines in prices.
 年金額は原則として物価の変動に応じて上下するが、自公政権当時に物価が下落したのに年金額は据え置かれた。

===

Don't avoid benefit cuts

As a result of the extraordinary measure to avoid cutting payouts, current pension payments are about 2.5 percent higher than they should be.
 この特例措置により、年金額は本来より2・5%高い。

The overpayment for the last 10 years may be as high as 7 trillion yen.
約10年の累計で7兆円もの「払い過ぎ」が生じている。

According to the outline, pension benefits will be lowered in stages to a level considered appropriate over three years, starting in October 2012.
 骨子では、来年10月から3年かけて、年金額を本来の水準まで段階的に引き下げるとした。

To be exact, the planned adjustment of pension payouts should not be referred to as "reducing" pension benefits, but just returning benefits to a right and proper level.
 だが、これは正確には給付減ではなく、過払い分を適正額に戻すに過ぎない。

The outline also covers a wide range of measures for improving social security plans, such as an additional basic pension payment to elderly people in low income brackets and greater government support for child rearing. It rightly says many of these steps will be put into force "from the fiscal year when the consumption tax rate is raised."
 骨子はまた、低所得の高齢者に基礎年金を加算することや、子育て支援策の充実については、多くに「消費税率引き上げ年度から実施する」と条件を付けた。

No policy measure can be implemented without securing a source of revenue to fund it.
 財源の手当てなしに施策は実行できない。

Changing the social security system and raising the consumption tax are inseparably intertwined, and the DPJ and the government are urged to specify without delay when and by how much the 5 percent consumption tax will be hiked.
社会保障制度の手直しと消費税率引き上げは不可分であり、間を置かず、引き上げ幅と時期も明確に示すのが筋だろう。

The problem, however, is that the outline, while mentioning an array of measures to boost social security services, hardly refers to reforms that would require a greater burden on the public and cuts in benefits.
 問題は、拡充策が並ぶ一方で、負担増・給付減を求める改革がほとんど見当たらないことだ。

Regarding the current medical care system for people aged 70 to 74--under which they pay 10 percent of their overall medical bills from their own pocket at medical facilities--the plan to raise the percentage to the originally intended 20 percent was shelved during discussions at the joint meeting.
 暫定的に1割に据え置かれている70~74歳の医療費窓口負担を本来の2割に戻す案は見送られた。

To keep the current practice unchanged, the government is poised to earmark 200 billion yen in a supplementary budget to keep the system going in fiscal 2012.
2000億円の補正予算を組んで来年度も実施する。

===

Strong resolve crucial

Also pigeonholed was a reform plan to collect 100 yen from outpatients every time they visit a medical facility to secure funds to lower the financial burden of those who must pay for costly medical treatment.
 医療費が高額になる人の負担軽減にあてる目的で、外来に1回かかるごとに100円を徴収する改革案なども断念した。

In the draft the government and the ruling coalition parties mapped out in June for social security reform in tandem with taxation reform, it was envisioned that nearly 1.2 trillion yen in government spending would be trimmed through such steps as curbs on social security benefits. Meanwhile, revenues would be increased by about 2.7 trillion yen through a consumption tax hike.
 6月に政府・与党がまとめた一体改革案では、給付の抑制などで1・2兆円近く節約し、約2・7兆円を消費税率の引き上げで賄う計算になっていた。

It is highly doubtful whether the outline approved in the joint meeting of the DPJ panels is compatible with the June draft.
これと整合性がとれるのかどうか疑問だ。

It is hardly possible to make ends meet in social security services unless the DPJ and the government give priority to boosting the efficiency of the entire social security system by curbing benefits.
 制度を一層効率化し、給付を抑制する視点も持たなければ、帳尻は合わないだろう。

The government and the ruling coalition parties are scheduled to enter last-ditch discussions next week about the wisdom of raising the consumption tax.
 政府・与党は、来週から、消費税率引き上げの大詰めの議論に入る。

They must be candid enough to squarely seek the public's understanding of the need to accept greater burdens that are deemed essential.
国民に対して、必要な負担増はきちんと求める必要がある。

Prime Minister Yoshihiko Noda and DPJ executives must have strong resolve in winning over opponents of a higher consumption tax, thus concluding the issue within the year as the prime minister has pledged.
 野田首相と民主党幹部は、断固とした姿勢で消費税増税への反対派を説得し、公約通り、年内に結論を出さねばならない。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Dec. 17, 2011)
(2011年12月17日01時31分  読売新聞)

イラク戦争終結 米軍撤収後も山積する課題

The Yomiuri Shimbun (Dec. 17, 2011)
Piles of problems left in Iraq after withdrawal of U.S. forces
イラク戦争終結 米軍撤収後も山積する課題(12月16日付・読売社説)

Eight years and nine months after launching a war against Iraq, the United States is poised to finally bring its military operations in that country to a historic end.
 対イラク開戦から8年9か月。米国は、イラク戦争にようやく歴史的な区切りをつける。

U.S. President Barack Obama declared the end of the war at a ceremony held Wednesday at Fort Bragg, N.C., a U.S. Army installation, to welcome home soldiers who had been deployed to Iraq.
 オバマ米大統領が、ノースカロライナ州の陸軍基地での帰還兵歓迎式で「戦争の終結」を宣言した。

During his presidential election campaign, Obama criticized the administration of former President George W. Bush for committing the United States to the "wrong war" in Iraq. Obama pledged an early withdrawal from Iraq, and won the 2008 presidential election.
 大統領は、ブッシュ前政権が始めたイラク戦争を「間違った戦争」と批判し、2008年大統領選で早期撤退を公約して当選した。

The last U.S. troops stationed in Iraq will finish leaving the country shortly, thus fulfilling the promise Obama made after he took office to completely withdraw from the Middle Eastern country by the end of 2011.
 間もなく駐留米軍の最後の部隊引き揚げが完了し、大統領就任後に確約した「11年末までの撤収」が実現することになる。

