英字新聞

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2010年09月

Japan must map out its own GPS strategy

The Yomiuri Shimbun (Sep. 21, 2010)
Japan must map out its own GPS strategy
衛星みちびき 日本版GPSの戦略作り急げ(9月20日付・読売社説)

Japan's first navigation satellite, Michibiki, aimed at improving the global positioning system's coverage of Japan, has been launched by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency.
 日本版のGPS(全地球測位システム)整備を目指した人工衛星の1号機「みちびき」を、宇宙航空研究開発機構などが打ち上げた。

The project--undertaken jointly by the industrial, public and academic sectors--calls for technology verification tests and is aimed at reducing the margin of error of GPS devices used in car navigation and other services from the current 10 meters or so to less than one meter.
 カーナビゲーションなどで位置確認に使われているGPSの測位誤差を、現在の10メートル程度から1メートル以下に改善することを目指し、産官学で技術実証試験に挑む。

The market for satellite-based GPS products and services has been expanding globally. We hope that the Michibiki project will bring about results that make Japan more competitive in this area.
 人工衛星を使った測位技術関連の製品、サービスは、国際的に市場が拡大している。世界に伍(ご)していける成果を期待したい。

Fifty-eight different tests are planned. The success or failure of the project depends on how its high positioning accuracy can be utilized.
 試験は58テーマが予定されており、高い測位精度をどう生かせるかが、成否のかぎとなる。

One example is a proposed guidance system for unmanned snow removers and farm machinery. Neither snow removal from roads nor soil cultivation in fields can be done if the machines are allowed to drift as much as 10 meters off course. Both can be done only when the margin of error is held to less than one meter.
 その一例が、除雪車や耕運機などの自動誘導だ。誤差が10メートルでは道路の除雪はできないし、畑も耕せない。誤差が1メートル以下なら、それが可能になる。

===

Diverse applications

GPS has been widely used in a diverse range of fields from rescue operations in alpine accidents to consumer products such as digital cameras. Such cameras are popular because locations where photos are shot are automatically stored for use as travel records.
 すでにGPSは、山岳遭難の救助からデジタルカメラのような日用品まで幅広く使われている。カメラの場合、撮影場所が写真に自動で付加されるため、旅行の記録になる、などと人気がある。

Improvement of GPS accuracy will stimulate further growth in such existing fields.
 精度の向上は、こうした既存分野も活性化させるだろう。

A hallmark of Michibiki lies in the orbit it takes. Michibiki flies in an asymmetrical figure-eight course above the western Pacific, including Japan, every 24 hours.
 みちびきの特徴は、その軌道にある。地上から見ると、日本を含む西太平洋上空を「8の字」を描くように24時間で飛行する。

Michibiki's flight above Japan accounts for about eight hours of each orbit. If three satellites like Michibiki were put into orbit, at least one would be above Japan at all times. Because GPS satellites rely on line-of-sight radio wave transmission, this would nearly eliminate the problem of signals being blocked by obstacles such as buildings and mountains.
 うち8時間程度は日本上空にいるので、3機あれば常に1機が日本のほぼ真上に見える。このため衛星からの電波は、ビルや山など障害物にほとんど遮られない。

The GPS currently uses about 30 U.S. satellites to cover the entire globe. Accurate results depend on devices on or near the Earth's surface being able to compare signals from four satellites in the visible sky. The system can fail in urban and mountainous areas where the lower portions of the sky are blocked by mountains or buildings.
 米国が運用する今のGPSは衛星約30機で地球全体をカバーしている。だが、都市部や山間部では十分な信号強度が得られない。

Additional transmissions from Michibiki, which will often be nearly overhead in Japan, will enhance positioning accuracy.
 これに、みちびきの電波を加えることで測位精度を上げる。

The problem is how to secure funding for the satellites that are meant to follow Michibiki. It cost 40 billion yen to build Michibiki. The cost for similar following satellites is estimated at a hefty 35 billion yen each. At least three satellites are necessary to commercialize the enhanced Japanese version of the GPS system. Discussions have begun about how to divide costs between the public and private sectors.
 問題は後続の衛星だ。みちびきは400億円、その後の衛星も1機350億円程度と試算されている。決して安くはない。実用化には最低3機が必要で、官民の費用分担を巡り論議が起きている。

===

A project team planned

The government says it will establish a project team comprising officials from the ministries and agencies concerned to study how to pay for the satellites that will follow Michibiki by the end of the current fiscal year. In that instance, the government must give due consideration to international trends and Japan's security interests.
 政府は関係省庁によるチームを設け、今年度末までに後続機のあり方を検討するという。その際には国際動向、日本の安全保障も十分考慮せねばならない。

The GPS was developed by the United States, originally for military purposes. It remains to be seen whether its use may be restricted in the future. Out of such concern, China, India and European countries are building their own positioning systems. Russia operates its own system for the purpose of ensuring security and defense.
 もともとGPSは、米国が軍事用に開発した。いつ運用が制限されるかわからない。そうした懸念から、欧州、中国、インドは独自の測位システムを構築中だ。ロシアは安全保障、防衛のため自前のシステムを運用している。


The United States, China and Europe are moving toward cooperation with each other on positioning technology.
 欧米、中国などが測位技術で連携する動きもある。

Against such a background, Japan must work out a GPS strategy that will take advantage of its technology while maintaining its international voice.
日本が国際的な発言力を保ちつつ、技術を生かせる戦略が求められる。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Sept. 20, 2010)
(2010年9月20日01時20分  読売新聞)

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http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OdpmOMwnTCA

Consumption tax debate must proceed

The Yomiuri Shimbun (Sep. 20, 2010)
Consumption tax debate must proceed
消費税論議 新体制で与野党協議進めよ(9月19日付・読売社説)

Fiscal reconstruction and economic recovery are the main themes that Prime Minister Naoto Kan's newly reshuffled Cabinet must address. It should prop up the economy and rehabilitate the nation's fiscal condition, which is the worst among advanced nations.
 景気をテコ入れし、先進国で最悪の財政状況を立て直す――。
 菅改造内閣が取り組むべき経済テーマの柱は、景気と財政再建の両立である。

To that end, the Cabinet must put its back into tackling the consumption tax issue, which the prime minister began to treat cautiously after the Democratic Party of Japan's setback in the House of Councillors election in July.
その実現のため、参院選敗北で首相が及び腰になった消費税問題に、今度こそ腰を据えて取り組まなければならない。

