英字新聞

読売、毎日、朝日各社英字新聞の主として社説を学習研究します

香港議会選 習氏の圧力が「反中派」生んだ

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Xi’s increasing pressure spawns ‘anti-China forces’ in Hong Kong
香港議会選 習氏の圧力が「反中派」生んだ

The heavy-handed posture of Chinese President Xi Jinping’s administration appears to have led to the rise of “anti-China” forces in Hong Kong.
中国の習近平政権の強権的な姿勢が、香港における「反中」勢力の台頭を招いたのだろう。

Continuing progress in democratization and political reforms is essential to maintaining Hong Kong’s stability and prosperity, rather than reinforcing a clampdown.
香港の安定と繁栄を維持するには、締め付けの強化ではなく、民主化の前進と政治改革が欠かせない。

In the recent elections for Hong Kong’s Legislative Council, newly emerging, anti-Beijing forces making such radical calls as “independence” from China have made headway.
香港の議会に当たる立法会の選挙で、中国からの「独立」など、急進的な主張を掲げる新興の反中勢力が躍進した。

For the 70-member legislature, 35 candidates are directly elected by voters, while the remainder are chosen through functional constituencies, mainly those representing particular professions or trades.
定数70の半数は直接選挙枠で、残りは業界団体などによる職能枠で選ばれる。

The newly emerging forces, which made a strong showing in direct voting, and the pro-democracy camp won a combined total of 30 seats, more than one-third of the seats needed to vote down important bills. The pro-Beijing camp managed to retain a majority, but won fewer seats than in previous elections.
直接選挙枠で健闘した新興勢力と、民主派が計30議席を獲得し、重要議案の否決に必要な3分の1を超えた。親中派は過半数を確保したが、議席を減らした。

In 2014, student-led demonstrators calling for democracy staged sit-ins on roads. It can be said the latest elections indicate that the Hong Kong people are increasing their watchfulness against China’s ever-growing influence, even after the demonstrations were resolved peacefully.
一昨年、学生らが民主化を求めて道路を占拠した。デモ収束後も強まる中国の影響力への香港住民の警戒を示したと言えよう。

The newly emerging groups are led by young people, including a former student leader of the demonstration, and those “localists” who, in opposition to China’s political interference, put Hong Kong’s interests first as they consider the territory their “motherland.” Among localists, some even approve of the use of violence.
新興勢力は若い世代が中心だ。デモの元学生指導者のほか、中国の政治干渉に反対し、「郷土」と位置づける香港の利益を最優先する「本土派」が含まれる。本土派には暴力を容認する者もいる。

China has granted Hong Kong a high degree of autonomy under the “one country, two systems” formula. The problem is that autonomy has increasingly become a mere formality.
香港では「一国二制度」の下に、「高度な自治」が認められている。問題なのは、その形骸化が一段と進んでいることである。

Anxieties will increase

The Electoral Affairs Commission of Hong Kong took such high-handed measures as pressing candidates to sign a declaration that they agree to the principle that “Hong Kong is part of China” and disqualifying some localists from running.
香港の選挙管理委員会は「香港は中国の一部分」という原則に関する「確認書」への署名を候補者に迫り、本土派ら数人の出馬資格を取り消す強硬策に出た。

When five Hong Kong booksellers and other people dealing with publications critical of the Chinese Communist Party disappeared one after another, it was regarded as an instance of “rule by force.” Deep suspicions remain that the Chinese authorities had removed them from Hong Kong, where they had no right to investigate, and detained them in China.
中国共産党に批判的な書籍を扱う香港の書店関係者5人が相次いで失踪した事件も、「力の統治」の表れだと受け止められている。中国当局が捜査権限もない香港から関係者を連行、拘束したといった疑惑が深まったままだ。

Without a convincing explanation, it is inevitable for Hong Kong people to grow more anxious about their future.
納得できる説明がなければ、香港住民の間に将来への不安が広がるのは避けられまい。

In June last year, a bill designed to elect the next chief executive of Hong Kong through “universal suffrage” was rejected by a majority of pro-democracy lawmakers. Although the bill was aimed at directly electing the chief executive through a one-man, one-vote formula, it was a system under which only pro-Beijing candidates could declare candidacy. This proposed method was naturally rejected as “phony universal suffrage.”
次期行政長官を「普通選挙」で決める法案が昨年6月、民主派議員の反対多数で否決された。「1人1票」の直接選挙とはいえ、親中派しか立候補できない仕組みだった。「ニセの普通選挙」と拒否されても仕方がなかろう。

Regarding the outcome of the latest elections, the Xi administration released a statement saying that Beijing would “resolutely oppose any form of Hong Kong independence activities inside or outside the legislature.” It appears that the Xi administration intends to drive a wedge between the pro-democracy camp and newly emerging forces, and stop them from joining hands.
習政権は選挙結果について、「立法会内外のいかなる形式の『香港独立』活動にも断固反対する」との談話を発表した。民主派と新興勢力を分断し、結束を阻む思惑があるのではないか。

It would not be implausible for localists and other groups to become offended by Beijing’s hard-line posture and become increasingly antagonistic to Hong Kong authorities.
中国の強硬姿勢に本土派などが反発し、香港当局との対立が先鋭化する事態が懸念される。

What Xi should do is respect Hong Kong’s autonomy and win the trust of the international community.
習国家主席に求められるのは、香港の「自治」を尊重し、国際社会の信頼を得ることである。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Sept. 13, 2016)

続きを読む

日比首脳会談 中国の海洋権益拡大に警戒を

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Japan, Philippines must stay watchful over China’s maritime expansion
日比首脳会談 中国の海洋権益拡大に警戒を

Countries concerned should take concerted action and strengthen their cooperation over how to handle China’s continuing self-serving maritime advances.
独善的な海洋進出を続ける中国に対し、関係国は足並みを乱さず、連携を強化すべきだ。

In Laos, Prime Minister Shinzo Abe has held his first talks with Philippine President Rodrigo Duterte and unveiled a plan to provide two 90-meter patrol vessels to Manila. The vessels will be constructed in Japan, financed through yen loans totaling up to about ¥16.4 billion and delivered to the Philippine Coast Guard.
安倍首相はラオスで、フィリピンのドゥテルテ大統領と初めて会談し、90メートル級の大型巡視船2隻を供与する方針を伝えた。最大約164億円の円借款を基に日本で建造し、フィリピン沿岸警備隊に提供する。

The poor maritime security capabilities of nations facing the South China Sea have allowed China to unilaterally establish a military foothold in the region. Duterte expressed gratitude for the new ships, saying they would enable the Philippines to strengthen its patrols and boost its presence in the area.
南シナ海では、沿岸国の海上警備能力が低く、中国の一方的な軍事拠点化を許していた。ドゥテルテ氏は、「パトロール強化が可能になり、フィリピンの存在感が向上する」と謝意を表した。

Japan also is providing 10 40-meter patrol boats to the Philippines. Combined with these larger vessels, which are capable of traveling long distances, they should be effective in keeping China in check to a certain extent.
40メートル級の巡視艇10隻の供与に続き、航続距離の長い大型巡視船がフィリピンに加われば、中国への一定の牽制けんせい効果を持とう。

During the Abe-Duterte talks, Japan formally decided to lend up to five of the Maritime Self-Defense Force’s TC-90 training aircraft to the Philippines. Japan will also help train the flight crews and maintain the aircraft, which will be useful in disaster relief operations and transporting supplies. We hope this support will be expanded in the future.
海上自衛隊の練習機TC90を最大5機貸与することも正式決定した。整備や要員の訓練も日本が協力する。災害救援や輸送にも役立つ。今後も支援を拡大したい。