===

U.S. paid heavy price

However, the United States has paid a heavy price for the war.
 米国が払った代価はあまりにも大きい。

The Bush administration launched the war after claiming Iraq possessed weapons of mass destruction, which were never found.
The war also tarred the United States' national prestige, partly because of the chaos that erupted during its occupation of Iraq.
開戦理由とした大量破壊兵器は見つからず、占領統治の大混乱もあって国家の威信に傷がついた。

The country has racked up swelling fiscal deficits caused by massive military spending, and the war has claimed the lives of nearly 4,500 U.S. soldiers.
巨額の戦費で財政赤字は膨れあがり、4500人近い米兵の命も失われた。

Nevertheless, Obama stressed the war had not been fought in vain. "We are leaving behind a sovereign, stable and self-reliant Iraq...This is an extraordinary achievement nearly nine years in the making," he said in the speech at Fort Bragg.
 それでも大統領は演説で、「我々は、独立し、安定し、自立した国家をイラクに残した。多大な成果だ」と強調した。

The question now is whether these achievements can remain in place and be built on in Iraq without U.S. forces stationed there for backup. Piles of problems lie ahead.
 問題は、駐留米軍の後ろ盾なしに、イラクでこうした成果が定着し、発展していくかである。課題は山積している。

After the collapse of Iraqi President Saddam Hussein's dictatorship in the war, the country at one time became mired in military conflict and terrorist attacks as confrontation raged between Shiite and Sunni Muslims. Although the United States finally calmed the situation by boosting its military presence in the country, it would be a stretch to say Iraq is now a nation totally at peace.
 戦争でサダム・フセイン大統領の独裁体制が崩壊した後、イスラム教シーア派とスンニ派の対立を背景に、一時は武力衝突やテロが泥沼化した。米国は兵力を増強してようやく沈静化させたが、完全に封じ込めたとは言えない。

Even today, many Iraqi citizens are being killed or wounded in terrorist attacks.
 多くの一般国民が今なおテロの犠牲になっている。

There are fears that the departure of U.S. troops could embolden terrorist organizations and lead to a deterioration of security in the country.
米軍撤退はテロ組織を勢いづかせ、治安の悪化を招く恐れがある。

===

Region crucial for Japan

Iraq has been riven by continuing confrontation between religious and tribal groups. National reconciliation is an urgent task, but the power base of Iraqi Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki, who is backed by Shiite Muslims, remains vulnerable.
 宗派間、民族間の対立が続いており、国民和解は急務である。シーア派勢力に支持されているマリキ首相の権力基盤は脆弱(ぜいじゃく)だ。

There also is the possibility that Iran, a major Shiite nation that shares a border with Iraq, might use the withdrawal of U.S. forces to step up its influence on Baghdad.
 米軍撤退につけこみ、隣国のシーア派大国イランが、イラクへの影響力を強める可能性もある。

If Iraq plunges into chaos again, it would have a significant impact on the whole region.
 イラク情勢が再び混迷すれば、地域全体に多大な影響が及ぶ。

The United States bears a heavy responsibility for the future of Iraq and the Middle East.
 イラクと中東の将来に対する米国の責任は重い。

Washington will have to not only cooperate with Baghdad in the security field, such as by training Iraqi military forces, but also press the country in the diplomatic arena so it becomes a responsible major country in the region.
米国は今後、イラク軍育成など安全保障分野での協力だけでなく、イラクが責任ある地域大国となるよう、外交面で働きかけていく必要がある。

In his meeting with Maliki in November, Prime Minister Yoshihiko Noda expressed his intention to extend yen loans totaling about 67 billion yen to Iraq for programs including a project to improve a refinery plant in the country.
 野田首相は11月、マリキ首相との会談で、イラクの製油所改良計画などへ約670億円の円借款を供与する意向を明らかにした。

We believe such efforts will help develop bilateral ties.
両国関係の発展に資するだろう。

Iraq's stability is extremely important for Japan, which imports 90 percent of its crude oil from the Middle East.
 原油輸入の9割を中東に依存する日本にとって、イラクの安定は極めて重要だ。

In addition to providing reconstruction assistance through official development assistance programs and other channels, it is critical that Japan deepens its economic and business ties with Iraq.
 政府開発援助(ODA)などによる復興支援とともに、経済やビジネス関係を深めていきたい。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Dec. 16, 2011)
(2011年12月16日01時22分  読売新聞)

イラク戦終結―米国は重い教訓に学べ

--The Asahi Shimbun, Dec. 16
EDITORIAL: U.S. should learn heavy lessons from Iraq war
イラク戦終結―米国は重い教訓に学べ

U.S. President Barack Obama has declared the end of the Iraq war.
 オバマ米大統領が、イラク戦争の終結を宣言した。

Nearly 4,500 U.S. troops were killed during the war that stretched about nine years.
足かけ9年の戦闘で、死亡した米兵は4500人近くにおよぶ。

The death toll among Iraqi civilians is said to have topped 100,000.
一方、イラク民間人の犠牲者は10万人以上にのぼるともいう。

"It is harder to end a war than to begin one," the president said in a speech at a U.S. Army installation in North Carolina.
 「戦争を終えることは、始めることより困難だ」と、オバマ氏は米国内の基地で演説した。

We wish to commend Obama for making good on his pledge to withdraw troops and pulling out of the quagmire in Iraq.
 撤兵の公約を守り、イラクの泥沼から抜けだした点は評価したい。

However, it is questionable whether this war was really needed when we think about the horrible bloodshed it incurred.
だが、流された多くの血を思えば、果たしてこの戦争は必要だったのか。