The battle lines on this issue were drawn in the run-up to last week's DPJ presidential election. While Kan said he would consider drastic tax reforms, including of the consumption tax, his opponent, former DPJ leader Ichiro Ozawa, stressed the government should cut waste before raising taxes.
 民主党代表選では、財源を巡る対立軸が鮮明になった。「消費税を含む税制の抜本改革を検討する」と訴えた首相に対し、小沢元代表は「増税の前に無駄減らしだ」と強調した。

===

Increase is inevitable

It is a foregone conclusion that reducing waste, no matter how seriously the government tackles the problem, will not generate much in the way of financial resources.
 無駄排除にいくら取り組んでもさほど財源を捻出(ねんしゅつ)できないのは、はっきりしている。

Also, we cannot say that replacing central government subsidies to local governments with lump-sum grants to them with fewer strings attached, or securitizing state-owned assets, constitutes the kiss of life for an anemic economy.
補助金の一括交付金化や国有財産の証券化なども、起死回生策とは言い難い。

It is likely that Kan's victory in the DPJ leadership race was due in part to the many DPJ lawmakers, party members and supporters who judged as unreasonable Ozawa's vow to fully implement the promises contained in the party's manifesto without clearly indicating the financial resources to fund them.
 財源の明示なしに政権公約の完全実施を求めた小沢氏の主張に対し、民主党国会議員や党員・サポーターの多くが「無理がある」と判断したことが、首相勝利の一因になったと見ていいだろう。

It is impermissible for the issue of financial resources to be left on the shelf any longer in this country, which is saddled with massive budget deficits. And it is clear that raising the consumption tax rate is unavoidable to secure funds to cover the nation's ballooning social security costs.
 巨額の財政赤字を抱える日本でこれ以上、財源問題を棚上げすることは許されない。増大する社会保障費を賄う財源を確保するためにも、消費税率の引き上げが避けられないのは明らかである。

A Yomiuri Shimbun opinion survey conducted during the DPJ presidential election race found that 52 percent of respondents supported Kan's stance toward the consumption tax, greatly surpassing the 38 percent supporting Ozawa, who took a negative view toward a tax hike. The people apparently want thorough debate over the issue.
 読売新聞が代表選中に実施した世論調査でも、消費税を巡る首相の姿勢を支持した人が全体の52%で、引き上げに否定的な小沢氏を支持する38%を大幅に上回った。国民は本格論議を求めている。

However, although Kan called for drastic tax reforms during the DPJ presidential election, he has yet to go further into their vital contents.
 だが、首相は代表選で税制の抜本改革を叫びながら、肝心の中身には踏み込んでいない。

===

Start discussing details

Some DPJ members, such as Ozawa, are stubbornly cautious toward the consumption tax issue. Kan should lead intraparty debate in various settings, including a tax panel that the DPJ has resurrected, while again calling on opposition parties to join a wider discussion.
 民主党内には、小沢氏に代表されるように、消費税論議に慎重な意見も根強い。首相は、復活させた党の税制関連部会などで党内論議をリードし、野党にも重ねて協議を呼びかけるべきだ。

It is also urgent to lower the nation's corporate tax rate, which is relatively high by world standards. To rejuvenate the Japanese economy, it is essential to enhance corporate vitality and improve competitiveness. Lowering the corporate tax rate is indispensable for that.
 国際的に高い法人税率の引き下げも急務だ。日本経済の再生には企業活力を引き出し、競争力を高めることが肝要だ。それには法人税引き下げが不可欠である。

With the Finance Ministry concerned about a possible decline in tax revenues, the government's Tax Commission is expected to face tough going. Kan should not simply leave matters to the commission but must exercise leadership and achieve the objective of lowering the corporate tax rate as part of tax system revision for fiscal 2011.
 財務省は税収減を懸念し、政府税制調査会では調整が難航するとみられる。首相は税調任せにせず指導力を発揮し、来年度税制改正で、ぜひ実現させるべきだ。

Kan's touchstone for the time being is the fiscal 2011 budget compilation. Budget requests hit record highs, but Japan is mired in an extraordinary fiscal situation in which the government is taking in less through taxes than it borrows through bonds. Therefore, the government can no longer afford to continue handout policies.
 首相の当面の試金石は、来年度予算案の編成だ。概算要求額は過去最大に膨らんだが、日本の財政は新規国債の発行額が税収を上回る異常事態であり、バラマキ政策を続ける余裕はない。

The government should compile a finely tuned budget in which, for example, such policies as the child-rearing allowance are boldly reviewed while spending that would help underpin the country's economy is increased.
 子ども手当などの政策を大胆に見直し、景気下支えに役立つ歳出を手厚くするなど、メリハリのきいた予算を作るべきだろう。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Sept. 19, 2010)
(2010年9月19日01時15分  読売新聞)

New Cabinet must tackle economy first

The Yomiuri Shimbun (Sep. 19, 2010)
New Cabinet must tackle economy first
菅改造内閣 まず景気回復に全力を挙げよ(9月18日付・読売社説)

Prime Minister Naoto Kan's reshuffled Cabinet was launched Friday.
 菅改造内閣が17日、発足した。

Kan retained five Cabinet members, including Yoshito Sengoku in the central post of chief cabinet secretary and Yoshihiko Noda, who emphasizes fiscal reconstruction, as finance minister. However, the prime minister made new appointments for the 12 other posts, including those of health, labor and welfare minister and economy, trade and industry minister.
 内閣の要である仙谷由人官房長官、財政再建重視の野田佳彦財務相ら5閣僚を留任させる一方、厚生労働相や経済産業相など12ポストは新たに選任した。

With this major shift in its lineup, the new Cabinet must boldly tackle a number of domestic and diplomatic issues.  内閣の陣容を大幅に入れ替えたのを機に、内政・外交の諸課題の解決に、果断に取り組まなければならない。

First and foremost should be measures to address the rising yen and the flagging economy.
 真っ先に対応すべきは円高・景気対策である。

As a result of monetary authorities recently making their first market intervention in 6-1/2 years, the sharp appreciation of the yen has been stemmed for the time being. But there should be no optimism about what is to come.
 6年半ぶりの為替介入で円高の流れにひとまず歯止めがかかっているが、予断は許さない。

Finance Minister Noda must make the utmost effort, in close cooperation with the Bank of Japan, to prevent appreciation in the yen's value.
野田財務相は、日銀と緊密に連携し、円高阻止に全力を挙げてほしい。