During the meeting, Duterte said the ruling handed down by an arbitration court that rejected China’s claims over the South China Sea should be respected. However, Duterte also said he was willing to have talks with China.
南シナ海での中国の主権を否定した仲裁裁判所判決について、ドゥテルテ氏は会談で、「裁判結果は尊重されるべきだ」と強調した。ただ、「中国との対話は今後も行っていく」とも述べた。

Scarborough Shoal a concern

It is said that China has refused to recognize the ruling and wants to bring about an advantageous agreement through bilateral negotiations with the Philippines. If Manila easily yields concessions on this issue, China’s construction of artificial islands in the South China Sea, and the militarization of those islands, could become an accomplished fact.
中国は、判決を棚上げし、フィリピンとの2国間協議で有利な合意に持ち込みたい考えとされる。フィリピンが安易に妥協すれば、中国の人工島造成や軍事拠点が既成事実化されかねない。

Establishing the rule of law in the South China Sea will benefit the entire international community. The Philippines needs to work closely with Japan, the United States and other nations with a stake in this issue.
南シナ海における「法の支配」の確立は国際社会全体の利益だ。フィリピンは、日米など関係国と緊密に協調する必要がある。

It is worrying that China has dispatched dredging vessels and other equipment near Scarborough Shoal, which is close to the Philippines. There are fears China might start reclamation work around the shoal and construct an artificial island.
懸念すべきは、中国が、フィリピンに近いスカボロー礁周辺に浚渫しゅんせつ船などを派遣したとされることだ。新たに埋め立てを行い、人工島を造成する恐れがある。

If China installs radar installations and builds a runway on the shoal, the range of its fighter jets would grow to cover the entire South China Sea. It also could lead to the establishment of an air defense identification zone.
レーダー施設や滑走路を整備すれば、戦闘機の活動範囲が南シナ海全域に広がり、防空識別圏の設定にもつながりかねない。

It was regrettable that a bilateral meeting between U.S. President Barack Obama and Duterte was canceled after Duterte insulted Obama with an offensive remark.
ドゥテルテ氏がオバマ米大統領を下品な言葉で罵ののしり、米比首脳会談が中止されたのは、残念だ。

Strained U.S.-Philippine ties will only benefit China. We hope they quickly normalize relations.
両国のぎくしゃくした関係は中国を利するだけである。関係の正常化を急いでもらいたい。

Duterte’s foreign policies have yet to become clear, and a new administration will soon take office in the United States. It appears China is aiming to expand its maritime interests during this period.
ドゥテルテ氏の外交政策が不透明で、米国も政権移行期に入る。この時期に、海洋権益を拡大するのが中国の狙いではないか。

The Obama administration has warned China that it will take unprecedentedly tough steps if China starts building an artificial island at Scarborough Shoal. To more effectively urge China to exercise self-restraint, it is important that the international community — not just the United States — shows unity and speaks up about this issue.
オバマ政権は中国に対し、スカボロー礁で人工島造成に着手した場合、従来にない厳しい措置を取ると警告している。より効果的に中国に自制を促すには、米国だけでなく、国際社会が結束して声を上げることが大切である。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Sept. 8, 2016)

続きを読む

日中首脳会談 関係改善には緊張緩和が要る

The Yomiuri Shimbun
First ease tension to start improving bilateral ties between Japan and China
日中首脳会談 関係改善には緊張緩和が要る

For all the differences in what both sides assert, it is essential for Japan and China to make efforts to build trust through constructive dialogue.
双方の主張に相違点はあっても、建設的な対話を通じて、信頼醸成を図ることが肝要である。

Prime Minister Shinzo Abe held talks with Chinese President Xi Jinping in Hangzhou, China, on Monday and both agreed to work to improve ties between the two countries. It was their third bilateral talk and the first since April 2015.
安倍首相は中国・杭州で、習近平国家主席と会談し、関係改善に努力することで一致した。両氏の会談は2015年4月以来で、3回目だ。

Abe and Xi also agreed that the two countries will accelerate discussions on soon putting into operation a “maritime and air liaison mechanism” aimed at preventing accidental clashes between the Self-Defense Forces and Chinese forces in the East China Sea.
東シナ海での自衛隊と中国軍の偶発的な衝突を防ぐ「海空連絡メカニズム」の早期運用へ協議を加速させることでも合意した。

Included among the mechanism’s main pillars are establishing a hotline between the Japanese and Chinese defense authorities, and enabling naval vessels and aircraft of both countries to communicate directly on site if they get close to each other.
防衛当局間のホットラインの設置や、艦艇・航空機が接近した際の直接通信などが柱である。

There was a series of incidents around the Senkaku Islands in Okinawa Prefecture in June, in which Chinese military vessels sailed in the contiguous zone around the islands and its military aircraft flew close by.
尖閣諸島周辺では6月、中国軍艦の接続水域進入や中国軍機の接近が相次いだ。

To avoid any untoward incident, the defense authorities of both countries should put the finishing touches on the talks so as to hurry the launch of the mechanism’s operations.
不測の事態を避けるため、当局間の詰めの協議を行い、運用開始を急ぎたい。

Regarding such incidents as Chinese government vessels entering Japan’s territorial waters, Abe said they would be construed as “actions that will unilaterally escalate tension,” rightly calling on China to improve the situation.
中国公船による領海侵入などを巡り、首相が「一方的に緊張をエスカレートさせる行動だ」と改善を求めたのは当然である。

Take concrete action

Xi responded by saying that the two countries should “properly handle the issue via dialogue and consultation.” But it would only be reasonable for China to first restrain itself in terms of deeds. To fully mend the bilateral relations between Japan and China, it is vital to ease tension.
習氏は「対話と協議を通じて適切に対応すべきだ」と語ったが、中国がまず行動を自制するのが筋だ。日中関係を本格的に修復するには、緊張緩和が欠かせない。

During the talks, Abe and Xi also agreed that the two countries will hold discussions on resuming negotiations on the joint development of gas fields in the East China Sea.
会談では、東シナ海のガス田共同開発の交渉再開に向けて、両国が協議することも決まった。

China has been developing the fields unilaterally, reneging on a 2008 bilateral accord. The accord must be carried out sincerely.
中国は08年の合意を反故ほごにし、勝手に開発を続けている。合意は誠実に履行せねばなるまい。

Referring to China’s moves to militarize artificial islands in the South China Sea, Abe urged China to abide by the international law and make efforts to dispel concern among neighboring countries.
首相は、中国が軍事拠点化を進める南シナ海問題について、国際法のルールを守り、周辺国などの不安解消に努めるよう促した。

It is unacceptable that Xi hit back against Abe’s call by saying, “Japan should exercise prudence in its words and deeds.” Ensuring the safety of sea lanes is a common benefit to the international community.
容認できないのは、習氏が「日本は言葉と行動を慎むべきだ」などと抗弁したことである。海上交通路(シーレーン)の安全確保は国際社会共通の利益だ。

During the talks, Abe brought up the issue of North Korea firing three ballistic missiles into waters off the coast of Hokkaido. He called on Xi to cooperate in “taking concrete steps against North Korea’s repeated provocations.”
首相は会談で、北朝鮮が弾道ミサイル3発を北海道沖に落下させた問題を提起した。「度重なる挑発行動に対し、具体的措置を講じるべきだ」と、習氏に求めた。

China, which is a permanent member of the U.N. Security Council, has a certain amount of influence on North Korea. China fulfilling its responsibilities could constitute a step forward in the bilateral cooperation between Japan and China.
中国は国連安全保障理事会の常任理事国で、北朝鮮に一定の影響力を持つ。その責任を果たすことが日中連携の一歩となり得る。