We need to address this question once again.
改めて問わざるを得ない。

The former administration of George W. Bush went to war against Iraq, claiming the Saddam Hussein regime was developing weapons of mass destruction.
 ブッシュ前政権がイラクに戦争を仕掛けたのは、フセイン政権が大量破壊兵器を開発している、という理由からだった。

It capitalized on U.S. public opinion frightened by the Sept. 11, 2001, terrorist attacks on U.S. nerve centers and incited fears that unless the United States took pre-emptive action, it would be attacked again.
 米国中枢部への同時多発テロにおびえた世論に乗じ「先制攻撃をかけなければ、再び攻撃を受ける」と不安をあおった。

In fact, there was no connection between the Saddam regime and the international terrorist organization al-Qaida.
 実際は、フセイン政権と国際テロ組織アルカイダは無関係だった。

Nevertheless, the United States went to war without winning the support of the United Nations Security Council.
それでも国連安全保障理事会の支持も得られぬまま、強引に開戦に踏み切った。

The war without legitimacy drew harsh criticism from both international society and the U.S. public and caused a serious rift both at home and abroad.
 正当性のない戦争は、国際社会からも米国世論からも激しい批判を招き、内外に深刻な亀裂を生んだ。

In the end, no weapons of mass destruction were found. Washington's stopgap occupational policy threw Iraq into confusion and ignited a bloody sectarian conflict between Sunni Muslims and Shiites.
 結局、大量破壊兵器は見つからず、場当たりの占領政策でイラクは大混乱に陥った。イスラム教スンニ派と少数派シーア派との間で、血で血を洗う宗派闘争が燃え上がってしまった。

Obama said: "We are leaving behind a sovereign, stable and self-reliant Iraq, with a representative government that was elected by its people."
 オバマ氏は「安定し、民衆に選ばれた政府を持つイラクにしたことは大きな業績だ」と語った。

But the actual situation in Iraq is far from stable.
だが、現状が安定しているとはとても言えないだろう。

Terrorist bombings are still going on.
 爆弾テロは依然として続いている。

On the very day Obama delivered the speech, at least three people were killed in northern Iraq by terrorist bombs.
オバマ氏の演説当日も、北部の爆弾テロで少なくとも3人が死亡した。

The rebuilding of infrastructure, such as power plants, also still has a long way to go.
電気など生活インフラの再建も途上だ。

As the United States pulls out its troops, it must squarely face the heavy lessons of this war.
 撤退を機に、米国はこの戦争の重い教訓を直視しなければならない。

There are also signs that sectarian antagonism is flaring up again in expectations of a power vacuum after the U.S. withdrawal as the administration of Nouri al-Maliki is detaining Sunnis.
 米軍撤退後の「力の真空」をにらんで、マリキ政権がスンニ派を拘束するなど、宗派間対立の再燃の兆しがでている。

Armed Sunni insurgents who cooperated with the U.S. forces while the country was under occupation appear to be increasingly nervous about retaliation.
 逆に、米軍に協力してきたスンニ派武装勢力は、報復に神経をとがらせているようだ。

Iraq's relations with neighboring countries are also unstable as Iran is increasing its influence in southern Iraq and Turkish forces are advancing into the northern region inhabited by the Kurds.
南部ではイランの影響力が増し、北部のクルド人地区にはトルコ軍が侵攻するなど、周辺国との関係も不安定だ。

If confusion continues at home, it could once again lead to foreign intervention.
 国内が混乱すれば外国勢力の介入を再び招きかねない。

To avoid such a situation, we want the Iraqi people to build a stable democracy on their own.
そうした事態を避けるためにも、イラク人自身の手で、安定した民主国家を作ってほしい。

Japan also dispatched Self-Defense Forces to Samawah in southeastern Iraq.
 日本も自衛隊をサマワに派遣した経緯がある。

It is an active player in supporting Iraqi reconstruction.
イラク復興支援では当事国である。

Japan should continue civilian aid and economic cooperation so as not to create a vacuum in support.
支援の空白を生まないよう、民生援助や経済協力を続けていきたい。

グアム予算凍結 事態打開へ「普天間」の進展を

The Yomiuri Shimbun (Dec. 15, 2011)
Govt must advance Futenma issue to lessen Okinawa's base burdens
グアム予算凍結 事態打開へ「普天間」の進展を(12月14日付・読売社説)

It has become even more difficult to implement visible steps that would lessen Okinawa Prefecture's burdens as the host of many U.S. military bases.
 目に見える沖縄の米軍基地負担軽減策の実現が危うくなってきた。

The government must recognize that this situation is extremely serious.
極めて深刻な事態と受け止める必要があろう。

The armed services committees of the U.S. Senate and the House of Representatives have agreed on revisions to a bill for the National Defense Authorization Act for fiscal 2012, which includes a freeze on the entire 156 million dollars budget for shifting U.S. marines stationed in Okinawa Prefecture to Guam.
 米上下両院の軍事委員会が、在沖縄海兵隊のグアム移転関連予算1億5600万ドル(約120億円)の全額凍結を含む2012会計年度の国防権限法案の修正で合意した。

The revised bill is scheduled to be approved at plenary sessions of both chambers shortly.
修正案は近く両院本会議で可決される。

The Guam relocation budget was earmarked for constructing the headquarters building and family residences, as well as for the relocation of 8,000 marines and their about 9,000 family members from Okinawa Prefecture.
 グアム関連予算は、海兵隊員8000人と家族9000人の移転に伴い、司令部庁舎や家族住宅などを整備するためのものだ。

The budget has been cut in the past, but this was the first time the entire budget was frozen.
従来、減額されたことはあったが、全額凍結は初めてだ。

