英字新聞

読売、毎日、朝日各社英字新聞の主として社説を学習研究します

政権公約選挙 正しい方向なら変更は当然だ

The Yomiuri Shimbun(Aug. 8, 2009)
Parties should be open to revising election vows
政権公約選挙 正しい方向なら変更は当然だ(8月8日付・読売社説)

Obviously, it is important for politicians to try to stick to election pledges. However, if they treat pledges as if they are set in stone, they may face problems in meeting their political obligations.
 公約を「守る」ことが大切なのは確かだが、金科玉条のごとく「守る」ことだけにこだわれば、現実の政治には不具合が生じよう。

The Aug. 30 poll will be the third House of Representatives election for which political parties have announced their policy platforms, along with proposed revenue sources and deadlines for implementation, since the practice began in 2003.
 各政党が政策ごとに財源や実施期限を明示した政権公約を掲げて衆院選を実施するのは、2003年以来、3度目となる。

Academics who proposed such an approach have stressed the need to review previous election pledges each time a lower house election is held.
これを提言した学者らは、衆院選のたびに過去の公約を点検することが重要だと説いた。

In keeping with this goal, a number of organizations recently held a joint meeting to rate the degree to which the ruling bloc has met manifesto pledges laid out ahead of the 2005 lower house election.
 この提言に沿って、与党の05年公約の達成度を検証する集会が先日、開かれた。

The organizations were critical of the ruling parties, saying that the structural reform drive promoted by the cabinet of Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi had been gradually adjusted over the past four years.
参加した各団体は「小泉内閣の構造改革路線が、なし崩し的に修正された」と批判した。

However, when judging the ruling parties' success, it is dangerous to simply focus on whether the points as laid out in their manifestos four years ago have been attained.
 だが、4年前の公約通りに実践したかどうかだけを判断基準にするのは危険だ。

===

Changing realities of reform

The negative effects of Koizumi's reform drive, such as widening social and economic disparities, started to become evident after the last lower house election in 2005. In addition, the country later entered a dramatic economic downturn as a result of the global economic crisis that began last autumn.
 格差拡大など小泉改革の「影」の部分が問題化したのは、前回衆院選以降のことだ。経済が急減速したのも、世界同時不況の影響が広がった昨年秋以降である。

If cabinets that succeeded the Koizumi administration had continued belt-tightening policies--neglecting economic current conditions and failing to take into account problems resulting from market-based structural reforms, such as widening disparities--the Japanese economy likely would have been thrown into chaos.
 もし「小泉後」の歴代内閣が、格差拡大を生んだ市場原理主義的な構造改革の弊害を省みず、景気動向を無視して緊縮財政路線を続けていれば、日本の経済は今ごろ大混乱していただろう。

It is therefore essential to maintain flexibility and a willingness to modify policies in response to changing economic and political realities.
 政治や経済の環境変化に合わせて政策を修正する柔軟さまで否定すべきではない。

At the same time, it is important for policymakers to offer a clear explanation to voters of why such adjustments are necessary.
ただ、その前提として、変更の理由は有権者にきちんと説明する必要はあろう。

However, simply judging the ruling parties' pledges while ignoring the implications of the opposition's proposals also is questionable--the Democratic Party of Japan is battling with the ruling parties for power in the upcoming lower house race, and it is therefore only right that its policy pledges come in for scrutiny.
 与党の公約達成度だけを問題にするのも疑問だ。政権の座を争う以上、民主党の公約も厳しくチェックしないとバランスを欠く。

===

DPJ must be flexible

The DPJ stated in its 2005 manifesto that the party would "undertake" a revision of the Japan-U.S. Status of Forces Agreement with a view to having U.S. bases in Okinawa Prefecture relocated out of the country.
 民主党は05年の公約に、日米地位協定の改定に「着手」し、在沖縄米軍基地の「国外への移転」を目指すと明記していた。

But if the DPJ had seized power in the 2005 election and followed through with its election pledges, cracks would have been created in Japan-U.S. relations. Acceptance of this reality is evident in the DPJ's decision to change the phrasing regarding the bilateral accord from "undertake" to "propose" and drop the reference to relocation overseas in its latest manifesto.
 05年の衆院選で民主党政権が誕生し、公約通りに行動していれば、日米関係に亀裂が生じる事態に陥っただろう。そのことは、民主党が今回、「着手」を「提起」に改め、国外移転の文言を削除したことが雄弁に物語っている。

Of course, it is not right to judge the DPJ's pledges solely on their consistency--if positive changes are made they should be welcomed.
 無論、民主党の公約点検でも、「ぶれた」かどうかを唯一の物差しにするのは誤りだ。望ましい方向への修正なら、むしろ歓迎すべきことだ。

The DPJ reportedly plans to modify wording on decentralization and a Japan-U.S. free trade agreement in its election pledges.
 民主党は、地方分権や日米自由貿易協定(FTA)の記述で公約の修正を行うという。

Apart from this, there are some pledges whose feasibility is doubtful and which are written in an extremely ambiguous way, especially on security and global environment issues, among others.
 ほかにも、安全保障政策や地球環境問題をはじめ、実現可能性を疑われたり、表現が極めて曖昧(あいまい)だったりする公約がある。

The party must therefore continue to carefully examine and reflect on its manifesto pledges until the election is officially announced, and it must not hesitate to revise them if necessary.
公示まで精査に努め、必要であれば修正もためらうべきではない。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Aug. 8, 2009)
(2009年8月8日01時23分 読売新聞)

裁判員判決 検証の積み重ねが欠かせない

Lay judge system should be monitored, improved
The Yomiuri Shimbun(Aug. 7, 2009)
裁判員判決 検証の積み重ねが欠かせない(8月7日付・読売社説)