China has suffered a series of diplomatic setbacks in its foreign policy lately: a ruling by the court of arbitration categorically dismissed Beijing’s claim of sovereignty in the South China Sea; and its relations with South Korea have deteriorated.
中国外交は、南シナ海での自国の主権を全面否定する仲裁裁判所の判決が出たり、対韓関係の悪化を招いたり、失点が続く。

The success of the summit of the Group of 20 major economies, which Xi chaired, was a challenge vital for China to recover its own prestige.
習氏が議長を務める主要20か国・地域(G20)首脳会議の成功は、自らの威信を回復するために不可欠な課題だった。

Some believe that after the end of the G-20 summit talks, China will take a more hard-line stance in both the East China Sea and the South China Sea. Wouldn’t it be to China’s advantage to contribute to the stability of Asia, rather than intensify friction with its neighboring countries?
会議終了後には、中国が東・南シナ海で強硬姿勢を一段と打ち出すとの見方もある。近隣国との摩擦を強めるのでなく、アジアの安定に貢献することこそが自国の利益にもなるのではないか。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Sept. 7, 2016)

続きを読む

G20首脳宣言 中国の「有言実行」が問われる

The Yomiuri Shimbun
China being tested over whether it will actually live up to G-20 accords
G20首脳宣言 中国の「有言実行」が問われる

It is essential to raise the growth potential of the global economy by steadily promoting structural reform and free trade, thereby putting the global economy on a sustainable recovery path.
構造改革や自由貿易の着実な推進によって、世界経済の成長力を底上げし、持続的な回復軌道に乗せねばならない。

The Group of 20 major economies wrapped up its summit meeting Monday after holding a two-day session in Hangzhou, China.
2日にわたって中国・杭州で開かれた主要20か国・地域(G20)首脳会議が閉幕した。

In a communique issued after the summit, the G-20 leaders warn that global growth is weaker than anticipated and that downside risks exist. The communique also mentions that all three policy tools of monetary and fiscal policies, and structural reform must be used separately or collectively.
首脳宣言で「世界経済の成長は期待よりも弱く、下方リスクが存在する」との危機感を表明した。金融政策、財政出動、構造改革の全てを「個別にまた総合的に活用する」とも明記している。

Given Britain’s decision to leave the European Union and the decline in the prices of resources, both advanced and emerging economies lack the power to serve as an engine for global economic growth.
英国の欧州連合(EU)離脱決定や資源価格の下落によって、先進国、新興国の双方とも成長の牽引けんいん力に欠けるのが現状だ。

The G-20 communique adhered to the agreements reached at the Ise-Shima Summit of the Group of Seven advanced nations hosted by Japan in May. It is highly significant that the G-20 economies, including emerging and oil-producing countries with different economic powers, have shared common views on the global economy.
首脳宣言は、先進7か国による5月の伊勢志摩サミットの合意を踏襲した。経済の実力が異なる新興国や産油国などを含むG20が認識を共有した意味は大きい。

The crucial point is for all G-20 countries to play their role.
肝心なのは、各国が役割をきっちりと果たすことである。

During the G-20 summit, Prime Minister Shinzo Abe said it was important for all the countries to demonstrate their commitment through concrete action. It was natural for him to make such a statement.
安倍首相が会議で「各国の具体的行動へとつなげていくことが重要だ」と発言したのは当然だ。

The key to reinvigorating the global economy is likely to be promotion of structural reforms to enhance productivity and boost growth.
世界経済の活性化へカギを握るのは、生産性を高めて成長を後押しする構造改革の推進だろう。

Japan has announced plans to reform ways of working, including correcting long working practices and realizing equal pay for equal work. Fulfillment of the Abenomics economic policy package will lead to realization of the G-20 agreements.
日本は、長時間労働の是正や同一労働同一賃金の実現など「働き方改革」を断行すると表明した。アベノミクスの履行がG20合意を実現することになる。

Key structural issue

The communique took up excessive production of steel and other products as a serious structural problem for the first time.
首脳宣言は初めて、深刻な構造問題として鉄鋼などの過剰生産を取り上げた。

The overproduction issue was triggered by China, which has kept protecting loss-making state-owned companies. There have been rampant increases in the number of these so-called zombie firms, which have actually gone bankrupt but have continued to be supported by the Chinese authorities, posing a risk to the global economy.
震源地は、不採算の国有企業を温存する中国である。実質的に破綻しながら当局が支え続ける「ゾンビ企業」が横行し、世界経済のリスク要因となっている。

It was agreed during the summit to set up an international framework to promote information-sharing in a bid to resolve the overproduction issue. Because China served as the host nation to work out the agreement, China will be required to carry out its commitments in deed.
会議では、過剰生産の解消に向けて情報共有を進める国際的な枠組みの設立で合意した。議長国としてまとめた以上、中国の「有言実行」が求められる。

As for free trade, which is indispensable to economic expansion, the G-20 agreed to reject all forms of protectionism.
経済の発展に不可欠な自由貿易については「あらゆる形態の保護主義への反対」で一致した。

In the United States, both the Republican and Democratic presidential nominees have expressed opposition to the Trans-Pacific Partnership free trade framework. In emerging economies, import restrictions to protect their domestic industries have been invoked one after another.
米国では大統領選候補がそろって環太平洋経済連携協定(TPP)への反対を表明している。新興国では、自国産業を守る輸入制限の発動が相次いでいる。

Signatories to the TPP agreement, including Japan and the United States, must promote early ratification of the accord while emerging economies must exercise self-restraint on excessive import restrictions. Each G-20 nation must work toward advancing free trade.
日米などTPP関係国は早期批准に取り組む。新興国は過度の輸入制限措置を自粛する。G20各国がそれぞれ、自由貿易を進展させなければならない。

A questionable point is that China guided G-20 discussions into concentrating on economic issues in a bid to avoid discussions over the South China Sea, where it has been building military strongholds. If China remains indifferent to regional stability, it is doubtful whether the country will fulfill its commitment to economic cooperation, too.
疑問なのは、中国が議論を経済に集中させ、自らが軍事拠点化を進める南シナ海問題の封印を図ったことだ。地域の安定から目をそらしたままでは、経済連携も実効性が疑われよう。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Sept. 6, 2016)

続きを読む

米中首脳会談 アジア安定に心残りはないか

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Do Obama, Xi regret their summit talks didn’t do much for Asian stability?
米中首脳会談 アジア安定に心残りはないか

Given that both sides seemingly went to pains to give the appearance of getting along while putting aside pending questions over China’s high-handed maritime advances, this cannot be described as a relationship between responsible major powers.
中国の独善的な海洋進出という懸案を先送りにしたまま、協調演出に腐心するようでは、責任ある大国同士の関係とは言えまい。

U.S. President Barack Obama has held talks with Chinese President Xi Jinping on the sidelines of the summit meeting of the Group of 20 major and emerging economies.
オバマ米大統領が主要20か国・地域(G20)首脳会議に合わせ、習近平国家主席と会談した。

This was the first time Obama and Xi have met since a ruling by an arbitration court completely rejected China’s territorial claims over much of the South China Sea. Obama stressed that the “principles of international law” must be upheld and called on China to abide by the court’s ruling.
南シナ海に関する中国の主権の主張を全面否定する仲裁裁判所の判決が出た後、両首脳の会談は初めてだ。オバマ氏は、「国際法の原則を維持する」と強調し、判決に従うよう中国に要求した。