===

Guam relocation to face scrapping

The U.S. Congress has been trying to cut massive defense spending. It has been toughening its stance of not approving the Guam relocation budget unless progress is made on the relocation plan of Futenma Air Station in Okinawa Prefecture, which is considered a "set" with the marines' relocation.
 米議会は、巨額の国防費削減に向け、海兵隊移転と「一体の計画」である普天間飛行場の移設が進まない以上、グアム関連予算は認めないとの姿勢を強めていた。

If there is no budget for the program in fiscal 2013, the Guam relocation plan itself likely would face being scrapped.
 仮に13年度も予算がつかなければ、移転計画全体が白紙になりかねない。

If that should happen, the scheduled return of six U.S. military facilities in southern Okinawa Prefecture to Japan's rule--a key element in the realignment of U.S. forces in Japan--would also face a setback.
その場合、在日米軍再編の目玉である沖縄県南部の米軍6施設の返還も頓挫する。

Many people in Okinawa Prefecture want the issue of moving the marines to Guam to be separate from the Futenma station's relocation within the prefecture.
 沖縄県には、普天間飛行場の県内移設と切り離して、海兵隊移転だけを実現したいとの声が少なくない。

However, they should recognize such a plan is unrealistic.
だが、それは、もはや非現実的だと認識すべきだろう。

The U.S. government tried to persuade Congress not to freeze the funds because it believed a degree of "tangible progress" would be made if the Japanese government submits an environment impact assessment statement to the prefecture within the year as planned. However, the efforts at persuasion failed.
 米政府は、日本政府が年内に普天間飛行場移設の環境影響評価書を沖縄県に提出することを「一定の進展」とみなし、米議会の説得を試みたが、失敗した。

A "far more substantial development" in the Futenma issue will be necessary to convince Congress to revive the Guam relocation budget in fiscal 2013.
 13年度にグアム予算を復活計上させるには、米議会が納得するだけの普天間問題の「より実質的な進展」が必須となる。

There are only two options left for Tokyo and Washington, as well as the Okinawa prefectural government.
 日米両政府と沖縄県に残された選択肢は今、二つしかない。

One is to move ahead with the relocation of the Futenma base to the Henoko district in Nago, also in the prefecture, and realize the U.S. marines' relocation to Guam.
 一つは、普天間飛行場の名護市辺野古移設を進め、海兵隊のグアム移転を実現する道だ。

When the six U.S. military facilities are returned to Japan's rule, the availability of these vast sites will give momentum to a new revitalization plan for the island prefecture from next fiscal year.
米軍6施設が返還されれば、広大な跡地利用により、来年度からの新たな沖縄振興計画にも弾みがつこう。

The other is to give up both the Futenma relocation to Henoko and the transfer of the marines to Guam.
 もう一つは、普天間の辺野古移設も、海兵隊移転も断念する道だ。

In this case, those involved will have to accept that the dangerous situation of the Futenma base, located in the middle of a city, will remain for a long time.
その場合、普天間飛行場の危険な現状が長期間、固定化されることも覚悟せざるを得ない。
===

Govt, Okinawa must see reality

The central and Okinawa prefectural governments must recognize the reality that only two options are left. It is essential that they discuss straightforwardly and seriously how to ensure Japan's security while lessening Okinawa Prefecture's burdens.
 政府と沖縄県は、この現実を直視し、日本の安全保障と沖縄の負担軽減をいかに両立させるかについて、率直かつ真剣に話し合うことが重要となる。

Of course, the responsibility for the current situation rests with former Prime Minister Yukio Hatoyama and other officials.
After all, they proposed relocating the Futenma base somewhere outside the prefecture or even outside the country, a suggestion that built up unreasonable expectations among many Okinawa residents--and then eventually betrayed these hopes.
 無論、普天間飛行場の「県外・国外移設」を唱え、沖縄に過剰な期待を持たせた末に裏切った経緯を踏まえれば、現在の事態を招いた責任は鳩山元首相らにある。

Prime Minister Yoshihiko Noda has not visited Okinawa Prefecture since he assumed the post.
 野田首相は就任後、まだ沖縄を訪問していない。

It is about time he stood up to break the deadlock.
そろそろ自ら事態打開に動く時である。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Dec. 14, 2011)
(2011年12月14日01時46分  読売新聞)

火論:花形の時代=玉木研二

(Mainichi Japan) December 13, 2011
Remember past enthusiasm for nuclear science as we edge towards non-nuclear future
火論:花形の時代=玉木研二
 <ka-ron>

It's been pointed out in many quarters that the field of nuclear power in Japan has been failing to attract the interest of students.
There was a time not so long ago, however, that nuclear energy was at the cutting edge -- the superstar of scientific disciplines.
 原子力分野への学生の志望減退が指摘されているが、いうまでもなく往時は最先端をいく花形分野だった。

One can catch a glimpse of this by looking at how nuclear researchers were depicted in the literature and films of the period -- although hints of misgivings are also easily found.
小説や映画に登場する研究者らに、その時代が抱いていたそんなイメージがのぞく。

Take, for example, Yasushi Inoue's novel "Hyoheki" (Ice wall), first serialized in the Asahi Shimbun newspaper in 1956 -- the same year the government formed the Japan Atomic Energy Commission and the industrial world entered the nuclear industry in a serious way.
 例えば、原子力委員会が設置され、産業界も原子力事業に本格的に参入した1956(昭和31)年、朝日新聞で井上靖の長編「氷壁」の連載が始まった。

"Hyoheki" is primarily the story of a man and a woman stranded in the mountains. However, the novel also depicts a senior researcher for a major company lab as a representation of the era's scientific rationalism.
山岳の遭難事故を軸とした男女の物語だが、現代の科学性、合理性の象徴のような大企業の幹部研究者が出てくる。