===

Put growth strategy on track
 ◆成長戦略を軌道に◆

Kan intends to craft a supplementary budget for this fiscal year that includes additional stimulus measures. Given the uncertain economic outlook, this is a reasonable decision.
 菅首相は、追加の経済対策を盛り込んだ今年度補正予算を編成する意向だ。景気の先行き不安を考えれば妥当な判断である。

It also is essential to have a growth strategy to invigorate private companies and increase their international competitiveness. Cabinet ministers in charge of economic affairs must exercise leadership so the government-launched Council on the Realization of the New Growth Strategy can fully function.
 企業の活力を引き出し、国際競争力を高める成長戦略も大事だ。先に政府が発足させた「新成長戦略実現会議」が十分に機能するよう、関係の経済閣僚は、指導力を発揮しなければならない。

Budget requests made by ministries for the next fiscal year total more than 96 trillion yen, far exceeding this fiscal year's budget. The state's finances are tight, so the budget requests must be reduced. But if that causes the economy to cool down further, the loss to the nation would be even greater.
 来年度予算編成に向けた各府省の要求総額は96兆円超と、今年度予算額を大きく上回っている。財政事情は厳しく、要求の絞り込みが課題となるが、景気を冷え込ませては元も子もない。

Regional economies are in dire straits. Funding should be increased for projects that could stimulate the economy and create new jobs. It is important to employ a selective, focused strategy in budget compilation.
 地方の経済は疲弊している。景気を刺激し、新たな雇用創出が期待できる事業には、むしろ予算を増やす「選択と集中」が大切だ。

It is the handout policy measures included in the Democratic Party of Japan's manifesto for last year's House of Representatives election that must be drastically revised. Little economic benefit can be expected from such measures as child-rearing allowances and toll-free expressways.
 経済効果が期待できない子ども手当や高速道路無料化など、衆院選政権公約によるバラマキ政策こそ大幅に見直すべきだ。

To improve fiscal conditions and secure a stable revenue source for social security spending, raising the consumption tax rate is inevitable.
 財政の健全化と社会保障費の安定財源確保には、消費税率の引き上げが避けて通れない。

Kan has called for suprapartisan discussions on the consumption tax and social security. He needs to urge opposition parties to start such discussions soon.
 菅首相はかねて、消費税問題や社会保障に関する超党派協議を唱えてきた。野党側に働きかけ、早期に協議入りする必要がある。

In the extraordinary Diet session that is expected to be convened in October, it is vital to obtain cooperation from the Liberal Democratic Party and other opposition parties under the divided Diet, where the ruling camp has a majority in the lower house while the opposition camp controls the House of Councillors.
 10月召集予定の臨時国会は、衆参ねじれ状況の下、自民党など野党の協力が欠かせない。

LDP Secretary General Nobuteru Ishihara has been receptive to the idea of suprapartisan talks. But he maintains they will not take place as long as the DPJ continues its handout measures, and has set revision or withdrawal of these pledges as a condition for beginning suprapartisan talks. This is only natural.
 自民党の石原伸晃幹事長は、協議に前向きな姿勢を示している。だが、「民主党がバラマキを続けている限りはだめだ」とし、政権公約の修正・撤回が協議入りの前提としている。当然のことだ。

Kan should bring about suprapartisan talks by drastically reviewing the policy pledges. Doing so also would pave the way for the formation of policy-based partial alliances between ruling and opposition parties.
 菅首相は、政権公約を大胆に見直すことで、超党派協議を実現すべきだ。それが、政策ごとに与野党が協力する部分連合への道を開くことにもなろう。

The post of foreign minister was given to Seiji Maehara, who previously served as land, infrastructure, transport and tourism minister. The previous foreign minister, Katsuya Okada, is now DPJ secretary general.
 党幹事長に転じた岡田克也外相の後任には、前原誠司前国土交通相が横滑りした。

===

National interests key
 ◆国益踏まえた外交を◆

Maehara, who is well versed in security affairs, has many personal connections with pro-Japan experts in the United States. He apparently was seen as a good choice to heal the bilateral relations damaged under the administration of former Prime Minister Yukio Hatoyama.
 安全保障通の前原氏は、米国の知日派にも多くの人脈を持つ。鳩山前内閣で亀裂が入った対米関係を改善するうえで適任とみなされての起用だろう。

We expect Maehara to make every possible effort, together with Defense Minister Toshimi Kitazawa, to realize the relocation of the U.S. Marine Corps' Futenma Air Station within Okinawa Prefecture as agreed by the two governments in May.
 留任した北沢俊美防衛相とともに、5月の日米合意に沿って米軍普天間飛行場の移設実現に全力で取り組んでほしい。

China has acted in a high-handed manner following an incident in which a Chinese trawler collided with Japan Coast Guard patrol vessels in waters off the Senkaku Islands in the East China Sea earlier this month. Maehara has taken a tough stance on China's military buildup ever since his days as head of the DPJ, and we hope that in relations with China he will assert what needs to be asserted, based on careful consideration of this country's interests.
 尖閣沖漁船衝突事件では、中国は高圧的な姿勢をみせている。前原氏は党代表時代から、中国の軍事力増強について厳しい見方をしてきた。対中外交は、国益をしっかりと踏まえ、主張すべきは主張する姿勢で臨んでもらいたい。

Furthermore, the relationship between the government and political parties must be rebuilt, as must that between politicians and bureaucrats.
 政府と党の関係や「政と官」のあり方についても、立て直しが急務である。

The former Hatoyama Cabinet did not have sufficient communications with key members of the ruling party, and its decision-making process was chaotic as policies were approved and then reversed a number of times.
 鳩山前内閣では、内閣と党の意思疎通を欠き、いったん決まった方針が二転三転するなど、政策決定に乱れが生じていた。

Koichiro Gemba, who doubles as state minister in charge of national policy and chairman of the DPJ's Policy Research Committee, must act as a bridge between the DPJ and the Cabinet.
 国家戦略相を兼務する玄葉光一郎政調会長は、党の政策調査会と内閣との橋渡し役をしっかり務める必要があろう。

Non-lawmaker Yoshihiro Katayama was appointed internal affairs and communications minister. Katayama, a former Home Affairs Ministry bureaucrat, worked to increase administrative transparency when he served as governor of Tottori Prefecture, and as a private-sector member of the Government Revitalization Unit, he has actively called for reform of the civil service.
 非議員ながら総務相に抜擢(ばってき)された、旧自治省出身の片山善博前鳥取県知事は、知事時代に行政の透明化に取り組んだ。政府の行政刷新会議では、公務員改革について積極的に発信している。