It is unacceptable that Xi insisted China would “firmly continue to protect its sovereignty and maritime rights” in the South China Sea. Beijing has called on Washington to play a “constructive role” in dealing with this issue, but it is China that is raising tensions in the region and challenging the U.S.-led order there.
容認できないのは、習氏が「南シナ海の主権と海洋権益を断固、守り続ける」と強弁したことだ。南シナ海問題で米国に「建設的な役割」を果たすよう求めたが、地域を緊張させ、米主導の秩序に挑戦しているのは中国である。

It was unfortunate that this last chance for Obama to draw out a compromise from China before his term ends in January 2017 failed to produce a positive result.
来年1月のオバマ氏の退任前に妥協を引き出す最後の機会でも、成果がなかったのは残念だ。

Obama has avoided a sharp split in U.S.-China ties and has pushed a conciliatory approach that placed emphasis on expanding cooperation. This strategy was dependent on a positive change from China, but we think Obama ended up being viewed by Xi as merely an “opponent who is easily taken advantage of.”
オバマ氏は、米中の決定的対立を避け、協力拡大に重点を置く融和路線を進めてきた。中国側の前向きの変化に期待する戦略だったが、習氏には「与くみし易やすい相手」とみなされただけではないか。

U.S. must stand up to China

Xi has broken a promise he made last year that China had no intention of boosting the militarization of manmade islands in the South China Sea, and has accelerated the building of runways and radar installations on the islands. The prospect of China establishing an air defense identification zone is becoming a reality.
習氏は、南シナ海の人工島について、「軍事化を進める意図はない」という1年前の約束を反故ほごにし、滑走路やレーダー施設の整備を加速させた。防空識別圏の設定は現実のものになりつつある。

China probably intends to complete the creation of this military foothold while the Obama administration is still in office. Among the nations affected by these developments, there is growing dissatisfaction that the U.S. response has always been a step behind.
オバマ政権の間に、軍事拠点化に目途めどをつける思惑なのだろう。関係国の間には、米国の対応が後手に回ったとの不満が高まる。

The United States must stand at the forefront of efforts to maintain stability in the South China Sea and strengthen the pressure being applied on China. It is essential that patrol activities conducted by U.S. military vessels and aircraft are stepped up around the manmade islands.
南シナ海の安定を保つには、米国が先頭に立って、中国への圧力を強めねばなるまい。米軍の艦艇と航空機による人工島周辺での巡視活動の強化が肝要である。

Xi’s announcement that he opposes the planned deployment of the United States’ Terminal High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD) missile system in South Korea also cannot be overlooked.
習氏が、米ミサイル防衛システム「最終段階高高度地域防衛(THAAD)」の韓国配備に反対を表明したことも看過できない。

North Korea is continuing its dangerous provocations, including testing a submarine-launched ballistic missile. Deploying THAAD is an urgent task. China must adopt a tougher stance toward North Korea and ensure sanctions against Pyongyang are thoroughly enforced.
北朝鮮は、潜水艦発射弾道ミサイル(SLBM)実験などの危険な挑発を続けている。THAADの配備は急務だ。中国は、北朝鮮により厳しい態度で臨み、制裁履行を徹底せねばならない。

Before the Obama-Xi talks, the leaders announced both nations had ratified the Paris Agreement, the international framework for measures to combat global warming from 2020. This collaboration by the world’s two largest emitters is a significant step toward the agreement coming into force before the end of this year.
米中首脳は会談に先立ち、2020年以降の地球温暖化対策の国際的枠組みとなる「パリ協定」を批准したことを発表した。2大排出国の共同歩調は、協定の年内発効に向けた前進である。

There was no change in Xi’s assertions on human rights issues and Chinese cyber-attacks on U.S. companies and other entities, two issues of concern for the United States.
米国が懸念する中国の米企業などに対するサイバー攻撃や人権問題では、習氏の主張に変化はなかった。

It seems progress can be expected only in fields where it will be to China’s advantage.
これでは、中国にとって利点がある分野しか、進展が見込めないのではないか。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Sept. 5, 2016)

続きを読む

日露首脳会談 大統領来日で「領土」は動くか

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Can Putin’s visit to Japan help move N. territories issue forward?
日露首脳会談 大統領来日で「領土」は動くか

Will Russian President Vladimir Putin’s visit to Japan serve as the first step in moving forward with the northern territories issue, which has remained unsettled for as long as the 71 years since World War II ended?
戦後71年間も未解決の北方領土問題を動かす一歩となるのだろうか。

Prime Minister Shinzo Abe held talks with Putin in Vladivostok, Russia, and the two leaders officially agreed to meet in Yamaguchi Prefecture on Dec. 15. They also agreed to hold talks in Peru in November on the sidelines of an international conference.
安倍首相はロシア・ウラジオストクでプーチン大統領と会談し、12月15日に山口県で会談することに正式合意した。11月のペルーでの国際会議時にも会談する。

“I was able to find a specific approach to move the negotiations forward,” Abe said following the talks with Putin. “I sensed a solid response.” Having held talks as many as 14 times so far, the two leaders have obviously built a certain relationship of trust.
首相は会談後、「交渉を具体的に進める道筋が見えてきた。手応えを強く感じ取ることができた」と語った。両首脳の会談は14回にも上る。一定の信頼関係が築けてきたのは間違いあるまい。

There is strong opposition in Russia to the return of the four northern islands. The waters around them hold military significance as part of the Pacific route, and Russian forces have increased the number of soldiers stationed there. Therefore, we cannot have an optimistic view about the territorial negotiations.
ロシアでは、北方4島の返還への反対論が根強い。周辺海域は太平洋航路として軍事上の重要性が高い。駐留ロシア軍も増強された。領土交渉は楽観できない。

We believe that no one but Putin, the most powerful figure in Russia, can make such a significant decision as returning the territories. It is understandable that Abe aims to settle the issue using a top-down approach while holding frequent talks with his Russian counterpart.
領土の返還という重い決断は、最高権力者のプーチン氏にしかできまい。頻繁な首脳会談を通じて、トップダウンで決着を図ろうとする首相の意図は理解できる。

The prime minister apparently had a similar aim when he delivered a speech in Vladivostok calling for talks with Putin to be held once a year.
首相が現地で演説し、年1回のウラジオストクでの首脳会談を提案したのも、同じ狙いだろう。

Leading up to Putin’s visit to Japan, the government should make every effort in the preliminary negotiations so this precious opportunity — the first visit by a Russian president in about six years — can give momentum to the northern territories issue.
約6年ぶりの露大統領来日という貴重な機会を領土問題の進展につなげるため、政府は事前交渉に力を入れる必要がある。

During the latest talks, Abe and Putin reconfirmed that their countries will hold territorial negotiations using a “new approach,” without sticking to conventional ideas. Japan’s basic strategy is that it will look for clues to settle the issue while improving bilateral cooperation in various fields to move Japan-Russia relations forward as a whole and from a future-oriented standpoint.
今回の会談では、従来の発想にとらわれない「新しいアプローチ」で領土交渉を進める方針を再確認した。様々な分野で協力を進め、未来志向で日露関係全体を前進させる中で、領土問題の解決の糸口を探るのが日本の基本戦略だ。

Don’t be hasty

Abe also discussed the current situation in the eight areas of economic cooperation Japan has presented, including energy and development in Russia’s Far Eastern region. The prime minister said that Economy, Trade and Industry Minister Hiroshige Seko has been named to concurrently serve as minister for economic cooperation with Russia, and a council comprising of government and private-sector entities will also be established.
首相は、日本側が提案したエネルギー、極東開発など8項目の経済協力の現状を説明した。世耕経済産業相に担当相を兼務させ、官民協議会も設置するという。