When someone tells him that nuclear science "carries all the hopes of humanity" and "contains within it every potentiality," the researcher replies, "I don't think only humanity's bright dreams and possibilities are wrapped up in nuclear science.
 彼が、話し相手から原子科学について<人類の夢がいっぱい詰め込まれているものなんでしょう。あらゆる可能性がその中にはいっている>と語りかけられて、こう言う場面がある。<強(あなが)ち原子科学の中に、明るい人類の夢や可能性ばかりが詰まっているとは思えませんな。

It also carries the possibility of humanity's ruin."
そこにはまた、人類の亡(ほろ)びの可能性も詰まっているわけです>

When Inoue wrote these words, the United States and the Soviet Union were locked in a nuclear arms race and conducting above-ground nuclear tests, while at the same time the "peaceful use" of nuclear energy was being trumpeted as possessing "limitless possibility."
 当時、米ソの険悪な対立の中で競って軍事目的の核実験が行われ、一方で核エネルギーの「平和利用」と「無限の可能性」が錦の御旗(みはた)とされたころ。

In the cynicism expressed by the researcher Inoue depicted in the novel, one can see the author's own thoughts on nuclear technology seeping through.
研究者の皮肉を含む口ぶりに「危うさ」を感じ取っていた作者の思いがにじんでいるのかもしれない。

In 1959, the Tokyo Shimbun newspaper ran a serialized novel by noted author Fumiko Enchi called "Watakushi mo moeteiru" (I, too, am burning).
 59年、東京新聞に連載を始めた円地文子の「私も燃えている」は、放縦な私生活を送りながら研究には無我夢中になる気鋭の若手原子物理学者が登場する。

In the story, a young, dissolute nuclear physicist lost in his research absorbs a lethal dose of radiation when he makes a mistake during an experiment.
彼は核融合実験のミスで大量の放射線を浴び、命を落とした。

Before dying, the man sums up the novel, saying, "I turned towards that thing all humanity hopes for: the peaceful application of nuclear technology.
And I bet my life on opening that door just a crack."
小説は<原子力の平和利用という人類のすべてが望む明るい方向へ向けて、一枚の扉を開きかけることに生命を賭けてしまった>と表現する。

Three years later, in 1962, film studio Toho Co. released a film titled "Gorath" in which nuclear power saves Earth from destruction by a mysterious object hurtling through space.
 さらに3年後の62年、東宝特撮映画「妖星ゴラス」は原子力が人類を救うSFだ。地球衝突への軌道を謎の天体が進んでくる。

The entire world's nuclear energy is combined to create a propulsion device at the South Pole and shift Earth out of the way of the object. The nuclear engine, however, alters Earth's orbit.
「全世界の原子力を総結集」して南極に巨大な推進機関を設け噴射、地球の軌道を変えてやり過ごす。

Regardless of the story's plainly ridiculous premise, what can be seen in the film is a spirit true to the era in which it was made, with the countries of the world transcending national interests to save the Earth through nuclear power.
 このむちゃと危険は言うまい。冷戦のさなか、世界が国を超え力を合わせて原子力を媒介に地球を助ける発想が、いかにもこの時代らしい。

In the period from the mid-1950s to the mid '60s, the image of nuclear power was forged by anxiety and fear of a nuclear holocaust mixed with sky-high hopes for nuclear technology's peaceful uses.
 昭和でいえば30年代は、漠然とした不安、核戦争の恐怖、そして「平和利用」の夢といったものがないまぜになって、原子力のイメージを形作っていたと思える。

Things have changed a great deal since then. For today's youth, the Fukushima nuclear disaster has spurred the idea of leaving nuclear power behind. However, on this point there is one thing I'd like to say:
 時と状況は大きく転じた。福島の事故は若き頭脳の「原子力離れ」に拍車をかけたという。だがあえて言いたい。

Look back on how nuclear science was portrayed in the 1950s and '60s. To resolve the great unknowns lurking in the undiscovered territories of a non-nuclear future, a fresh, vibrant intelligence and way of thinking -- a new superstar -- will be needed.
 未知の領域が山積した事態の改善・収拾にこそ、みずみずしい新「花形」の知恵と発想が要る。

Is it asking too much to bring all Japan's top minds together, just like in the movies, to tackle the challenge?
映画のように総結集させようというのは、甘いだろうか。(専門編集委員)

(By Kenji Tamaki, Expert Senior Writer)
毎日新聞 2011年12月13日 東京朝刊

EU首脳会議 金融不安の払拭にまだ力不足

専門用語:
fiscal sovereignty 財政主権
(スラチャイ)

The Yomiuri Shimbun (Dec. 13, 2011)
Europe accord not enough to dispel financial concerns
EU首脳会議 金融不安の払拭にまだ力不足(12月11日付・読売社説)

European leaders barely managed to reach an agreement to prevent the Greece-triggered sovereign debt crisis from spreading to the rest of the world from Europe.
 ギリシャに端を発した欧州発金融危機を食い止めようと、欧州各国の首脳が薄氷の合意にこぎつけた。

However, it does not seem powerful enough to dispel financial concerns.
だが、金融不安払拭には力不足だろう。

Leaders of European Union countries, including the 17 nations that use the euro, such as Germany and France, agreed Friday to conclude a new treaty that will impose stringent fiscal discipline on its members.
 ユーロ導入の独仏など17か国を含む欧州連合(EU)首脳会議は、厳しい財政規律を課する新条約を締結することで合意した。

The countries taking part in the new treaty will specify the principle of "fiscal balance" in their respective constitutions.
 新条約の参加国は「財政均衡」の原則を憲法に明記する。

The principle is designed to automatically impose sanctions on countries whose fiscal deficit exceeds 3 percent of their gross domestic product in a single fiscal year.
単年度の財政赤字が対国内総生産(GDP)比3%を突破した国には、自動的に制裁を発動する内容だ。

The measure can be called a praiseworthy step forward, obliging individual countries to take steps to repair their finances based on lessons learned from the lax fiscal management of Greece and some other European countries.
 危機をもたらしたギリシャなどの放漫財政を教訓に、財政健全化を各国に義務づける方策は、ひとまず前進と評価できよう。