The nation's first lay judge trial has ended. Many more trials in which ordinary citizens participate as lay judges in criminal cases are expected to follow across the country.
 裁判員が関与した初の裁判が終了した。今後も全国で裁判が相次ぐ。

It is vital that people in the judicial world look for any shortcomings or problems in lay judge trials, including the one that just ended Thursday, and rectify them so the lay judge system can be improved.
法曹関係者は今回も含め、問題点を洗い出して検証し、裁判員制度を改善していくことが肝要である。

The first lay judge trial dealt with a murder that took place on a Tokyo street in May. A 72-year-old man had been accused of stabbing to death his 66-year-old female neighbor with a survival knife.
 審理されたのは、東京で5月に起きた路上殺人事件だった。66歳の女性をサバイバルナイフで刺殺したとして、近所の72歳の男が殺人罪に問われた。

The Tokyo District Court courtroom where the trial was conducted looked completely different to courtrooms in the past. Three professional judges in robes were flanked by six lay judges wearing their everyday clothes.
 東京地裁の法廷は様変わりした。法服姿の3人の裁判官の両脇に私服の裁判員6人が並んだ。

Prosecutors and lawyers showed images on monitors and paraphrased hard-to-comprehend technical terms with plain language.
 検察官と弁護人はモニターに画像を映し、難解な専門用語を平易な言葉に言い換えた。

As one example, a prosecutor explained that a "defensive wound"--which was found on the woman's body--is an injury sustained when a victim tries to use their hand, arm or other body part to block an assault by an assailant with a sharp weapon.
 検察官が被害者の「防御創」について、「刃物で刺されそうになった時、とっさに手で受け止めようとしてできる傷のこと」と説明したのは、その典型だ。

We welcome such changes because they will help the general public more easily understand what is discussed during trials.
裁判の内容が一般にも分かりやすくなったのは、歓迎すべきことである。

===

Heavy burdens

The trial focused on determining the punishment for the defendant, who had admitted to killing the woman. The crux of the decision centered on to what degree the defendant had intended to kill the woman.
 被告は犯行を認めていたため、裁判の争点は量刑に絞られていた。どれだけ強い殺意を持って被害者を刺したかが、量刑を決めるポイントだった。

One lay judge asked the defendant why he decided to go and fetch a knife while he was quarreling with the victim. Such questions indicated the lay judges' willingness to determine for themselves the degree of the defendant's intent to commit murder.
 裁判員は、「言い争いになった時、なぜナイフを持っていこうと思ったのか」などと被告に問いかけた。殺意の度合いを見極めようという姿勢がうかがえた。

While prosecutors demanded a 16-year term of imprisonment, the court sentenced the defendant to 15 years in prison, acknowledging that he stabbed the woman with a strong intent despite being aware that doing so would result in her death. The court handed down a ruling in line with the argument put forward by prosecutors.
 懲役16年の求刑に対し、判決は懲役15年だった。「死亡させると分かりながら、強い攻撃意思を持って刺した」と認定した。検察側の主張に沿った判断である。

During the four-day trial, a female lay judge averted her eyes when images of the victim's body were shown on a monitor. Another female judge was unable to appear in court on the third day because she was feeling unwell due to a cold. She was replaced with a male "supplementary" lay judge.
 4日間の公判では、遺体の写真をモニターで見た女性裁判員が、目をそらす場面があった。別の女性裁判員は風邪で体調を崩し、男性の補充裁判員に交代した。

The daily trial undoubtedly placed a heavy strain on lay judges. In cases when lay judges are asked to make even tougher decisions, such as choosing between the death penalty or an indefinite prison term, they likely will bear an even heavier burden.
 連日の公判が、裁判員にとって大きな負担であったことは間違いあるまい。死刑か無期懲役かの判断などを迫られる裁判では、負担は、さらに増すだろう。

In this regard, the Supreme Court must do everything it can to take care of the lay judges' mental condition, such as ensuring the smooth operation of the counseling service counter that has been set up to give advice to lay judges.
 最高裁は、既に設置した電話相談窓口を円滑に機能させるなど、裁判員の心のケア対策に万全を期していく必要がある。

===

Weighty responsibility

Another issue that needs careful consideration is how to select lay judges.
 裁判員の選考方法も検討課題といえよう。

In the Tokyo District Court trial, the six lay judges randomly chosen by the court turned out to be five women and one man. But for trials on cases involving sex offenses, we wonder whether the age and gender balance of the lay judges could subtly affect rulings.
今回、地裁が無作為で選んだ裁判員は、女性5人、男性1人だったが、性犯罪などの裁判で、男女の比率や年齢構成が偏ると、判決内容に微妙な影響が及ぶことはないだろうか。

After the ruling Thursday, the six lay judges and a supplementary citizen judge attended a press conference. "I sincerely felt the heavy responsibility I bore in judging a person," one said.
 判決後、裁判員全員が会見に応じ、「人を裁くという重大なことを担わされている思いをひしひしと感じた」などと語った。

This comment should be kept in mind, given that any of us could be asked to serve as a lay judge any time soon.
いつ自分が選ばれるか分からないだけに、裁判員の生の声は、大いに参考になるはずだ。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Aug. 7, 2009)
(2009年8月7日01時15分 読売新聞)

原爆忌 オバマ非核演説をどう生かす

The Yomiuri Shimbun(Aug. 6, 2009)
Obama's nonnuclear goal worthy but difficult
原爆忌 オバマ非核演説をどう生かす(8月6日付・読売社説)

It has been 64 years since atomic bombs were dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and this year a ray of light appeared to illuminate the profound desire of those who experienced the terrible devastation of the atomic bombings to see a world free of nuclear weapons.
 広島、長崎への原爆投下から64年がたつ。惨禍を経験した人々の核廃絶への切なる願いに、今年は一筋の光明が差しているようにみえる。