Russia has great hopes for Japan because it has been suffering a sluggish economy hit by falling oil prices and other factors. We believe Japan also can enjoy advantages, such as securing natural resources and gaining profits from investment in Russia, depending on the extent to which bilateral cooperation develops.
ロシアは、原油安などに伴う経済低迷が続き、日本への期待が大きい。日本側にも、協力の展開次第では、資源確保や投資の利益回収などのメリットがあろう。

However, Japan should never be hasty, because the history of bilateral relations shows that the northern territories issue has always been left behind while only bilateral economic cooperation was put forward. The government should scrutinize what is included in projects when promoting cooperation with Russia.
ただ、経済協力だけが先行し、領土問題は取り残されるのが日露の歴史だった。前のめりになるのは禁物だ。事業内容を吟味し、協力を進めることが欠かせない。

It is also important for the two countries to work together in the security field. The Japanese and Russian foreign ministries held talks on the issue in early July. We hope they make sure to continue strategic dialogues.
安全保障分野での協力も重要である。日露外務省による安保協議が7月上旬、開催された。戦略的な対話を着実に重ねたい。

A serious rift remains, with Russia on one side and the United States and European countries on the other, over Russia’s activities in Ukraine and Syria. Japan should refrain from disrupting cooperation among the Group of Seven major powers in terms of economic sanctions against Russia.
ウクライナ、シリア情勢を巡る米欧とロシアの対立は依然、深刻だ。日本が先進7か国(G7)の対露経済制裁の足並みを乱すことは避けねばならない。

The U.S. government is taking a calm stance regarding Putin’s visit to Japan, saying it is “not concerned or worried.” Japan should continue its efforts to provide the United States and European countries with extensive explanations on its relations with Russia to seek their understanding.
米政府はプーチン氏来日について「懸念も心配もしていない」と静観している。日本は、日露関係について米欧に丁寧に説明し、理解を得る努力を続けるべきだ。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Sept. 4, 2016)

続きを読む

JOC報告書 納得にはほど遠い

--The Asahi Shimbun, Sept. 3
EDITORIAL: Report on probe into Tokyo’s Olympic bid far from convincing
(社説)JOC報告書 納得にはほど遠い

The Japanese Olympic Committee obviously faced some tough challenges in its investigation into the Tokyo Olympic bid committee’s dubious cash payments to a consulting company. But that doesn’t justify the JOC’s failure to produce a convincing report on the matter.
The JOC’s investigative team on Sept. 1 published a report on its probe into the bid committee’s payments totaling 230 million yen ($2,2 million) to a Singapore-based consulting firm.
It said the cash payments were not illegal and that the bid committee had no intention of resorting to bribery or other illegal acts.
調査が難航したのはわかる。だとしても、これで人々の理解を得られるとは思えない。
2020年東京五輪・パラリンピック招致の際にシンガポールのコンサルタント会社に2億3千万円が支払われた問題で、日本オリンピック委員会(JOC)の調査チームが報告書を公表した。日本側に買収などの意図はなく、違法性はなかったという内容である。

But the report failed to make clear how the money paid by the bid committee was actually used. The investigative team contacted a number of foreign figures suspected to be linked to the consulting company. They included Lamine Diack, a former International Association of Athletics Federation president who was then a member of the International Olympic Committee. Diak was in a position to influence the vote to decide the host.
His son Papa Massata Diack, who had close ties with the consulting firm, is also under the spotlight. But neither of them offered to cooperate with the JOC for the investigation, according to the report.
だが2億円余の使い道は明らかになっていない。当時、開催都市決定の投票に影響力を持つ国際オリンピック委員会(IOC)委員だった国際陸連前会長や、コンサルタント会社と関係があったとされるその息子にもアプローチしたが、協力は得られなかったという。

The conclusion of the inquiry team was based almost entirely on remarks made by Japanese officials involved. It is far from a clear and complete picture of what transpired.
ほぼ日本側関係者からの聞き取りに頼った結論で、全容解明にほど遠い。

Since French prosecutors have also been looking into the matter, new developments could arise.
この問題は、フランスの検察当局が捜査を続けており、状況によっては新たな局面を迎える可能性もある。

The probe has shed some light on the opaque nature of people who work as "consultants" in the international sports arena as well as on the bid committee’s slipshod approach to selecting consultants it hires.
今回浮き彫りになったのは、コンサルタントといわれる人たちの活動の不透明さであり、それを選び、契約する招致委側の管理態勢の甘さである。

Senior officials of the bid committee had no independent information about the Singapore-based firm. The committee paid a large amount of money to the company it knew little or nothing about based on the advice of Dentsu Inc., Japan’s leading ad agency, which has been involved in marketing operations in the international sports community.
招致委幹部は、問題のシンガポールの会社について独自に情報を持っていなかった。国際スポーツ界でマーケティング活動をする電通の勧めがあったとはいえ、そのような相手に巨額の金を支払った。

The bid committee for the 2020 Olympics hired 11 consulting companies, including the Singapore-based one. The committee that represented Tokyo’s unsuccessful bid to host the 2016 Summer Games, which were granted to Rio de Janeiro, struck deals with some 30 consulting businesses.
20年招致ではこの会社を含めて11の、リオデジャネイロに敗れた16年招致のときは約30のコンサルタントと契約を交わした。

There are no market rates for fees to be paid to such companies, and deals are often done at the prices asked by the firms. The Japanese bid committee for the 2020 Games paid more than 1.1 billion yen in consulting fees.
契約料に相場はなく、先方の言い値になることが多いといわれる。20年招致では計11億数千万円が支出されている。

Only a small number of senior officials of the committee were aware of what roles the consultancies were playing and the kind of work in which they were engaged.
契約したコンサルタントがどんな役割を担い、どんな仕事をしているかは、一部の幹部しか把握していなかったという。

The ways bidding cities contact with IOC members are limited, which make it virtually impossible for a city to host Olympics without the help of consultants. Even so, senior officials of the bid committee are at least responsible for making careful and conscientious decisions on whether the service offered by a specific consultancy is worth the cost.
立候補都市がIOC委員と接触する方法が限られ、コンサルタントなくしては五輪を呼べないという現実があるとはいえ、出費に見合う契約かどうか、慎重に判断する自覚と責任が招致委幹部にはある。

As a first step in the reform of bids for Olympics, the IOC, starting with the 2024 Games, will require bidding cities to register the consultants they hire and disclose the information about the consultants working for the cities. In addition, the IOC has also decided to require consultants to declare they will abide by the rules concerning Olympic bids.
IOCは24年五輪招致から、契約するコンサルタントの登録を義務づけたうえで公開し、コンサルタントには招致ルールの順守を宣言することを課す。改革の一歩といえる。

Many questions have been raised about the huge costs involved in trying to host the Olympics and actually holding the events.
五輪は招致や開催費用の高騰が疑問視されている。

Still, there’s high level of social interest in the Olympics, with people around the world eagerly awaiting these events.
それでも社会の関心は高く、大会を心待ちにする人は多い。

Currently, the race to host the Olympics is determined to a large extent by people working behind the scenes.
その行方が、見えないところで見えない人たちによって左右される。

If this situation continues, the Olympics will eventually lose their luster.
こんなことを続けていては、やがて輝きは失われてしまう。

続きを読む

予算概算要求 危機感の乏しさを憂う

--The Asahi Shimbun, Aug. 31
EDITORIAL: Government still ignoring Japan's fiscal woes at budget time
(社説)予算概算要求 危機感の乏しさを憂う