===

One currency, many policies

The euro's fundamental weakness has lain in the fact that while eurozone countries have introduced the single currency, they have widely different fiscal policies.
 通貨は一つだが、財政政策は各国でバラバラだったことが、ユーロの根本的な弱点だった。

If the European countries can sign the new treaty by March as scheduled under the leadership of German Chancellor Angela Merkel and French President Nicolas Sarkozy, European unity will enter a new phase toward fiscal integration, which has been a long-standing issue.
 メルケル独首相とサルコジ仏大統領が主導して、予定通りに2012年3月までに各国が新条約に署名すれば、懸案の財政統合に向け、欧州統合は新局面に入る。

However, British Prime Minister David Cameron, whose country is not a eurozone member, refused to join the new treaty, from the standpoint of protecting his country's fiscal sovereignty.
 だが、新条約案に対し、非ユーロ圏の英国のキャメロン首相だけは、自国の財政主権を守る立場から参加を拒否した。

The divide between the French-German position and that of Britain can be said to have highlighted discord among EU member states.
独仏と英国の対立は、EU内の不協和音をさらけ出したと言える。

More serious was the fact that the latest summit meeting failed to come up with bold measures to contain the raging crisis.
 さらに深刻なのは、今回の首脳会議が、燃えさかる当面の危機を封じ込めるために必要な大胆な策を打ち出せなかったことだ。

Leaders agreed at the meeting to launch the European Stability Mechanism in the middle of next year, one year ahead of the original schedule.
The bailout fund will provide fiscally distressed European countries with financial assistance and has been described as the European version of the International Monetary Fund.
 会議は、財政危機国に資金支援する欧州版の国際通貨基金(IMF)とされる「欧州安定メカニズム(ESM)」について、予定を1年前倒しして来年半ばに発足させる方針で一致した。

The leaders also agreed on a bailout plan that would extend loans of up to 200 billion euros (about 21 trillion yen) to countries in fiscal crisis through the IMF.
 IMFを通じて、財政危機国に最大2000億ユーロ(約21兆円)を貸し出す救済策も決めた。

===

IMF plan may not work

However, there are questions whether the IMF plan will be feasible given that the United States, the largest contributor to the international body, showed reluctance to make additional contributions.
 だが、IMF活用案には、IMF最大出資国である米国が新たな資金拠出に難色を示すなど、実効性に疑問も残る。

The EU leaders also failed, because of Germany's objections, to agree on a common euro bond to be jointly issued by eurozone countries.
 ユーロ圏が共同で発行する「ユーロ共通債」も、ドイツの反対で合意できなかった。

Above all, European countries have yet to secure enough funds to tackle the region's fiscal and financial crisis due to the slow progress of the plan to expand the European Financial Stability Facility, whose functions will eventually be taken over by the ESM.
 何より、ESMの母体となる欧州金融安定基金(EFSF)の拡充が進んでおらず、危機対策の資金が十分確保できていない。

For European countries to regain the rest of the world's confidence, it will be essential for them to act quickly to strengthen the EFSF.
欧州がEFSF強化に迅速に動くことが信頼回復に不可欠である。

It still remains uncertain how the global stock and exchange markets and credit rating companies will evaluate the conclusions agreed upon at the summit meeting.
 世界の株式・為替市場や、格付け会社が、首脳会議の結論をどう評価するのかは不透明だ。

Market players have high expectations that the European Central Bank will support Italy and other distressed eurozone countries through massive purchases of those nations' government bonds. Yet the ECB remains cautious about taking such steps.
市場では、欧州中央銀行(ECB)がイタリアなどの国債を大量に買い支えることへの期待があるが、ECBは慎重姿勢を崩していない。

Germany and France are taking the lead in Europe's precarious attempt to overcome the crisis. They bear a heavy responsibility in this regard.
 危機克服への綱渡りを先導する独仏両国の責任は大きい。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Dec. 11, 2011)
(2011年12月11日01時10分  読売新聞)

参院問責決議 防衛相の資質には疑義がある

The Yomiuri Shimbun (Dec. 11, 2011)
Defense minister's competence questionable
参院問責決議 防衛相の資質には疑義がある(12月10日付・読売社説)

Questions have been raised about Defense Minister Yasuo Ichikawa's competence.
 一川防衛相の資質には疑義が生じている。

It probably will be unavoidable at some stage to replace him.
いずれかの時点で交代させるのは、やむを得まい。

The House of Councillors passed censure motions against Ichikawa and Kenji Yamaoka, state minister for consumer affairs, at a plenary session Friday with majority support from the Liberal Democratic Party, New Komeito and other opposition parties.
 一川防衛相と山岡消費者相に対する問責決議が参院本会議で、自民、公明など野党の賛成多数で可決された。

Unlike a no-confidence motion in the House of Representatives, an upper house censure motion is not legally binding.
 問責決議は、衆院の不信任決議と異なり、法的拘束力がない。

It is problematic that for their own interests opposition parties repeatedly present censure motions or refuse to attend Diet deliberations when censured ministers are present. They should refrain from adopting such strategies.
 野党が党利党略から、問責決議を乱発したり、問責された閣僚らの出席する国会審議への出席拒否戦術を取ったりすることは問題があり、本来、慎むべきだ。

Prime Minister Yoshihiko Noda and Democratic Party of Japan Secretary General Azuma Koshiishi both made clear they want to keep the two ministers in their posts.
 野田首相や民主党の輿石幹事長は防衛相らを続投させる方針を表明している。

They presumably concluded it would be undesirable to allow opposition parties to effectively hold absolute powers over cabinet ministers by passing censure motions against them in the upper house given the current divided Diet.
衆参ねじれ国会の下、参院の問責決議によって、野党が閣僚の生殺与奪権を事実上握るのはよくない、との判断もあるのだろう。