This light was the speech by U.S. President Barack Obama in Prague in April.
 オバマ米大統領による今年4月のプラハ演説である。

In the speech, Obama clarified that "the United States has a moral responsibility" to lead an effort to realize a world without nuclear weapons "as the only nuclear power to have used a nuclear weapon."
 大統領は、「核兵器を使用したことがある唯一の核保有国」として、「核兵器のない世界」の実現に向けて「行動する道義的責任」があると明言した。

The speech was not an admission of responsibility by Obama over using destructive weapons on Japan, which was unable to continue fighting at the time.
 むろん、当時、継戦能力を失っていた日本に対し、残虐兵器を使ったこと自体の責任を認めたわけではない。

However, it is no surprise that this speech by the U.S. president, whose country tends to justify the dropping of the atomic bombs, has brought excitement and hope to people in Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
 しかし、原爆投下を正当化する風潮が、なお根強く残る米国の大統領のこの発言が、ヒロシマ、ナガサキに感動と希望をもたらしたことは、疑いがない。

We hope Obama, without betraying those hopes, exerts leadership by promoting talks on a new nuclear arms reduction treaty with Russia as well as leading the United States to ratify the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty.
 オバマ大統領は、この気持ちを裏切ることなく、ロシアとの新核軍縮交渉推進や、米国の核実験全面禁止条約(CTBT)批准に、指導力を発揮してもらいたい。

===

New treaty for new times

We also need to look at another aspect of Obama's speech.
 オバマ演説のもう一つの側面にも、目を向ける必要がある。

Obama said of eliminating nuclear weapons: "This goal will not be reached quickly--perhaps not in my lifetime." The current state of the world's nuclear weapons is precarious.
 大統領は演説で、核廃絶は「おそらく私の生きているうちには達成されない」と述べた。世界の核状況はそれだけ厳しい。

The Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty, which bans the possession of nuclear weapons except by five nations--Britain, China, France, Russia and the United States--has become a mere facade since India and Pakistan became nuclear powers. And even among the five nations, China has been building up its nuclear arms.
 米露英仏中の5か国以外の核保有を禁じた核拡散防止条約(NPT)体制は、インド、パキスタンの核保有以降、形骸(けいがい)化の一途だ。5か国の中でも、中国のように核軍拡を進めている国もある。

There also is a growing risk that nuclear weapons and related materials could fall into the hands of terrorists.
 テロリストの手に核兵器・関連物質が渡る危険も増している。

The United States is at last seriously addressing the issue of nuclear disarmament--a responsibility is shoulders as a nuclear power under the NPT--a move being touted as a way to thwart the potential for nuclear terrorism, which the United States fears most.
 核保有国のNPT上の責務である軍縮に、米国がようやく本腰を入れるのも、最も危惧(きぐ)している「核テロ」を阻止するため、と指摘されている。

===

Still under the U.S. umbrella?

Japan also faces serious threats from nuclear weapons.
 日本も、深刻な核の脅威の下にある。

Earlier this year, North Korea aggressively conducted missile launches and a second nuclear test.
北朝鮮は先にミサイル発射や2度目の核実験を強行した。

Japan has to depend on the U.S. nuclear umbrella to be safe from any North Korean nuclear missile and other military threats. After Obama's speech, it is not surprising that the government has tried to reconfirm with the United States the protection of the nuclear umbrella, as Japan fears a weakened nuclear deterrence.
 北朝鮮の核ミサイルなどに対して日本は、米国の「核の傘」に頼らざるを得ない。オバマ演説のあと、日本政府が、核抑止力の低下を懸念して「傘」の再確認に動いているのは当然のことだ。


Meanwhile, Katsuya Okada, secretary general of the Democratic Party of Japan, stressed that Japan should make the United States pledge that it will never preemptively use nuclear weapons.
 他方、民主党の岡田幹事長は、米国に核の先制不使用を宣言するよう主張すべきだと言う。

He explained that this would not prohibit U.S. retaliations if a hostile nation strikes first, which he said would partly expose Japan from the protection of the nuclear umbrella. But doesn't this render useless the protection afforded by the umbrella?
 敵国の先制使用に対して、米国の報復まで禁止するわけでないから、「核の傘」から半分外れると説明するが、これでは「傘」は役立たないのではないか。

While seeking the elimination of nuclear weapons, the grave reality is that we must also depend on the nuclear deterrent. It is vital that nuclear disarmament be tackled without having it threaten Japan's peace and security.
 核廃絶を希求する一方で、核抑止力に依存せねばならぬ重い現実がある。核軍縮も、日本の平和と安全が損なわれないよう、着実に取り組むことが肝要だ。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Aug. 6, 2009)
(2009年8月6日01時24分 読売新聞)

防衛有識者会議 大胆な提言を新大綱に生かせ

The Yomiuri Shimbun(Aug. 5, 2009)
New defense guidelines should reflect bold ideas
防衛有識者会議 大胆な提言を新大綱に生かせ(8月5日付・読売社説)

A report was presented to Prime Minister Taro Aso on Tuesday by a group of experts studying the revision of the National Defense Program Guidelines, which define how to maintain Japan's defense capabilities. The panel's report contains a number of daring and important proposals.
 防衛力整備の指針である「防衛計画の大綱」の改定を検討してきた有識者会議が、報告書を麻生首相に提出した。大胆かつ重要な提言が多数含まれている。

To ensure the nation's peace and security amid the changes taking place in the international security environment, it is imperative that traditional taboos be cast aside and that a review takes place of defense policy and the organization of Self-Defense Forces units and the defense equipment available to them.
 国際的な安全保障環境が変化する中、日本の平和と安全を確保し続けるには、従来のタブーを排し、防衛政策や自衛隊の部隊編成・装備を見直すことが肝要だ。