In early August, the government set its basic policy concerning budget requests from government ministries and agencies, based on which the nation's fiscal 2017 budget will be compiled.
"We will thoroughly review policy priorities, do everything to eliminate wasteful spending and boldly focus on the substance of the budget," the government declared.
「施策の優先順位を洗い直し、無駄を徹底して排除しつつ、予算の中身を大胆に重点化する」
来年度予算編成の出発点となる各省庁からの概算要求について、政府が今月初めに決めた基本方針の一節である。

But for all these brave words, we are appalled by the government's apparent lack of awareness of the dire, unprecedented fiscal straits confronting the nation.
言葉は力強い。だが現実はといえば、決意表明はどこへやら、未曽有の財政難への危機感の乏しさに驚くばかりだ。

Aug. 31 is the final day for government ministries and agencies to make their fiscal 2017 budget requests.
For the third consecutive year, their total budget requests topped 100 trillion yen ($970.57 billion).
きょう締め切られる概算要求の総額は、3年連続で100兆円を超える。

This can be attributed largely to the government's decision not to set a ceiling on budget requests and allow some budget requests to exceed the initial fiscal 2016 budget figures by nearly 20 percent.
要求時の基準に天井(シーリング)を設けず、一部の予算については今年度当初予算から2割増し近くまで要求できる仕組みとしたことが大きい。

Obviously, not all requests are going to be met. They will be screened and trimmed by the Finance Ministry.
もちろん、全額がそのまま認められるわけではなく、財務省の査定などを通じて絞られる。

Still, given the nation's serious fiscal problems, all budget requests should have been made in keeping with the government's basic policy, which went to the effect that every government ministry and agency "must thoroughly review and evaluate the performance results, efficiency and efficacy of its existing projects before submitting its budget request."
とはいえ、厳しい財政を直視すれば、政府の基本方針がうたう通り、「既存事業の実績や効果を効率性、有効性等の観点から徹底検証して見直した上で要求・要望を行う」のは当然だ。

But how did individual ministries and agencies proceed?
省庁の姿勢はどうか。

The Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism requested more than 6 trillion-plus yen for public works projects, up 16 percent from the initial fiscal 2016 budget.
国土交通省は、公共事業費として今年度当初予算から16%増の6兆円強を要求した。

The Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry's request topped 1.4 trillion yen, including a special account budget, up 9 percent from fiscal 2016.
経済産業省も、特別会計分を含めて9%増の1兆4千億円余を求めた。

But the Reconstruction Agency, whose reconstruction projects in areas devastated by the Great East Japan Earthquake of 2011 have already peaked, requested a smaller budget than for fiscal 2016.
Still, most government ministries and agencies seem intent on maximizing their chances of securing as much funding as possible by requesting as much as they could.
被災地での復旧事業が峠を越えた復興庁が要求を減らした例もあるが、「できるだけ多くの予算を獲得するために目いっぱい要求する」と言わんばかりの省庁が多い。

Against this backdrop, what attracted our attention was the budget sought by the Cabinet Office for promoting Okinawa's development. The requested amount of 321 billion yen was 14 billion yen less than in the initial fiscal 2016 budget.
そうした中で目を引くのが、内閣府が所管する沖縄振興予算だ。要求額は今年度当初より140億円少ない3210億円。

Some people claim this reduction is meant to "restrain" Okinawa Governor Takeshi Onaga, with whom the central government has been at odds over the planned relocation of U.S. Marine Corps Air Station Futenma to the Henoko district in Nago.
米軍普天間飛行場の名護市辺野古への移設計画をめぐって対立する翁長雄志知事を牽制(けんせい)したのでは、ともささやかれる。

Dismissing this allegation out of hand, Chief Cabinet Secretary Yoshihide Suga stressed, "When compiling a budget, it is only natural to make constant efforts to ensure the implementation of effective policies by reviewing various expenditures as needed. And the budget for Okinawa's development is no exception."
菅官房長官はそうした見方を否定したうえで「予算については、効果的な政策を実現するために必要に応じて歳出の見直し、不断の努力をするのは当然。沖縄振興予算も例外ではない」と強調した。

If we are to take Suga's words at face value, then we must ask: Have all government ministries and agencies made such "constant efforts" in regard to their budget requests?
ならば、問いたい。そうした「不断の努力」をすべての省庁がすべての予算について尽くしたのか、と。

Before the government started accepting budget requests for fiscal 2017, the Cabinet of Prime Minister Shinzo Abe approved the second supplementary budget for the current fiscal year. With the additional issuance of construction bonds worth upwards of 2.7 trillion yen to fund more public works projects, the total came close to 3.3 trillion yen.
来年度予算の概算要求に先立って、政府は今年度2次補正予算案を閣議決定した。2兆7千億円強の建設国債を追加発行して公共事業を積み増すなど、総額は3兆3千億円に迫る。

This is the same old pattern of using supplementary budgets as a "loophole" for spending more on items similar to those in the initial budget and letting the expenditures bloat.
当初予算と似た項目が並び、補正が抜け道となって歳出が膨らむ構図は相変わらずだ。

One thing is certain. So long as the government continues with this sort of fiscal management, the nation's fiscal health faces a long battle for recovery.
こんな財政運営をしていては健全化への道は遠い。それだけは確かである。

続きを読む

サバ漁国際規制 資源が枯渇してからでは遅い

The Yomiuri Shimbun
It will be too late to take steps after key fishery resources are depleted
サバ漁国際規制 資源が枯渇してからでは遅い

Even familiar fish could become luxury foods beyond the reach of ordinary people if their stocks are depleted. Japan must take a leading role in international management of fishery resources.
身近な魚でも、資源が枯渇すれば、手の届かない高級食材になりかねない。国際的管理を日本が主導せねばならない。

The North Pacific Fisheries Commission, whose six members include Japan, China and South Korea, has reached an agreement on a recommendation not to increase the number of mackerel vessels on the high seas in the northern Pacific Ocean.
日中韓など6か国・地域で構成する「北太平洋漁業委員会」が、北太平洋の公海上でサバ漁船数を増やさないよう推奨することで一致した。

It is the first international agreement on the protection of mackerel resources. Controlling the number of fishing boats was left to voluntary efforts of each country and region. The Japanese government considers the agreement to be equivalent to “standing at the minimum starting line.” Ensuring that the decision will be effective is a challenge.
サバの資源保護に向けた初の国際合意だ。漁船数の抑制は、各国・地域の自主的取り組みに委ねられた。日本政府は「最低限のスタートラインに立てた」と評価している。今回の決定に、いかに実効性を持たせるかが課題である。

The domestic catch of mackerel exceeded 1.6 million tons in 1978, but dramatically decreased to 250,000 tons in 1991. After that, the mackerel catch was restricted with the aim of protecting stocks. Currently, the fish haul remains at about 500,000 tons a year, mainly in Japan’s exclusive economic zone (EEZ).
サバの国内漁獲量は1978年に160万トンを超えたが、91年には25万トンまで激減した。その後、資源保護を目的に漁獲量が制限され、現在は、主に排他的経済水域(EEZ)内で年50万トン前後の水揚げで推移している。

The number of Chinese mackerel boats operating in international waters adjacent to the EEZ is rapidly increasing. This number increased from 20 in 2014 to at least 80 in 2015, based on reports. The 2015 fish haul increased five times to more than 130,000 tons compared with that of the previous year.
隣接する公海上では、中国漁船が急増している。2014年の20隻から、15年は報告されているだけで80隻となり、漁獲量も5倍の13万トン余に増えた。

At the commission meeting held in Tokyo this time, Japan urged the other members to make it mandatory to limit the number of fishing vessels out of a sense of urgency that if the number of Chinese boats continues to increase at its recent rate, the fishery resources could be depleted again.
東京で開かれた今回の会議で、日本は漁船数の抑制を義務化するよう求めた。中国の漁獲量がこのまま増えれば、再び資源が枯渇しかねないという危機感からだ。