Relations between politicians and bureaucrats under the DPJ-led government always have been awkward. If politicians fail to listen to bureaucrats' opinions and advice and discourage their enthusiasm by misconstruing the true meaning of politician-led government affairs, they will end up with a stagnant administration.
 民主党政権における政官関係は絶えずぎくしゃくしてきた。「政治主導」の意味を履き違えて、官僚の進言に耳を貸さなかったり、官僚のやる気をそいだりするのでは、行政の停滞を招く。

All the Cabinet members must be firmly committed to utilizing bureaucrats in ways that bring out the best of the bureaucrats' capabilities.
 改造内閣の各閣僚は、霞が関の官僚たちの能力を最大限引き出すため、官僚を使いこなす姿勢に徹してもらいたい。

===

Intraparty struggle remains
 ◆残った党内抗争の火種◆

The reshuffled Cabinet and DPJ leadership do not include anyone from the intraparty group led by former DPJ leader Ichiro Ozawa, who lost to Kan in the recent party presidential election.
 今回の内閣・党役員人事では、首相が党代表の座を争った小沢一郎元代表のグループからは一人も起用されなかった。

Many in the Ozawa group are junior lawmakers. Kan intends to appoint a number of Ozawa group members as senior vice ministers and parliamentary secretaries to establish party unity.
 小沢グループは若手議員が多数を占めている。首相としては、副大臣や政務官に積極的に登用し、挙党態勢を築きたい考えだ。

But Ozawa refused to take the post of DPJ acting president offered by Kan. Ozawa apparently is determined to act as an intraparty opposition force, expecting Kan's administration to get bogged down soon or later.
 ただ、小沢氏は、首相が要請した党代表代行への就任を断った。菅政権がいずれ行き詰まるとみて「党内野党」の立場に徹するつもりなのだろう。

As the seeds of intraparty conflict remain, Kan will have difficulty steering the administration.
 党内抗争の火種を抱え、菅首相は引き続き、厳しい政権運営を迫られることになる。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Sept. 18, 2010)
(2010年9月18日01時33分  読売新聞)

facebook

Recently, I’m making comments on the postings of President Obama in facebook. I’ve realized reaction on my comments is quicker than that one in Japan. (It is slower in Japan.) I’m satisfied with the reaction, as I think my posting in English is accepted. Around two years ago, my posting for an American discussion forum was hated and rejected, because of lack of vocabulary in English as well as lack of American and European thinking way. Now it seems to me that I’ve already got rid of the difficulty. It is only concerning about English, but English! I’ve got impressed with the reaction made by foreigners. Thank you very much.
(srachai from khonkaen, thailand)

ここのところ毎日facebookでオバマ大統領の投稿にはたいていコメントしています。海外よりの反応は日本より素早いですね。(日本は遅いです)多分私の英語を受け入れてもらったものだと感激しています。2年前にはアメリカ人の経営するディスカッションフォーラムで英語力のなさと欧米の価値観から逸脱した私の投稿は袋叩きにあった経験があります。今では歓迎されるようになっています。たかが英語されど英語。海外よりの励ましはグット胸に迫りました。ありがとうございます。
(スラチャイ記、コンケンの自宅にて)


photo by srachai from OCNフォトフレンド

Coexistence means fighting cultural frictions

The Yomiuri Shimbun (Sep. 18, 2010)
Coexistence means fighting cultural frictions
排外主義の台頭 異文化とどう共生していくか(9月17日付・読売社説)

The burqa, an enveloping outer garment, and the niqab, a veil covering the face, are worn by devout Muslim women.
 敬虔(けいけん)なイスラム教徒女性が身に着ける衣装に、顔も体も覆い隠すブルカやニカブがある。

The French legislature has passed a bill banning women from wearing this type of clothing in public places.
これを公共の場で着用するのを禁止する法律が、フランスで成立した。

The law, prepared by the French government, will take effect in six months unless objections are raised by the Constitutional Council, an organ tasked with examining the constitutionality of laws.
 違憲立法審査機関が異議を唱えなければ半年後に施行される。

Protagonists of the burqa-niqab ban have said wearing these garments runs counter to the principle of separation of church and state, and to the emancipation of women.
 禁止の理由は、ブルカが厳格な政教分離や女性解放の理念に反するからだという。

President Nicolas Sarkozy's government has continued to send Roma back to such countries as Romania since summer. His administration is also considering revoking French nationality for immigrants found guilty of committing major crimes.
 法案を準備したサルコジ政権は今夏以来、ルーマニアなどからやって来たロマ人を強制送還しているほか、重罪を犯した移民の国籍剥奪(はくだつ)も検討している。

Sarkozy's strong measures, including his crackdown on Roma communities, are a response to street disturbances by groups of young Roma and immigrants. However, the president continues to be accused of trying to resurrect his slumping popularity through these harsh measures, with a view to being reelected president in 2012.
 ロマ人や移民の若者グループが暴動を起こしたためだが、2012年の大統領選を見据えた人気回復策だ、との批判は絶えない。

Violation of EU rules

France's expulsion of Roma, also known as Gypsies, has drawn fire from other European Union nations on the grounds that it violates the rule of freedom of movement within the bloc. However, a majority of French people support the Roma expulsion and burqa ban.
 かつてジプシーと呼ばれたロマ人の追放には、欧州連合(EU)内でも、EUの基本原則「域内の移動の自由」の侵害だ、と批判が起きている。しかし、仏国民の大半は、追放にもブルカ禁止にも賛成している。

If Sarkozy is merely trying to please the public through his antiforeigner policy, it is a sad commentary on France's national motto of liberty, equality and fraternity.
 そんな世論に迎合した排外政策だとしたら、フランスが掲げる「自由・平等・友愛」の理念が泣くのではないか。

France is not the only country that apparently has become intolerant of immigrants and other minorities.
 移民や少数派に非寛容になったのはフランスだけではない。

The Sept. 11, 2001, terrorist attacks on the United States have led many Americans and Europeans to view Muslims with fear and suspicion.
 欧米諸国では、9年前の米同時テロ事件で、イスラム教徒を見る目に恐怖と猜疑(さいぎ)心が加わった。

Recent fiscal crises gripping some European countries, combined with a rise in unemployment, have triggered an even stronger antipathy toward immigrants. This is exemplified by ultrarightist parties making major gains in Dutch and Hungarian elections earlier this year after calling for restrictions on Muslim immigrants and a crackdown on Roma.
 欧州では最近の財政危機や失業率の増加で、移民に対する風当たりはさらに強くなった。オランダやハンガリーで今年前半、イスラム教徒排斥やロマ人の取り締まり強化を叫ぶ極右政党が選挙で大躍進したのは、その一例である。