Whichever party takes office after the Aug. 30 House of Representatives election, efforts should be made to reflect the group's proposals as much as possible in the new defense guidelines that are due to be formulated by the end of this year.
 衆院選後の政権をどの政党が担うにせよ、年末に策定する予定の新防衛大綱に、この提言を極力反映させるよう努めるべきだ。

In the report, the experts said that the ability of the United States to be the driving force of "a free and open global system" has weakened in relative terms. Therefore, Japan and European countries need to make up for the United States' declining influence and try to solve international security problems with a joint approach, according to the panel.
 報告書は、「自由で開かれた国際システム」を牽引(けんいん)してきた米国の力が相対的に低下したとの現状認識を示した。そのため、日本や欧州諸国が共同で米国を補完し、国際的な安全保障問題の解決を目指す必要性を主張する。

===

Review PKO participation rules

In concrete terms, the report proposed a review of the nation's five principles for participating in U.N. peacekeeping operations (PKOs) and a revision of the U.N. Peacekeeping Activities Cooperation Law so that SDF troops can more actively participate in peace cooperation activities.
 具体的には、自衛隊が国際平和協力活動に、より積極的に参加するよう、国連平和維持活動(PKO)の参加5原則の見直しやPKO協力法の改正を提唱した。

The threats of international terrorism and piracy in the waters off Somalia symbolize the reality that Japan's security is tied to world peace. The nation has a responsibility to play a part in peace-building efforts by the international community. However, only 39 Japanese were participating in U.N. peacekeeping operations as of June 30, a figure that places Japan only 82nd in the world.
 国際テロや海賊の脅威に象徴されるように、日本の安全は世界の平和と連動している。日本は国際社会による平和構築活動の一翼を担う責任がある。だが、日本の6月末のPKO参加人数は39人で、世界82位にすぎない。

To increase the number of SDF members participating in PKOs, it is important to develop a system enabling the dispatch of troops flexibly in line with the actual circumstances of such missions. It is also necessary to relax existing rules on the use of weapons and develop permanent legislation on the dispatch of SDF members abroad.
 自衛隊の参加を増やすには、PKOの実態に即して、柔軟に部隊を派遣する体制を整えることが大切だ。武器使用権限の拡大と、自衛隊の海外派遣に関する恒久法の整備にも取り組む必要がある。

===

How to interpret Constitution?

In the report, the panel also urged the government to change its interpretation of the Constitution to enable the nation to exercise its right to collective self-defense so that the SDF can intercept ballistic missiles heading toward the United States and protect U.S. Navy ships monitoring missile launches.
 報告書は、集団的自衛権について、米国に向かう弾道ミサイルの迎撃や、ミサイルを警戒する米軍艦船の防護を可能にするよう、政府の憲法解釈の変更を求めた。

When North Korea fired a ballistic missile in April, the SDF and U.S. forces worked together to deal with the situation. To further strengthen confidence in the Japan-U.S. alliance, the government should change its constitutional interpretation as soon as possible.
 4月の北朝鮮のミサイル発射時に自衛隊と米軍は共同対処した。日米同盟の信頼性を高めるには政府解釈の変更を急ぐべきだ。

On the question of whether the nation should possess the capability of attacking bases in enemy territory, the panel stressed in the report that Japan should study the suitability and cost-effectiveness of equipment and operational procedures to this end on the condition that should such contingencies arise Tokyo and Washington would work together to deal with them.
 報告書は、敵基地攻撃能力の保有についても、日米共同対処を前提に、日本として適切な装備体系や運用方法、費用対効果を検討する必要性を強調している。

Calmly discussing what responsibilities Tokyo can share with Washington to help supplement the offensive capabilities of U.S. forces has huge significance.
 米国の攻撃力を補完する形で、どんな役割分担が可能かを冷静に議論する意味は大きい。

The report said the nation's three principles for banning arms exports were preventing Japan from participating in international research projects for developing and producing weapons and that these should be made exceptions to the rules. They also proposed that the ban on the export of weapons to support efforts against terrorism and piracy should also be lifted.
 武器輸出3原則について、報告書は、日本が装備品の国際的な共同開発・生産に参加できない問題を指摘し、3原則の例外化を求めた。テロ・海賊対策支援目的の輸出の解禁も提唱した。

In addition to Japan not being left behind when it comes to state-of-the-art military technology, it should also be a matter of course that Japan allows the export of weapons when this can serve as a contribution to global peace.
 日本が最新の軍事技術から取り残される事態は避けるべきだし、国際平和に寄与する武器輸出は容認するのが当然だろう。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Aug. 5, 2009)
(2009年8月5日02時09分 読売新聞)

私大定員割れ 特色作りで活路を見いだせ

The Yomiuri Shimbun(Aug. 4, 2009)
Specialty key to survival of private universities
私大定員割れ 特色作りで活路を見いだせ(8月4日付・読売社説)

With the shakeout of private universities having finally begun, these institutions must seriously take to heart the fact that those among their number that cannot demonstrate a specialty will no longer be able to survive.
 大学の淘汰(とうた)がいよいよ始まったということだろう。特色を打ち出せない大学は、生き残れない時代だということを肝に銘じなければなるまい。

A survey released Thursday by the Promotion and Mutual Aid Corporation for Private Schools of Japan found that 46.5 percent of four-year private universities were underenrolled at the start of this academic year, almost the same level as last academic year, while 69.1 percent of two-year private junior colleges were in such a situation, a slight increase from last academic year.
 日本私立学校振興・共済事業団が、今年度の大学・短大への入学者数などを発表した。定員割れは昨年度と比べ、4年制大学はほぼ横ばいの46・5%、短大は微増の69・1%に上っている。