Resource survey essential

However, China rejected Japan’s request, saying that the restriction should not be strengthened because it is unclear if the quantity of the resources is decreasing. In the end, the meeting did not adopt a mandatory restriction.
しかし、中国は「資源量の減少が不明な段階で規制を強化すべきではない」と反発した。結局、義務化は見送られた。

To have China recognize the significance of the restriction, it is important for Japan to play a central role in swiftly proceeding with a fact-finding survey on the volume of stocks, which the participants in the meeting agreed to conduct, and provide scientific data.
規制の意義を中国に認めさせるためには、会議で合意した資源量の実態調査を日本が中心となって速やかに進め、科学的データを示すことが大切である。

Against the background of diversifying dietary behaviors and the development of fisheries in China and other countries, there is a growing threat to the sustainability of fishery resources consumed mainly by Japan.
中国などでの食生活の多様化や漁業の発達を背景に、主に日本が消費してきた漁業資源の持続性が危ぶまれる事態が増えている。

The commission, launched under the leadership of Japan last year, made it mandatory not to increase the number of sanma saury fishing boats.
委員会は、日本の呼びかけで昨年発足し、サンマの漁船数を増やさないことを義務化した。

Concerning Pacific bluefin tuna, additional restrictive measures to be taken in case immature fish rapidly decrease are an immediate challenge. The catch of immature fish has already been restricted. An international conference is being held in Fukuoka to discuss concrete rules on the issue and conditions for implementing restrictions.
太平洋クロマグロについては、既に漁獲量を制限している未成魚が急減した場合の追加規制策が、当面の懸案だ。具体的なルールや発動条件を協議する国際会議が福岡市内で開かれている。

Japan, as a major fishery country, has the responsibility to conduct sustainable fishing by taking such actions as first determining the volume of stocks and then protecting against overfishing of immature fish. It is vital to maintain a balance between the protection of various resources and the promotion of fisheries.
水産大国である日本には、資源量を把握した上で、未成魚の乱獲を防ぐなど、持続的な漁業に取り組む責任がある。多様な資源の保護と漁業振興のバランスを維持していくことが肝要だ。

Large-scale fishing methods, such as trawling and longline fishing, which collaterally catch species on top of the targeted ones, also are considered problematic. We hope Japan will take a leading role in changing these fishing methods to ones that will minimize the adverse influence on the ecosystem.
狙った魚種以外の生物も捕獲してしまう底引き網漁やはえ縄漁など、大規模漁法も問題視されている。日本が率先して、可能な限り生態系に悪影響を及ぼさない手法に改善していきたい。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Aug. 31, 2016)

続きを読む

アフリカ会議 良質な支援で中国と差別化を

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Differentiate Japan’s aid to Africa from China’s in terms of quality
アフリカ会議 良質な支援で中国と差別化を

Africa’s healthy development is indispensable to world stability. It is necessary to provide support through the joint efforts of the public and private sectors and establish a relationship of reciprocity embracing the potential for growth as the continent develops.
アフリカの健全な発展は、世界の安定に欠かせない。官民を挙げて支援し、成長力を取り込む互恵関係を築きたい。

The Sixth Tokyo International Conference on African Development (TICAD VI) was held in Nairobi, with the leaders of Japan and about 50 African nations attending, among others. They adopted the Nairobi Declaration, calling for economic structural reforms and reinforcing measures against communicable diseases as its main pillars.
日本とアフリカの約50か国の首脳らによる第6回アフリカ開発会議(TICAD)がケニアで開かれた。経済構造改革や感染症対策の強化を柱とするナイロビ宣言を採択した。

In a keynote speech, Prime Minister Shinzo Abe pledged a total of $30 billion (about ¥3 trillion) in investments from the public and private sectors over a period of three years through 2018, and to develop human resources, including about 10 million engineers. “The time has come to make the best of Japan’s capabilities, Japanese companies’ capabilities,” Abe emphasized.
安倍首相は基調講演で、3年間で官民総額300億ドル(約3兆円)規模を投資し、約1000万人の技術者らを育成する考えを表明した。「日本と日本企業の力を生かす時が来た」とも訴えた。

Blessed with rich natural resources and given its rapid increase in population, Africa is referred to as “the final frontier” of the world economy, leading many countries to compete to make investments in the continent.
豊富な天然資源を有し、人口も急増するアフリカは、世界経済の「最後のフロンティア」と称され、各国が競って投資してきた。

But, in recent years, Africa has faced such challenges as declining prices for natural resources, the spread of Ebola and other infectious diseases, frequent civil wars and terrorism. The continent is far from being in a situation under which it can eradicate poverty and achieve social stability.
しかし、近年は、資源価格の下落、エボラ出血熱など感染症の拡大、内戦やテロの多発といった課題に直面している。貧困の根絶や社会の安定にはほど遠い。

It is reasonable that the Nairobi Declaration refers to “economic diversification” without relying merely on exports of resources. It is essential to promote investment in high-quality infrastructure and foster human resources through the prudent use of Japanese expertise, thereby encouraging self-sustained development.
ナイロビ宣言が、資源輸出だけに頼らない「経済の多角化」を掲げたのは妥当だ。日本の技術力を生かした、質の高いインフラ投資や人材育成を進め、アフリカの自立を促すことが肝要である。

Diverse cooperation

Many Japanese business corporations and associations took part in the TICAD conference, which was held for the first time in Africa, and discussed concrete investment projects. The Japanese business community has high expectations for Africa as a potentially huge market.
初めてアフリカで開かれたTICADには、多くの日本企業や団体が参加し、具体的な投資案件などを協議した。潜在的な巨大市場への経済界の期待は強い。

Twenty-two Japanese firms and business associations signed memorandums on a total of 73 projects. It is highly significant that the range of cooperation is diverse, covering geothermal power generation, agricultural development, hospital construction and malaria control measures.
22企業・団体が計73事業の覚書に署名した。地熱発電や農業の開発、病院整備、マラリア対策など広範な協力の意義は大きい。

Abe announced a plan to launch the “Japan-Africa Public and Private Economic Forum” as a permanent forum for which members of the Japanese Cabinet, together with top executives from Japan’s major business associations and corporations, will visit Africa once every three years. It is imperative for Japan and Africa to maintain close cooperation and pursue mutual benefits.
首相は、「日アフリカ官民経済フォーラム」の設立を発表した。日本の閣僚や企業関係者らが3年に1回、アフリカを訪問する枠組みだ。密接に連携し、双方の利益を追求することが重要だ。

In December, China announced a plan to offer $60 billion in aid to Africa over a period of three years. This figure is double Japan’s. But there is strong criticism that China’s assistance will not lead to fostering personnel and technical transfers because China places priority on profits for its firms and procurement of resources.
中国は昨年12月、3年間で600億ドルを支援すると公表した。金額では日本の2倍だが、中国企業の儲もうけや資源確保などを優先するため、人材育成や技術移転につながらないとの批判が根強い。

In addition to construction of infrastructure with an emphasis on quality, it is essential for Japan to provide know-how on the maintenance and operation of infrastructure and offer elaborate programs to foster local experts, thereby differentiating its assistance from China’s.
日本は、質を重視したインフラ整備に加え、維持や運用のノウハウを提供し、現地の専門家を育てるきめ細かな支援で、中国との差別化を図ることが大切である。