Rise in xenophobia

The anti-burqa movement is also gathering momentum in Belgium and Spain. Italy has also has set its sights on expelling Roma.
 ブルカ禁止の動きはベルギーやスペインでも進む。ロマ人追放にはイタリアも乗り出した。

In early September, a board member of Germany's federal bank was dismissed for repeating racist remarks about Muslim immigrants and Jews. According to a survey, only about 30 percent of Germans thought the banker should be fired.
 ドイツでは、イスラム教徒移民やユダヤ人に対する差別的発言を繰り返した連邦銀行理事が今月初めに解任されたが、解任を支持する声は約3割にとどまった。

The rise in xenophobic sentiment also is noticeable in the United States, a melting pot for immigrants. Divisions have deepened among Americans over a plan to build a mosque and Islamic center near New York's Ground Zero. Several days ago, a Florida pastor opposing the mosque construction plan stirred up an international furor when he vowed to burn copies of the Koran.
 移民大国の米国でも、米同時テロ跡地近くにイスラム教礼拝堂を建設する計画をめぐって、賛成派と反対派の亀裂が深まっている。反対派の牧師がイスラム教の聖典コーランを焼却すると宣言して、世界を騒然とさせた。

The ongoing process of globalization obliges people to live with those who adhere to different religious faiths, manners and customs. Japan is no exception.
 グローバル化が進む今、信仰や習俗の異なる人々との共生は避けて通れない。それは、日本も例外ではない。

The coexistence of different cultures also requires efforts by immigrants and other minorities to assimilate into the communities they live in. A society that accepts such minorities must fight cultural frictions that give rise to antiforeigner sentiments.
 異文化との共生には、移民など少数派が既存社会に溶け込む努力も欠かせない。受け入れる側には文化摩擦の中で起きる排外主義と闘う責任があろう。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Sept. 17, 2010)
(2010年9月17日01時34分  読売新聞)

China shouldn't stir up anti-Japanese sentiment

The Yomiuri Shimbun (Sep. 17, 2010)
China shouldn't stir up anti-Japanese sentiment
尖閣沖漁船衝突 中国は「反日」沈静化に努めよ(9月16日付・読売社説)

China has taken a strikingly hard line over Japan's handling of the recent collisions of a Chinese fishing trawler with two Japan Coast Guard patrol vessels off the Senkaku Islands in the East China Sea.
 尖閣諸島沖の中国漁船衝突事件で、中国の強硬姿勢が目立っている。

China has protested five times to Japanese Ambassador to China Uichiro Niwa over the arrest of the trawler's captain. China also unilaterally canceled talks on a pact covering joint gas field development in the East China Sea and a scheduled visit to Japan by Li Jianguo, vice chairman of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress.
 中国人船長の逮捕に対し、丹羽宇一郎駐中国大使への中国側の抗議は5度にわたった。東シナ海のガス田共同開発に向けた条約交渉や、全国人民代表大会副委員長の訪日も一方的にとりやめた。

In particular, the summons of Niwa by Chinese State Councillor Dai Bingguo, a deputy prime minister-level official, in the middle of the night on a holiday flies in the face of diplomatic protocol.
 特に、副首相級の戴秉国国務委員が休日の未明に大使を呼び出したのは、外交儀礼的に問題のある対応だ。

China's postponement of the gas field talks, which has no direct link with the ship collisions, is an overreaction. We strongly urge China to exercise self-restraint.
事件と直接関係のないガス田交渉まで絡めることも行き過ぎである。中国には自制した対応を強く求めたい。

Japan in the right

The collisions occurred in Japanese waters off the Senkaku Islands, which are inherently Japanese. It is quite reasonable for Japan to deal with illegal activities in these waters in accordance with domestic law.
 事件が起きた海域は、日本固有の領土である尖閣諸島沖の日本領海内だ。違法行為を日本の国内法で裁くのは当然である。

China is mistaken if it thinks Japan will buckle to China's demands if it plays hardball.
 中国が、強い態度に出れば日本側が折れてくると考えているのなら、それは誤りだ。

Since the 1970s, China has claimed the Senkaku Islands belong to China. It has instilled this belief among its people through "anti-Japanese patriotism" education since the 1990s.
 中国は、1970年代から尖閣諸島を中国の領土だと主張し、それを90年代からの「反日・愛国」教育で国民に浸透させてきた。

If Chinese people get the impression that their government is "weak-kneed," it could ignite simmering public discontent over the country's economic disparities and other ills, which could escalate into anger directed at the Chinese Communist Party leadership.
 尖閣問題で「政府は弱腰」との印象を与えれば、国内経済格差などへの不平や不満に“引火”し、中国国民の矛先が共産党指導部に向けられかねない――。

This fear has apparently driven the Chinese government to take a high-handed stance toward Japan over the collisions. But we think Beijing is barking up the wrong tree.
 そんな懸念もあって、中国政府は今回、日本に高圧的な態度をとっているのだろう。だが、それは明らかに筋が違う話だ。

Online bulletin boards in China have been increasingly used to post extreme messages encouraging retaliatory attacks on Japan. Japanese living in China have been harassed, and small metallic balls were fired at a Japanese school building in Tianjin.
 インターネット上では、日本への報復攻撃を促すなど過激な書き込みが増えている。天津市の日本人学校では、パチンコ玉状の金属球が撃ち込まれるなど、在留邦人への嫌がらせも起き始めた。

Level heads needed

The Japanese government on Monday sent members of the fishing boat crew, except for the captain, back to China, together with the vessel.
 日本政府は13日、船長以外の船員を帰国させ、漁船も返した。

We hoped China would applaud this attempt by the Japanese government to take some of the sting out of the situation. However, China has proclaimed the crew and vessel were returned "due to the united action taken by the Chinese government and its people." Beijing has used Japan's gesture to earn brownie points with the public.
そうした抑制的な対応を評価するならともかく、中国は「政府と国民の一体行動の成果」と喧伝(けんでん)し、国内世論対策に利用している。

This will only inflame "anti-Japanese" sentiment among Chinese people. We urge the Chinese government to defuse such sentiment and prevent a recurrence of the 2005 "anti-Japanese riots."
 これでは、「反日」世論は過熱するばかりだ。中国は、2005年の「反日」暴動を再来させることのないよう、国内世論の沈静化に努めるべきだ。