That is fully understandable.
十分に理解できる。

The Defense Ministry faces a number of important issues, such as selection of the next-generation fighter aircraft, an environment impact assessment report for the relocation of the U.S. Marine Corps' Futenma Air Station in Okinawa Prefecture and the dispatch of a Ground Self-Defense Force unit to South Sudan on a U.N. peacekeeping mission.
 防衛省は多くの重要案件を抱えている。次期戦闘機の選定、米軍普天間飛行場移設の環境影響評価書、南スーダンへの部隊派遣などだ。
===

Govt wants to avoid fallout

Therefore, the government and the DPJ apparently want to avoid any fallout that could occur by replacing the defense minister at this stage.
現時点での閣僚交代による悪影響を避けたい事情もあろう。

But we wonder whether Ichikawa is aware of his responsibility.
 しかし、一川氏には、その自覚があるのか。

Upon appointment to the post in September, Ichikawa said he was an "amateur" on security issues.
 就任時に「安全保障は素人」と述べ、

Last month, he skipped a state banquet at the Imperial Palace to attend a fund-raising party for a DPJ lawmaker, saying, "I thought this was more important."
宮中行事を欠席して参加した民主党議員のパーティーで「こちらの方が大事」と語った。

Ichikawa has supervisory responsibility over the highly controversial comments made by a former chief of the ministry's Okinawa Defense Bureau in connection with the Futenma relocation issue.
 普天間移設をめぐる前沖縄防衛局長の暴言の監督責任に加え、

The defense minister himself provoked strong resentment from Okinawa Prefecture residents for saying in the Diet that he did not know the details about the 1995 rape of a 12-year-old girl by three U.S. servicemen in the prefecture.
1995年の沖縄女児暴行事件に関する「詳細には知らない」との発言は、沖縄の強い反発を招いた。

He lacks competence and is unsuitable to be in charge of national defense.
 国防の責任者としての能力と適性を欠いており、

It will also be difficult for him to restore a relationship of trust with Okinawa Prefecture.
沖縄との信頼関係の回復も難しい。

Meanwhile, it came to light that Yamaoka had received political donations from and had cozy ties with companies involved in a pyramid scheme before assuming his current post.
 山岡消費者相は、就任前のことながら、マルチ商法業界からの献金や親密な関係が判明している。

In this regard, it makes sense for the opposition bloc to argue that Yamaoka is unsuited for the consumer affairs post.
消費者相としてふさわしくないとの野党の主張には一理ある。

===

All-out confrontation seen

If the prime minister does not replace the two ministers, the ordinary Diet session next year will almost certainly see an all-out confrontation between ruling and opposition parties from its outset.
 首相が両閣僚を交代させない場合、来年の通常国会は、冒頭から与野党の全面対決となるのが確実だ。

In that event, it will be difficult for the ruling and opposition parties to start negotiations on the consumption tax hike, which the prime minister has expressed his "unwavering resolve" to carry through.
首相が「不退転の決意」を示す消費税率引き上げに関する与野党協議も、開催が困難になる。

Without the cooperation of the opposition parties, it will be impossible to pass bills through the Diet.
 野党の協力なしでは法案は成立しない。

The situation surrounding the Noda administration is growing increasingly tough.
野田政権を取り巻く環境は、厳しさを増している。

The extraordinary Diet session that ended Friday failed to produce tangible results.
 9日閉会した臨時国会も、成果に乏しかった。

It managed to pass a supplementary budget and bills related to reconstruction of areas affected by the March 11 disaster.
補正予算と復興関連法は成立したが、

But as the Diet session was not extended, deliberations on such important bills as those to cut central government officials' salaries, reform postal services and revise the worker dispatch law have been put off.
会期延長さえなく、国家公務員給与削減、郵政改革、労働者派遣法改正などの重要法案や、

The Diet also postponed a decision to rectify the disparity in the value of votes in lower house elections.
衆院選の「1票の格差」是正が軒並み先送りされた。

Diet management by the government and the ruling parties is primarily to blame for the poor progress.
 一義的には政府・与党の国会対策に問題があるにせよ、

However, the opposition parties also bear heavy responsibility in the divided Diet.
ねじれ国会では野党の責任も大きい。

It is time for the ruling and opposition parties to seriously discuss how to put an end to the political imbroglio.
政治の機能不全をどう脱するか、与野党は真剣に話し合うべきだ。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Dec. 10, 2011)
(2011年12月10日01時28分  読売新聞)

プロフィール

srachai

自己紹介・リンク

■近況

2009年の9月15日に脳梗塞を発症、右手が少し不自由になりました。
MRAで脳梗塞の部位を特定でき、素早い処置をとれたので大事に至りませんでした。
快復にむけてリハビリ中です。
(2011/01/01更新)

■自己紹介・リンク

[ はじめに ]
タイのスラチャイです。
英語学習に王道はありません。
毎日毎日の地道な努力の積み重ねが必要です。
スラチャイはNHKのラジオ英語会話で現在の英語力を身につけました。
一日僅か15分の学習でも数年間継続すれば相当な学習効果が期待できます。

[ 名前 ]
松井 清 (スラチャイ)

[ 略歴 ]
・福岡県出身
・国立高知大学卒業
・準大手建設会社に就職
・50歳で会社を早期退職
・99/10 タイ全土を旅行
・00/10 タイに移住
・03/07 カイちゃん誕生
・07/06 シーファーちゃん誕生
・現在タイ国コンケン在住

[ 座右の銘 ]
Slow and steady wins the race.
遅くとも着実な者が勝利する
(NHK基礎英語芹沢栄先生)