Since the beginning of this year, five private universities, including those run by joint-stock companies, have said they will stop accepting new students from next academic year.
 今年に入り、来年度からの学生募集停止を表明した大学は、株式会社立を含め既に5校ある。

Despite the fact that the population of 18-year-olds has been declining due to the low birthrate since academic year 1993, when it fell below 2 million, the number of universities and junior colleges has continued to rise, with the number of four-year private, and state-run and other public universities totaling as many as about 770. It is natural that universities that cannot demonstrate a specialty will be forced to close.
 18歳人口は、200万人を切った1993年度以降、少子化で減り続けているのに、大学数は増え続け、国公立を含めると、4年制大学だけで約770校ある。特色を出せない大学が退場を余儀なくされるのは、当然だろう。

===

Students' needs paramount

Stable university management will not be ensured merely by contriving to continuously recruit students through recommendation-based admission and interview- and essay-based tests, known as "admission office exams." It is very important that private universities offer attractive courses of study and clearly present their education policy and method of developing human resources so young people will be able to envision their future after they are educated there.
 推薦入試やAO入試で安易な学生集めを続けるだけでは、経営の安定は図れない。進学したいと思わせる教育課程を用意し、その教育を受ければどんな将来像が描けるのか、教育方針と人材育成の方法を明確に示すことが肝要だ。

At some private universities, people who have had careers in corporate management serve as president, and faculty and companies in their local community discuss and decide on study goals, textbooks and other educational materials. Other universities have established unique departments, including one specializing in manga.
 企業経営に携わった経験者を学長に据え、教員と地元の企業が協議して授業の目標や教材を決めたり、マンガ学部など独自の学部を設けたりする大学もある。

To increase the number of mature students holding down full-time jobs, which accounts for only about 2 percent of the total, private universities must also provide education that meets such students' various needs.
 2%程度しかいない社会人学生が増えるよう、需要に合った教育内容の提供も必要だろう。

The government's Central Education Council is currently discussing future university education from a mid- and long-term perspective. We hope the council will thoroughly discuss the appropriate number of universities and students.
 中央教育審議会は、中長期的な大学教育のあり方について審議中だ。大学数や学生数の適正規模もしっかり議論してもらいたい。

===

Safety net needed

It is noteworthy that the council's first report, compiled in June, emphasizes that the desirable size and nature of universities should be discussed from the perspective of different targets. The report lists seven such targets, including "nurturing professionals in a wide range of fields" and "social contribution."
 6月にまとめた第1次報告で注目されるのは、大学の規模や質のあり方を分野別に考えるよう強調していることだ。この中で、「幅広い職業人の養成」「社会貢献」など7分野を例示している。

In their respective proposals on human resources development, the Japan Association of Corporate Executives (Keizai Doyukai) and the Japan Business Federation (Nippon Keidanren) also are calling on universities to increase specialization in their areas of expertise.
 大学が得意分野に重点化していくことは、経済同友会や日本経団連がまとめた人材育成に関する提言でも求めている。

However, the Central Education Council should spell out in greater detail the targets it believes an ideal university should meet. We hope the council will work out this point before compiling its final report.
 ただ、分野別の例は、もっと具体的に示すべきではないか。最終報告までに練り上げてほしい。

The council has also proposed discussions on the establishment of a new higher educational body, specializing in vocational education, other than existing universities and junior colleges. The raison d'etre of junior colleges, whose main objectives include vocational education, therefore comes into question.
 中教審は、大学や短大とは別に職業教育に特化した新高等教育機関の検討も打ち出しており、職業教育を目的の一つとする短大は存在意義が問われている。

Cultivating a specialty is necessary, but it may also be a wise option for junior colleges to actively discuss transforming themselves into four-year universities as well as realigning and integrating.
 特色作りも必要だが、4年制大学への転換や再編・統合をもっと積極的に検討してもよい。

The population of 18-year-olds is expected to hover around 1.2 million for the next decade. Should private universities remain underenrolled, their management will face an increased danger of collapse. The Education, Science and Technology Ministry should prepare measures to deal with a possible collapse of universities, including a system to protect students enrolled in universities that fail.
 18歳人口は、今後も10年間程度は120万人前後で推移する。定員割れが続けば、経営破綻(はたん)の危機は高まる。文部科学省は、在学生が保護される仕組みなど破綻処理策を考えておく必要があろう。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Aug. 4, 2009)
(2009年8月4日00時43分 読売新聞)

最低賃金 まだ残る生活保護との逆転

The Yomiuri Shimbun(Aug. 3, 2009)
Minimum wage should always exceed welfare
最低賃金 まだ残る生活保護との逆転(8月3日付・読売社説)

The Central Minimum Wages Council, an advisory panel to the health, labor and welfare minister, has proposed to the minister reference increases for the minimum wage in fiscal 2009 that differ from prefecture to prefecture.
 厚生労働省の中央最低賃金審議会が、地域別最低賃金の今年度の引き上げの目安を示した。

The proposals are to leave unchanged the minimum wage in the 35 prefectures in which the minimum wage exceeds welfare benefit, and to raise the minimum wage in the remaining 12, including Tokyo, by 2 yen to 30 yen an hour.
 最低賃金が生活保護水準を上回る35県は据え置き、それ以外の12都道府県は、時給で2円から30円の引き上げを求める、という内容である。

If the panel's recommendation is adopted, the national average minimum wage would rise by between 7 yen and 9 yen to 710-712 yen an hour, which translates to a net monthly income of about 106,000 yen. Considering current economic conditions, such a hike would be a drastic one.
 この結果、最低賃金は全国平均で7~9円引き上げられ、時給で710~712円、月収換算すると、税などを控除して約10万6000円となる。経済状況からすれば、踏み込んだ決着となった。