We also hope the Japanese side will continue to keep a level head. That being said, the government must not hesitate to refute inaccurate Chinese media reports, such as the claim that JCG patrol vessels "crashed into the fishing boat from behind."
 日本側は冷静な対応に徹してほしい。ただ、海上保安庁の巡視船が「漁船に追突した」と、中国メディアが事実を曲げて報じていることには反論する必要がある。

The JCG videotaped the fishing boat intentionally colliding with two patrol vessels. However, the JCG has not released the tapes because it might need to submit them as evidence in court should the incident become a criminal case.
 海保は、漁船が故意に衝突させた場面をビデオ撮影している。刑事裁判になれば証拠資料として提出する可能性があるため、公表を控えている。

If it becomes apparent that the captain was at fault, it may soothe public anger in China. Perhaps making the videotape public would be one way to achieve this.
 だが、船長に非があることが明白になれば、中国国内世論を落ち着かせるのに役立とう。ビデオを公開するのも一案ではないか。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Sept. 16, 2010)
(2010年9月16日01時27分  読売新聞)

unwelcoming fx intervention

こんな無法が許されてよいものだろうか。これ一発でトヨタとホンダだけで数千億円の利益を計上できるはずだ。非居住者で年金をたよりにつつましやかに生活している世界中の人々は一瞬にして受給額が数パーセントの減額となる厳しい現実。なにより欧米への外交的配慮を全く欠いた今回の奇襲攻撃、やがて手痛いしっぺ返しをうけるのは明白だ。そもそも政府は常々急激な為替変動は健全な経済発展に重大な悪影響を及ぼすと述べていた。これが急激な為替変動でなくてなんであろうか。ひどい話だ。


photo by srachai from OCNフォトフレンド

jpy/usd fx prospect

日本政府日銀の為替介入の効果は一時しのぎにすぎない。円高への加速が多少弱まるだけだ。アジア諸国が日本のまねをして介入の動き。しかしながら円高の真の要因はまったく払拭されていない。今年の末には日本政府の執拗な介入にもかかわらず、80yen/$となる見込み。

Japanese FX Intervention
Wed, Sep 15 2010, 08:53 GMT
by Mitul Kotecha

The Bank of Japan acting on the behest of the Ministry of Finance intervened to weaken the JPY, the first such action since 2004. The intervention came as the USD was under broad based pressure, with the USD index dropping below its 200-day moving average. USD/JPY dropped to a low of around 82.88 before Japan intervened to weaken the JPY. The move follows weeks of verbal intervention by the Japanese authorities and came on the heels of the DPJ leadership election in which Prime Minister Kan retained his leadership.

One thing is for certain that Japanese exporters had become increasingly concerned, pained and vocal about JPY strength at a time when export momentum was waning. However, the move in USD/JPY may simply provide many local corporates with better levels to hedge their exposures.

Time will tell whether the intervention succeeds in engineering a sustainable weakening in the JPY but more likely it will only result in smoothing the drop in USD/JPY over coming months along the lines of what has happened with the SNB interventions in EUR/CHF. As many central banks have seen in the past successful intervention is usually helped if the market is turning and in this case USD/JPY remains on a downward trajectory.

Although the BoJ Governor Shirakawa said that the action should “contribute to a stable foreign exchange-rate formation” it is far from clear that the BoJ favoured FX intervention. Indeed, the view from the BoJ is that the move in USD/JPY is related less to Japanese fundamentals but more to US problems.

Now that the door is open, further intervention is likely over coming days and weeks but for it to be effective it will require 1) doubts about US growth to recede, 2) speculation of Fed QE 2 to dissipate, 3) and consequently interest rate differentials, in particular bond yields between the US and Japan to widen in favour of the USD. This is unlikely to happen quickly, especially given continued speculation of further US quantitative easing. A final prerequisite to a higher USD/JPY which is related to the easing of some of the above concerns is for there to be an improvement in risk appetite as any increase in risk aversion continues to result in JPY buying.

When viewed from the perspective of Asian currencies the Japanese intervention has put Japan in line with other Asian central banks which have been intervening to weaken their currencies. However, Asian central bank intervention has merely slowed the appreciation in regional currencies, and Japan may have to be satisfied with a similar result. Japan’s intervention may however, give impetus to Asian central banks to intervene more aggressively but the result will be the same, i.e. slowing rather then stemming appreciation.

As for the JPY a further strengthening, with a move to around 80.00 is likely by year end despite the more aggressive intervention stance. Over the short term there will at least be much greater two-way risk, which will keep market nervous, especially if as is likely Japan follows up with further interventions. USD/JPY could test resistance around 85.23, and then 85.92 soon but eventually markets may call Japan’s bluff and the intervention may just end up putting a red flag in front of currency markets to challenge.

Published on  Wed, Sep 15 2010, 08:54 GMT

After a bruising battle, Kan faces tough tasks

The Yomiuri Shimbun (Sep. 16, 2010)
After a bruising battle, Kan faces tough tasks
菅代表再選 円高と景気対策に挙党態勢を(9月15日付・読売社説)

Prime Minister Naoto Kan defeated Ichiro Ozawa, former secretary general of the Democratic Party of Japan, by a significant margin in the party presidential election Tuesday following a hard-fought battle that has opened a rift in the party.
 党内を二分する激戦となった民主党代表選は、菅首相が小沢一郎前幹事長を大差で破った。

The confusion in the party, which followed the major defeat it suffered in the House of Councillors election in July, has effectively created a political vacuum in the nation. It cannot be denied that the situation has caused national policies to stagnate and has smothered the nation's politics in a sense of helplessness.
 7月の参院選敗北に続く民主党内の混乱は、事実上の政治空白を生み、国政全体に停滞と閉塞(へいそく)感をもたらしてきたことは間違いない。

During the intraparty struggle, the government fell one step behind in dealing with the yen's rapid appreciation and the flagging economy. This was widely noticed.
 この間、円高・経済対策では政府の対応が後手に回り、反応の鈍さも目立った。

Kan should immediately form his new Cabinet, appoint new party executives and exert leadership in implementing economic stimulus measures and drafting the fiscal 2011 budget.
 菅首相は、すみやかに内閣・党役員人事を断行して態勢を整え、景気対策や来年度予算編成に全力をあげねばならない。