Abe has come out with an India-Pacific initiative of making the Pacific and Indian oceans “peaceful seas governed by the rule of law.” Maintaining a rules-based maritime order and the necessity of reforming the U.N. Security Council were also incorporated in the Nairobi Declaration.
首相は、太平洋とインド洋を「平和な、ルールの支配する海」とするインド太平洋戦略を打ち出した。ナイロビ宣言にも、海洋秩序の維持、国連安全保障理事会の改革の必要性が盛り込まれた。

Both of these points were made with China in mind. From the viewpoint of encouraging China to exercise restraint and avoid self-centered behavior, Japan must build a strategic relationship with African countries.
いずれも中国を念頭に置いたものだ。中国に独善的な行動の自制を促すためにも、アフリカ諸国と戦略的な関係を構築したい。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Aug. 30, 2016)

続きを読む
クリック募金^^
プロフィール
自己紹介・リンク

■近況

2009年の9月15日に脳梗塞を発症、右手が少し不自由になりました。
MRAで脳梗塞の部位を特定でき、素早い処置をとれたので大事に至りませんでした。
快復にむけてリハビリ中です。
(2011/01/01更新)

■自己紹介・リンク

[ はじめに ]
タイのスラチャイです。
英語学習に王道はありません。
毎日毎日の地道な努力の積み重ねが必要です。
スラチャイはNHKのラジオ英語会話で現在の英語力を身につけました。
一日僅か15分の学習でも数年間継続すれば相当な学習効果が期待できます。

[ 名前 ]
松井 清 (スラチャイ)

[ 略歴 ]
・福岡県出身
・国立高知大学卒業
・準大手建設会社に就職
・50歳で会社を早期退職
・99/10 タイ全土を旅行
・00/10 タイに移住
・03/07 カイちゃん誕生
・07/06 シーファーちゃん誕生
・現在タイ国コンケン在住

[ 座右の銘 ]
Slow and steady wins the race.
遅くとも着実な者が勝利する
(NHK基礎英語芹沢栄先生)

[ 学習の手引き ]
・音読して耳から英語を吸収
・Think in English.
・ネイティブ発音付辞書活用
・英英辞典を活用(英和も)
・翻訳和文で専門用語確認

[ English Newspapers ]
Yomiuri
Mainichi
Asahi
Japan Times
Washington Post
Newyork Times
Bangkok Post
The Nations
Phuket Gazette

[ 英字新聞の英和対訳学習 ]
英字新聞(読売)
英字新聞(毎日)
英字新聞(朝日)
英字新聞(朝日2)

[ スラチャイ編集の辞書 ]
タイ日辞書(改訂版)
日タイ辞書(改訂版)
ラオ日辞書
日ラオ辞書

[ 英字新聞リンク ]
ocn cafe
fc2
goo
yahoo
ameba

オンラインカジノ

[ 32レッドカジノ ]



[ online casino ]
オンラインカジノとは

[ 32red casino mobile ]
for iPhone, Android
Roulette Game
Blackjack Game
Slots Game

[ my favorite way ]
Earning some money on the commuting train is fantastic.
roulette game
通勤電車の中で稼ぐ(ルーレット)^^
ルーレットで遊ぶ

[ 32red casino iPhone & Android ]
Mermaids Millions
Royal Derby
Tomb Raider
Blackjack Game
Major Millions

Tomb Raider iTunes App
Blackjack iTunes App
Roulette Game
Android & iPhone Direct Registration

[ sellection for mobile ]
32Red Web App (iPhone & Android) Casino - Homepage

[ 32red download for PC ]


[ online casino for PC ]
Roulette
Blackjack
Online Slots

[ zipang casino ]
in english

最新コメント
記事検索
seesaa100 英字新聞s HPs

スラチャイの家族紹介
私の家族

スラチャイの手作りリンク集
スラチャイタイ在住14年目
New!中国語会話基礎(北京語)他
タイ日辞典(単語帳)
タイ語の子音
タイ語の母音
スラチャイ編曲のmidiのギター曲
スラチャイ編曲のJ.S.Bachです

スラチャイの多国言語学習
初歩のタイ語
初歩の中国語
初歩のラオス語
初歩のビルマ語
初歩のシンハリ語
初歩のタガログ語

タイ語の基礎
タイ文字
タイ日辞書
タイ語の副詞
タイ語の前置詞
タイ語の助動詞
タイ語の接続詞

基礎タイ語一覧(タイ文字、ローマ字)
seesaaサイト内リンク一覧:
01 あいさつ
02 別れのあいさつ
03 声をかけるとき
04 感謝の言葉と答え方
05 謝罪の言葉と答え方
06 聞き直すとき
07 相手の言うことがわからないとき
08 うまく言えないとき
09 一般的なあいづち
10 よくわからないときの返事
11 強めのあいづち
12 自分について述べるとき
13 相手のことを尋ねるとき
14 頼みごとをするとき
15 申し出・依頼を断るとき
16 許可を求めるとき
17 説明してもらうとき
18 確認を求めるとき
19 状況を知りたいとき
20 値段の尋ね方と断り方
21 急いでもらいたいとき
22 待ってもらいたいとき
23 日時・場所・天候を尋ねるとき
24 その他

基礎タイ語一覧(タイ文字、音声付き)
サイト外HPリンク一覧:
01 あいさつ
02 別れのあいさつ
03 声をかけるとき
04 感謝の言葉と答え方
05 謝罪の言葉と答え方
06 聞き直すとき
07 相手の言うことがわからないとき
08 うまく言えないとき
09 一般的なあいづち
10 よくわからないときの返事
11 強めのあいづち
12 自分について述べるとき
13 相手のことを尋ねるとき
14 頼みごとをするとき
15 申し出・依頼を断るとき
16 許可を求めるとき
17 説明してもらうとき
18 確認を求めるとき
19 状況を知りたいとき
20 値段の尋ね方と断り方
21 急いでもらいたいとき
22 待ってもらいたいとき
23 日時・場所・天候を尋ねるとき
24 その他

タイの文化一覧:
01 雨の日にも傘をささないタイ人
02 勉強熱心なタイ人女性たち
03 タイ人は敬謙な仏教徒
04 タイの市場
05 タイの食堂
06 タイ人は外食が大好き
07 果物王国タイランド
08 タイ人の誕生日
09 タイの電話代は高い
10 微笑みの国タイランド

14の戒律(テラワーダ仏教戒律)
seesaaサイト内リンク一覧:
第01番目の戒律
第02番目の戒律
第03番目の戒律
第04番目の戒律
第05番目の戒律
第06番目の戒律
第07番目の戒律
第08番目の戒律
第09番目の戒律
第10番目の戒律
第11番目の戒律
第12番目の戒律
第13番目の戒律
第14番目の戒律

14の戒律(テラワーダ仏教戒律)
サイト外HPリンク一覧:
14の戒律解説
第01番目の戒律
第02番目の戒律
第03番目の戒律
第04番目の戒律
第05番目の戒律
第06番目の戒律
第07番目の戒律
第08番目の戒律
第09番目の戒律
第10番目の戒律
第11番目の戒律
第12番目の戒律
第13番目の戒律
第14番目の戒律


[ 英字新聞リンク ]
yahoo geolog
yaplog
worldpress
teacup
jugem
hatena
@word
blogger
biglobe
excite
a8
so-net
ameblo
wox
rakuten
ninja
seesaa
goo
fc2
yahoo
livedoor
dreamlog

[ HPリンク ]
cocolog 家族のアルバム
fc2 家族のアルバム
初歩の日本語(タイ人学生向け)
タイの小学三年生数学学力テスト(国家試験)
タイ語、中国語、ビルマ語
Preliminary Japanese lessons for Thai students
旅行のタイ語学習サイト
ラオ日・日老辞書
妻はタイ人/タイの文化/タイの仏教戒律

  • ライブドアブログ