A year-on-year comparison of the national average minimum wage shows that increases of 14 yen and 16 yen occurred in fiscal 2007 and 2008, respectively, representing double-digit growth for two consecutive years. But the rate of wage increases for small companies nationwide, which the advisory panel studies when working out the minimum wage reference increases, fell into negative territory in 2009.
 ここ2年は平均14円、16円と2ケタ増が続いたが、目安を審議する際に参考にしている全国の小規模企業の賃上げ率は、今年はマイナスに転じていた。

Panel members selected from labor circles sought an increase of 50 yen an hour in the minimum wage last year, but failed to demand a specific figure this year, no doubt in consideration of the severe business environment.
 昨年は時給50円増を求めた労働側委員も、今回は具体的な上げ幅を示さなかった。経営環境の厳しさを承知していたからだろう。

===

Panel's proposal no panacea

The Minimum Wages Law, which was revised in July 2008, calls for setting the minimum wage by factoring in employers' ability to pay wages and "harmonization of the minimum wage and welfare benefit."
 最低賃金法が昨年7月に改正され、事業主側の賃金支払い能力などに加え、新たに「生活保護との整合性」にも配慮して最低賃金を定めることが盛り込まれた。

Even in the current economic climate, if the panel had abandoned the goal of pursuing "harmonization of the minimum wage and welfare benefit" only two years after the law revision, its raison d'etre would have been called into question.
 景気が悪くても施行2年目でこれを放棄しては、審議会の存在が問われるところでもあった。

The problem of the minimum wage being below welfare benefit in the 12 prefectures will not be solved merely through the implementation of the panel's recommendation. In the case of Tokyo, if the minimum wage is raised in line with the panel's proposal, the amount would be increased from the current 766 yen an hour to a maximum 796 yen. But 796 yen an hour is 30 yen less than the amount of welfare benefit paid in the capital, in hourly terms.
 生活保護と逆転している12都道府県は、今回でそれが解消されるわけではない。東京都の場合、目安どおりアップすれば現状の時給766円から最大796円になるが、まだ時給で30円足りない。

The amount of welfare benefit is categorized in six ranks according to municipality (cities, towns and villages). The national average minimum wage is compared with the average amount of welfare benefit received by young, single people in each prefecture. In most of the 35 prefectures whose minimum wage the panel proposes be left as is, the amount of welfare benefit paid out in the capitals of those prefectures likely will exceed the minimum wage paid in those cities.
 生活保護は市町村ごとに6ランクに分けて決められている。最低賃金は若年単身者の都道府県別の平均額と比較するが、最低賃金が据え置かれた35県の多くも、県庁所在地で比べると、生活保護の方が上回るとみられている。

The advisory panels responsible for setting the minimum wage in each prefecture will decide how much to raise it based on the reference increases proposed by the central government panel, and the raises will be introduced from October. We hope the minimum wage will exceed welfare benefit in all the areas of each prefecture.
 今後、中央審が示した目安を参考に、都道府県ごとに地方審議会が引き上げ額を決定し、10月から改定される予定だ。都道府県内のどの地域でも生活保護を上回ることを目標にしてもらいたい。

===

Deeper discussions needed

If welfare benefit exceeds the minimum wage, workers who receive little more than that amount will lose the motivation to work, while people on welfare will have no incentive to find a job. "Harmonization of the minimum wage and welfare benefit" is an issue that should be seriously discussed next year and after, too.
 生活保護の方が高ければ、最低賃金ぎりぎりで働く人の就労意欲は失われ、生活保護者は職を探す気にならないだろう。「生活保護との整合性」は、来年以降もしっかりと追求していくべきだ。

With the increase in the number of nonregular workers, including part-time workers, the importance of the role of the minimum wage system as a social safety net is growing.
 パートなどの非正規労働者が増加し、安全網としての最低賃金制度の役割は増している。

The manifestos of each opposition party and the ruling Liberal Democratic Party's coalition partner, New Komeito, for the next House of Representatives election propose a minimum wage of 1,000 yen an hour. But it is problematic to treat student part-timers on an equal footing with fatherless families when it comes to setting the minimum wage.
 野党各党や公明党は衆院選の公約で「時給1000円」の最低賃金を掲げているが、学生アルバイトと母子家庭では同一に論じられないという側面もある。

More intensive discussions on a fair minimum wage level and how to set such a level should be held, taking into account how this issue affects corporate management.
 企業経営への影響を含め、最低賃金のあり方や決定方法の議論を深めることが重要だろう。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Aug. 3, 2009)
(2009年8月3日01時21分 読売新聞)

ラグビー W杯をスポーツ界の活力に

The Yomiuri Shimbun(Aug. 2, 2009)
2019 Rugby World Cup could give sports fillip
ラグビー W杯をスポーツ界の活力に(8月2日付・読売社説)

Japan has won the right to host the 2019 Rugby World Cup.
 ラグビーの2019年ワールドカップ(W杯)が、日本で開催されることになった。

We hope that hosting the event will invigorate not only rugby, but sport more generally in the nation, which has been suffering during the severe economic downturn.
 W杯開催を、ラグビー界だけでなく、不況の影響で逆風を受けているスポーツ界全体の活性化につなげたい。

The Rugby World Cup is said to be the third-biggest sporting event in the world after soccer's World Cup and the Summer Olympic Games. Since it was launched in 1987, the Rugby World Cup has been held every four years. But Japan will be the first Asian nation to host the tournament.
 ラグビーのW杯は、サッカーのW杯、夏季五輪に次ぐ規模の国際大会と言われている。1987年の第1回大会以来、4年に1度、開かれてきたが、アジアでの開催は初めてである。