[ 学習の手引き ]
・音読して耳から英語を吸収
・Think in English.
・ネイティブ発音付辞書活用
・英英辞典を活用(英和も)
・翻訳和文で専門用語確認

[ English Newspapers ]
Yomiuri
Mainichi
Asahi
Japan Times
Washington Post
Newyork Times
Bangkok Post
The Nations
Phuket Gazette

[ 英字新聞の英和対訳学習 ]
英字新聞(読売)
英字新聞(毎日)
英字新聞(朝日)
英字新聞(朝日2)

[ スラチャイ編集の辞書 ]
タイ日辞書(改訂版)
日タイ辞書(改訂版)
ラオ日辞書
日ラオ辞書

[ 英字新聞リンク ]
ocn cafe
fc2
goo
yahoo
ameba

オンラインカジノ

[ 32レッドカジノ ]



[ online casino ]
オンラインカジノとは

[ 32red casino mobile ]
for iPhone, Android
Roulette Game
Blackjack Game
Slots Game

[ my favorite way ]
Earning some money on the commuting train is fantastic.
roulette game
通勤電車の中で稼ぐ(ルーレット)^^
ルーレットで遊ぶ

[ 32red casino iPhone & Android ]
Mermaids Millions
Royal Derby
Tomb Raider
Blackjack Game
Major Millions

Tomb Raider iTunes App
Blackjack iTunes App
Roulette Game
Android & iPhone Direct Registration

[ sellection for mobile ]
32Red Web App (iPhone & Android) Casino - Homepage

[ 32red download for PC ]


[ online casino for PC ]
Roulette
Blackjack
Online Slots

[ zipang casino ]
in english

最新コメント
記事検索
seesaa100 英字新聞s HPs

スラチャイの家族紹介
私の家族

スラチャイの手作りリンク集
スラチャイタイ在住14年目
New!中国語会話基礎(北京語)他
タイ日辞典(単語帳)
タイ語の子音
タイ語の母音
スラチャイ編曲のmidiのギター曲
スラチャイ編曲のJ.S.Bachです

スラチャイの多国言語学習
初歩のタイ語
初歩の中国語
初歩のラオス語
初歩のビルマ語
初歩のシンハリ語
初歩のタガログ語

タイ語の基礎
タイ文字
タイ日辞書
タイ語の副詞
タイ語の前置詞
タイ語の助動詞
タイ語の接続詞

基礎タイ語一覧(タイ文字、ローマ字)
seesaaサイト内リンク一覧:
01 あいさつ
02 別れのあいさつ
03 声をかけるとき
04 感謝の言葉と答え方
05 謝罪の言葉と答え方
06 聞き直すとき
07 相手の言うことがわからないとき
08 うまく言えないとき
09 一般的なあいづち
10 よくわからないときの返事
11 強めのあいづち
12 自分について述べるとき
13 相手のことを尋ねるとき
14 頼みごとをするとき
15 申し出・依頼を断るとき
16 許可を求めるとき
17 説明してもらうとき
18 確認を求めるとき
19 状況を知りたいとき
20 値段の尋ね方と断り方
21 急いでもらいたいとき
22 待ってもらいたいとき
23 日時・場所・天候を尋ねるとき
24 その他

基礎タイ語一覧(タイ文字、音声付き)
サイト外HPリンク一覧:
01 あいさつ
02 別れのあいさつ
03 声をかけるとき
04 感謝の言葉と答え方
05 謝罪の言葉と答え方
06 聞き直すとき
07 相手の言うことがわからないとき
08 うまく言えないとき
09 一般的なあいづち
10 よくわからないときの返事
11 強めのあいづち
12 自分について述べるとき
13 相手のことを尋ねるとき
14 頼みごとをするとき
15 申し出・依頼を断るとき
16 許可を求めるとき
17 説明してもらうとき
18 確認を求めるとき
19 状況を知りたいとき
20 値段の尋ね方と断り方
21 急いでもらいたいとき
22 待ってもらいたいとき
23 日時・場所・天候を尋ねるとき
24 その他

タイの文化一覧:
01 雨の日にも傘をささないタイ人
02 勉強熱心なタイ人女性たち
03 タイ人は敬謙な仏教徒
04 タイの市場
05 タイの食堂
06 タイ人は外食が大好き
07 果物王国タイランド
08 タイ人の誕生日
09 タイの電話代は高い
10 微笑みの国タイランド

14の戒律(テラワーダ仏教戒律)
seesaaサイト内リンク一覧:
第01番目の戒律
第02番目の戒律
第03番目の戒律
第04番目の戒律
第05番目の戒律
第06番目の戒律
第07番目の戒律
第08番目の戒律
第09番目の戒律
第10番目の戒律
第11番目の戒律
第12番目の戒律
第13番目の戒律
第14番目の戒律

14の戒律(テラワーダ仏教戒律)
サイト外HPリンク一覧:
14の戒律解説
第01番目の戒律
第02番目の戒律
第03番目の戒律
第04番目の戒律
第05番目の戒律
第06番目の戒律
第07番目の戒律
第08番目の戒律
第09番目の戒律
第10番目の戒律
第11番目の戒律
第12番目の戒律
第13番目の戒律
第14番目の戒律


[ 英字新聞リンク ]
yahoo geolog
yaplog
worldpress
teacup
jugem
hatena
@word
blogger
biglobe
excite
a8
so-net
ameblo
wox
rakuten
ninja
seesaa
goo
fc2
yahoo
livedoor
dreamlog

[ HPリンク ]
cocolog 家族のアルバム
fc2 家族のアルバム
初歩の日本語(タイ人学生向け)
タイの小学三年生数学学力テスト(国家試験)
タイ語、中国語、ビルマ語
Preliminary Japanese lessons for Thai students
旅行のタイ語学習サイト
ラオ日・日老辞書
妻はタイ人/タイの文化/タイの仏教戒律

  • ライブドアブログ