Scandal held Ozawa back
 ◆資金疑惑響いた小沢氏◆

Kan's victory, however, owes a lot to the "weak points" of his opponent, Ozawa.
 菅首相の勝利は、対立候補の小沢氏が抱えていた多くの「弱点」に救われた面が大きい。

In connection with scandals involving his political funds management organization, his former secretaries were arrested and indicted. He resigned as party secretary general right before the upper house election.
 自らの資金管理団体の政治資金規正法違反事件で元秘書らが逮捕・起訴された小沢氏は、参院選前に幹事長を辞職したばかりだ。

In the party leadership race, former Prime Minister Yukio Hatoyama, who was also involved in a politics-and-money scandal and had resigned as prime minister, threw his support behind the DPJ heavyweight. It was a renewed challenge by the Ozawa-Hatoyama duo toward the party leadership, a move that most observers found hard to understand. It was natural that many non-lawmaker party members and registered supporters did not accept them.
 今回の代表選は、同じく「政治とカネ」の問題を抱えて辞任した鳩山前首相の支援を受けての「小鳩」による不可解な再挑戦だった。多くの党員・サポーターが受け入れなかったのは当然だろう。

In connection with the scandal, an inquest of prosecution committee is scheduled to decide in October--for the second time--whether Ozawa should be indicted in connection with a suspicious land purchase by his political funds management group.
 小沢氏の「政治とカネ」の問題では、10月にも検察審査会が再度の議決を行う予定だ。

When Ozawa was asked what he would do if the independent panel decides that he merits the indictment and he is prosecuted, he clearly stated he would neither leave the party nor resign as Diet member, indicating that he planned to fight the charges in court.
そこで「起訴すべき」との議決が出され、強制起訴になった場合、小沢氏は「離党も辞職もしない」と明言し、司法の場で争う考えを示した。

However, Ozawa has failed to fulfill his responsibility to explain his politics-and-money problems. His remarks undoubtedly aroused opposition and doubt among many party members.
 しかし、「政治とカネ」の問題で説明責任を果たそうとしてこなかった小沢氏のこの発言には、多くの党員が、反発や疑問を抱いたに相違ない。

In the end, one factor behind Ozawa's defeat in the presidential election was the possibility that the country might have ended up with a prime minister who was on trial in a criminal case.
 結局、「刑事被告人の首相」になる可能性があったことも、小沢氏敗北の一因といえる。

Passive support to Kan
 ◆首相への支持は消極的◆

However, much of the support Kan received in the presidential election was passive. In other words, many of his supporters apparently did not want to have yet another prime minister barely three months after Kan assumed the post, or the third prime minister within a year.
 代表選での首相への支持は消極的なものに過ぎない。党内抗争によって、政権を担当して3か月余で首相が交代したり、1年間に3人目の首相が生まれたりするのは避けたい、という理由だ。

Kan and Ozawa staged a neck and neck battle for votes by Diet members, suggesting that there are deep-rooted frustrations over the prime minister's management of his administration.
 国会議員の獲得票では、首相と小沢氏がほぼ互角だったことは、党内に首相の政権運営に根強い不満があることを示している。

How does Kan intend to handle the divided Diet, in which the ruling bloc controls the House of Representatives while the opposition camp holds a majority in the upper house? And how will he reunite his party, which was split in the presidential election?
 菅首相は一体、衆参ねじれ国会をどう乗り切り、代表選で亀裂の入った党をどう修復して「挙党態勢」を築くのか。

During the presidential election campaign, Kan failed to present clear strategies on how to overcome such problems, simply insisting that it would be possible to form a consensus through "careful" and "modest" discussions in the divided Diet.
 代表選で首相は、ねじれ国会でも、「丁寧に謙虚に議論していけば合意形成は可能だ」などと述べるだけで、確たる戦略を示すことが出来なかった。

In a speech after his reelection as party leader, he sought cooperation from party members. "To form a united party in which all party members will be able to fully exert their power now that the game is over and there are no sides, I ask for your support," he said.
 首相は再選が決まった後の挨拶(あいさつ)で「ノーサイドで全員が力をフルに発揮できる挙党態勢のために協力をお願いする」と表明した。

If Kan opts for a troika system by appointing Ozawa and Hatoyama to key Cabinet or party posts, it may end up creating a dual power structure, just as in the Hatoyama administration. We urge the prime minister not to repeat that mistake. He must appoint the right people to the right positions to decisively implement policies.
 仮に小沢氏や鳩山前首相を要職で起用する「トロイカ体制」を組むとすれば、鳩山前内閣同様の二重権力体制を生むことになりかねない。失敗を繰り返すことなく、適材適所で政策を果断に遂行できる布陣で臨むべきだ。

Now that the party leadership race is over, it is anticipated that Ozawa's supporters will intensify moves to shake the administration not only in personnel affairs but also in budget compilation and other policy matters. Some may even try to break away from the party.
 今後、人事だけでなく、予算編成など政策面でも、小沢支持派による揺さぶりが強まり、離反の動きが出ることも予想される。

The prime minister is highly likely to face difficult political situations, in which he has to confront the Liberal Democratic Party and other opposition parties on one hand while dealing with the "intraparty opposition group" formed by Ozawa's supporters on the other.
 首相が、前面に自民党などの野党と、後方に小沢支持派の「党内野党」とそれぞれ対峙(たいじ)する局面も大いにありえよう。

In addition, Kan has to deal with a full political agenda.
 菅首相が取り組むべき政策課題は数多い。

As for the consumption tax rate hike, the prime minister has toned down his recent stance on the issue compared with what he said in the upper house election campaign. "We'll discuss the future of social security services together with fiscal resources. It'll be important to discuss the consumption tax in that process," he said during the presidential election campaign.
 消費税率引き上げ問題について首相は、代表選で「社会保障のあり方を財源と一体で議論する。その中で消費税の議論をすることが重要」などと述べ、参院選時より発言をトーンダウンさせた。

However, if he adopts the "once bitten, twice shy" approach, he will unlikely be able to restore this country's public finances, which is one of his key policies.
 「羹(あつもの)に懲りて膾(なます)を吹く」という姿勢では、自らの看板政策である財政再建は果たせまい。

The prime minister should expedite efforts to call on the LDP and other parties for suprapartisan negotiations to lay the groundwork for a consumption tax hike in the near future.
 首相は、自民党などに超党派協議を呼びかけ、近い将来の消費税率引き上げに向けた環境整備を急ぐべきである。