Japan was likely picked in light of the praise it earned for its hosting in June of the Junior World Championship (for players aged 20 or under) among other factors. Also, the International Rugby Board apparently is intent on expanding the rugby business through greater internationalization of the sport.
 日本が選ばれたのは、6月に20歳以下の世界選手権を開催した実績などが評価された結果だろう。ラグビーの国際化で市場拡大を目指す国際ラグビーボード(IRB)の思惑も働いたといえる。

===

Long way to go

But the reality is that Japan still has many obstacles to overcome ahead of the tournament.
 だが、現実には、大会までの道のりは平坦(へいたん)ではないだろう。

First and foremost, it is imperative to raise the standard of the national team--a strong team would likely lead to greater public excitement over the tournament.
まず必要なのは、日本チームのレベルアップだ。日本代表が強ければこそ、大会は盛り上がる。

Japan has participated in all six rugby World Cups, but has each time failed to progress beyond the group stage--the national team struggles to compete with the world's top teams.
 日本は過去6回のW杯のすべてに出場しているが、いずれも1次リーグで敗退している。世界のトップクラスの国と比べると、大きな力の差があるのが現状だ。

The Japan Rugby Football Union must therefore work hard to come up with effective measures to improve standards with an eye on the next decade.
 日本ラグビー協会は、10年後を見据え、しっかりとした強化策を練らなければならない。

One way to strengthen the national team would be the fielding of foreign players. Foreign rugby players would be eligible to play for Japan as long as they have not played for any other national team and have played in Japan for at least three years consecutively.
 外国人選手によって日本代表をさらに補強するのも一つの方法であろう。ラグビーの場合、他国での代表経験がなく、日本で3年以上プレーすれば、外国人でも日本代表になれるからだ。

However, if there are too many foreign players in the national team, people may feel the thrill of cheering on their country's own players at the World Cup is diminished.
 しかし、他国の選手があまりに多くては、国旗を背負って戦うというW杯の醍醐(だいご)味が薄れてしまうと感じる人も少なくあるまい。

===

Investing in success

It is difficult to argue that rugby is particularly popular in Japan, with many members of the public likely to say they only watch the latter stages of the national university championship early in the New Year on TV.
 国内のラグビー人気は、決して高いとはいえない。テレビで見るのは、年始の大学選手権だけという人も多いのではないか。

To broaden the sport's fan base, it is essential that the nation's players improve their skill levels and battle hard in games.
ファン層を拡大するためにも、選手がレベルアップして、迫力ある試合を見せることは欠かせない。

The Japan Rugby Football Union is due to make an about 15 billion yen host guarantee payment to the International Rugby Board. Meanwhile, the construction and upgrading of venue facilities will require huge investment.
 W杯開催により、協会は約150億円の開催保証金をIRBに支払わねばならない。会場の整備にも巨額の資金が必要となる。

A further issue is how attractive rugby will appear to businesses and other groups whose support is being sought.
 ラグビーがビジネスとしても魅力ある競技であると認知されるかどうかが、経済界などからの支援獲得のカギとなるだろう。

The nation also has been bidding to host the 2016 Olympic Games and a soccer World Cup. If Tokyo is chosen to host the Games in 2016, a new stadium with a capacity of 100,000 is expected to be built in the city's Harumi district. Using the same stadium for the Rugby World Cup would save on costs.
 日本は、16年の東京五輪、さらにサッカーのW杯招致にも取り組んでいる。東京五輪が実現すれば、東京・晴海に10万人収容の新スタジアムが建設される予定だ。ここをラグビーW杯でも使えば、施設整備費の節約につながる。

The host city of the 2016 Games will be announced in October. We hope that Tokyo will win, helped on by the successful bid to host the Rugby World Cup.
 16年の五輪開催地は10月に決まる。ラグビーW杯を追い風に、東京五輪も実現にこぎ着けたい。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Aug. 2, 2009)
(2009年8月2日01時46分 読売新聞)

自民党政権公約 「責任力」に見合う具体策示せ

The Yomiuri Shimbun(Aug. 1, 2009)
Responsible party needs responsible policies
自民党政権公約 「責任力」に見合う具体策示せ(8月1日付・読売社説)

The Liberal Democratic Party unveiled its campaign platform for the upcoming House of Representatives election on Friday.
 自民党が衆院選の政権公約を発表した。

Although the manifesto contained an unusual phrase lauding the party's "ability to govern responsibly," the LDP was at pains to trumpet that it is a responsible political party and spelled out where it differed from the main opposition Democratic Party of Japan.
 「責任力」という聞き慣れない造語を使ってまで、自民党は責任政党ぶりを強調し、政権交代を訴える民主党への対抗意識を前面に打ち出した。

However, sections on how the LDP will carry out its policies are riddled with vague explanation. We think the LDP should describe its policies in far more detail during political debates from now on.
 だが、個々の政策を実現させる道筋には曖昧(あいまい)な部分が目立つ。今後の論戦を通じて、さらに具体的な説明に努める必要がある。

The LDP picks up social security system reform and tax system reform from the opening of its manifesto. It says, "We will implement necessary legislative measures by fiscal 2011 in regard to fundamental taxation reform, including a consumption tax rate increase."
 公約の冒頭に社会保障制度改革と税制改革を掲げ、「消費税を含む税制抜本改革について、2011年度までに必要な法制上の措置を講じる」としている。

The platform then goes on to say the party "will construct a social security system of medium welfare levels and medium burden." The LDP spells out in black and white that it wants the public to bear a fair share of the cost of providing a social security safety net, including through a rise in the consumption tax rate in the future.
 その上で、「『中福祉・中負担』の社会保障制度を構築する」とも記し、将来の消費税率引き上げを含め、国民に応分の負担を求める姿勢を明確にした。