Reevaluate election pledges
 ◆公約を大胆に見直せ◆

In the presidential election campaign, Ozawa called for sticking to the pledges the party made for the lower house election last year. However, his defeat indicates that his argument had been rejected.
 衆院選政権公約(マニフェスト)への原点回帰を唱える小沢氏の主張は、結果として否定されることになった。

Japan's fiscal condition is the worst among the major industrialized countries. To meet the fiscal 2010 budget, the government has been forced to issue bonds in an amount greater than its tax revenues. Given the situation, we believe there is no room for the government to continue the handout policies outlined in its manifesto, especially since no economic effects can be expected from such measures.
 日本の財政は、今年度予算で税収を上回る国債を発行せざるを得ないなど、主要国で最悪の状況にある。経済効果も期待できない政権公約によるバラマキ政策を続ける余裕はないはずだ。

The government therefore must drastically review the child-rearing allowance program and the plan to make expressways toll-free in the fiscal 2011 budget compilation.
 来年度予算編成では、子ども手当、高速道路無料化などの政策は大胆に見直す必要がある。

In the middle of the presidential election campaign, the prime minister ordered the relevant government offices to consider lowering effective corporate tax rates, which are high by international standards. The step is necessary to boost Japanese companies' potential power and raise their international competitiveness. The government must put this measure into practice in the tax system reform for the next fiscal year.
 首相は代表選のさなか、国際的に高い法人税の実効税率引き下げの検討を指示した。企業活力を引き出し、国際競争力を高めるためにも必要な施策だ。来年度の税制改正でぜひ実現させるべきだ。

As for the relocation of the U.S. Marine Corps' Futenma Air Station in Okinawa Prefecture, Ozawa suggested reviewing the Japan-U.S. agreement reached in May under the Hatoyama administration, exposing the fact that the DPJ is significantly divided over security policies.
 米軍普天間飛行場の移設問題では、小沢氏が5月の日米合意の見直しに含みを持たせ、民主党政権内に安全保障政策で大きな違いがあることを露呈させた。

As soon as possible, Kan should dispel U.S. concerns that may have been generated by Ozawa's remarks and start full-fledged coordination with Okinawa Prefecture and the United States in line with the Japan-U.S. agreement.
 首相は、小沢氏の発言がもたらした米側の懸念を早期に払拭(ふっしょく)するとともに、日米合意に基づいて沖縄や米国との調整を本格化させる必要があろう。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Sept. 15, 2010)
(2010年9月15日01時53分  読売新聞)

プロフィール

srachai

自己紹介・リンク

■近況

2009年の9月15日に脳梗塞を発症、右手が少し不自由になりました。
MRAで脳梗塞の部位を特定でき、素早い処置をとれたので大事に至りませんでした。
快復にむけてリハビリ中です。
(2011/01/01更新)

■自己紹介・リンク

[ はじめに ]
タイのスラチャイです。
英語学習に王道はありません。
毎日毎日の地道な努力の積み重ねが必要です。
スラチャイはNHKのラジオ英語会話で現在の英語力を身につけました。
一日僅か15分の学習でも数年間継続すれば相当な学習効果が期待できます。

[ 名前 ]
松井 清 (スラチャイ)

[ 略歴 ]
・福岡県出身
・国立高知大学卒業
・準大手建設会社に就職
・50歳で会社を早期退職
・99/10 タイ全土を旅行
・00/10 タイに移住
・03/07 カイちゃん誕生
・07/06 シーファーちゃん誕生
・現在タイ国コンケン在住

[ 座右の銘 ]
Slow and steady wins the race.
遅くとも着実な者が勝利する
(NHK基礎英語芹沢栄先生)

[ 学習の手引き ]
・音読して耳から英語を吸収
・Think in English.
・ネイティブ発音付辞書活用
・英英辞典を活用(英和も)
・翻訳和文で専門用語確認

[ English Newspapers ]
Yomiuri
Mainichi
Asahi
Japan Times
Washington Post
Newyork Times
Bangkok Post
The Nations
Phuket Gazette

[ 英字新聞の英和対訳学習 ]
英字新聞(読売)
英字新聞(毎日)
英字新聞(朝日)
英字新聞(朝日2)

[ スラチャイ編集の辞書 ]
タイ日辞書(改訂版)
日タイ辞書(改訂版)
ラオ日辞書
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スラチャイの多国言語学習
初歩のタイ語
初歩の中国語
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初歩のビルマ語
初歩のシンハリ語
初歩のタガログ語

タイ語の基礎
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タイ語の副詞
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基礎タイ語一覧(タイ文字、ローマ字)
seesaaサイト内リンク一覧:
01 あいさつ
02 別れのあいさつ
03 声をかけるとき
04 感謝の言葉と答え方
05 謝罪の言葉と答え方
06 聞き直すとき
07 相手の言うことがわからないとき
08 うまく言えないとき
09 一般的なあいづち
10 よくわからないときの返事
11 強めのあいづち
12 自分について述べるとき
13 相手のことを尋ねるとき
14 頼みごとをするとき
15 申し出・依頼を断るとき
16 許可を求めるとき
17 説明してもらうとき
18 確認を求めるとき
19 状況を知りたいとき
20 値段の尋ね方と断り方
21 急いでもらいたいとき
22 待ってもらいたいとき
23 日時・場所・天候を尋ねるとき
24 その他

基礎タイ語一覧(タイ文字、音声付き)
サイト外HPリンク一覧:
01 あいさつ
02 別れのあいさつ
03 声をかけるとき
04 感謝の言葉と答え方
05 謝罪の言葉と答え方
06 聞き直すとき
07 相手の言うことがわからないとき
08 うまく言えないとき
09 一般的なあいづち
10 よくわからないときの返事
11 強めのあいづち
12 自分について述べるとき
13 相手のことを尋ねるとき
14 頼みごとをするとき
15 申し出・依頼を断るとき
16 許可を求めるとき
17 説明してもらうとき
18 確認を求めるとき
19 状況を知りたいとき
20 値段の尋ね方と断り方
21 急いでもらいたいとき
22 待ってもらいたいとき
23 日時・場所・天候を尋ねるとき
24 その他

タイの文化一覧:
01 雨の日にも傘をささないタイ人
02 勉強熱心なタイ人女性たち
03 タイ人は敬謙な仏教徒
04 タイの市場
05 タイの食堂
06 タイ人は外食が大好き
07 果物王国タイランド
08 タイ人の誕生日
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[ HPリンク ]
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fc2 家族のアルバム
初歩の日本語(タイ人学生向け)
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ラオ日・日老辞書
妻はタイ人/タイの文化/タイの仏教戒律

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