===

Finding the funding

The LDP tried to pick apart the DPJ platform and cast doubt on whether the DPJ can actually find the resources to bankroll its policies. The LDP should be given some credit for having found the courage to mention a consumption tax increase and prodding the public to shoulder a "medium burden" of social security costs. However, the LDP failed to specify crucial details of these policies.
 財源の裏付けがあやふやな民主党との違いを際立たせよう、という狙いからだろうが、及び腰ながら、消費税や「中負担」に踏み込んだことは一応、評価できる。

The centerpiece of the LDP manifesto is a policy to phase out preschool fees for children aged 3 to 5, with these fees eventually being waived in fiscal 2012. The policy is a direct counterproposal to the DPJ pledge to offer a monthly allowance of 26,000 yen per child to households with children of middle school age or younger.
 目玉政策は、幼児教育の負担を段階的に軽減し、2012年度に完全無償化することだという。中学生まで1人月額2万6000円を支給するとした民主党の「子ども手当」に対抗して掲げた。

However, the LDP will need to wring an additional about 790 billion yen from somewhere to cover the costs of this policy. Although this is a fraction of the 5.5 trillion yen the DPJ will need for its monthly allowance policy, it is still a hefty price tag. The party manifesto offered no clear answers on how it would finance this plan.
 だが、完全無償化には新たに約7900億円を捻出(ねんしゅつ)しなければならない。「子ども手当」実現に必要な5・5兆円とは桁(けた)が違うとはいえ、かなりの額だ。財源はどう手当てするのか。その答えは示されていない。

If the LDP is serious about extolling its ability to govern responsibly, it should not crank up a skirmish based on pork-barrel spending as it seeks to woo voters.
 「責任力」を強調するのなら、票目当てのばらまき合戦をエスカレートさせるべきではない。

===

Security issues

In the diplomatic and national security fields, the platform says that, to counter North Korea's ballistic missile threat, the LDP will implement necessary security measures that will enable the interception of ballistic missiles fired toward the United States as well as protect U.S. vessels operating in cooperation with Japan on the ballistic missile defense shield.
 一方、外交・安全保障分野では、北朝鮮の弾道ミサイルの脅威に対し、「米国に向かう弾道ミサイルの迎撃」「弾道ミサイル防衛で連携する米国艦艇の防護」が可能となるよう、「必要な安全保障上の手当てを行う」としている。

If the LDP suggests there could be a change from the current government interpretation on the right to collective self-defense--in which the nation possesses this right but cannot exercise it--we think the party should have come right out and said so.
 集団的自衛権の「権利はあるが、行使できない」とする現行の政府解釈の変更を意味しているのなら、もっと明確に書くべきだったのではないか。

The DPJ said in its collection of policies unveiled at the same time as its manifesto that it will not stick to conceptual discussions on whether self-defense is individual or collective. The DPJ's stance can be interpreted as accepting the exercise of the right to collective self-defense, but this lack of clarity makes the party's stance difficult to understand. We think the DPJ needs to flesh out its explanation.
 集団的自衛権について、民主党は公約と一緒に発表した政策集で「個別的・集団的といった概念上の議論に拘泥せず」としている。行使の容認とも読めるが、分かりにくい。補足の説明が必要だ。

All the major parties have presented their campaign platforms, so now the cut-and-thrust of a full-fledged election campaign can begin in earnest. We hope each party focuses on spreading their messages and policies on pending domestic and international issues.
 主要政党の政権公約が出揃(そろ)い、論戦はいよいよ本格化する。各党には、内外の懸案に対する具体的な処方箋(せん)を競うことに主眼を置いてもらいたい。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Aug. 1, 2009)
(2009年8月1日01時18分 読売新聞)

外交・安保 民主党は「給油」の代案を示せ

The Yomiuri Shimbun(Jul. 31, 2009)
DPJ's troubling stand on refueling mission
外交・安保 民主党は「給油」の代案を示せ(7月31日付・読売社説)

How should the nation deal with the threats posed by North Korea's nuclear weapons and missiles as well as acts of international terrorism? How can Japan's national interests be protected while this nation works in tandem with international society?
 北朝鮮の核・ミサイルや国際テロの脅威にどう備えるのか。国際社会と協調しながら、日本の国益をいかに守るか。

We hope political parties will hold animated discussions on what course Japan's diplomatic and security policies should take, during their campaigns for the upcoming House of Representatives election.
 各政党は衆院選を通じて、外交・安全保障政策の方向性を大いに論じてもらいたい。

At the moment, the topic on many observers' lips is the Self-Defense Forces' refueling mission in the Indian Ocean.
 目下の焦点は、インド洋での海上自衛隊の給油活動だ。

In a recent moderation of its foreign and security policy, the main opposition Democratic Party of Japan announced a plan to continue, for the time being, the refueling mission, which the party once decried as violating the Constitution.
 民主党は、かつて「憲法違反」とまで批判していた給油活動を当面継続する新方針を打ち出した。

However, DPJ leader Yukio Hatoyama said Wednesday his party would not extend the mission once the new Antiterrorism Law expires in January. We find the party's fickle response to this important mission hard to fathom.
ところが、鳩山代表は、来年1月の新テロ対策特別措置法の期限切れ後は活動の延長はしないと表明した。分かりにくい対応だ。

Why did the DPJ decide to continue the operation for the time being if it believes it violates the Constitution? If the party withdraws the Maritime Self-Defense Force from the Indian Ocean, just what does it plan to contribute to the international fight against terrorism? Does it plan to do nothing at all?
 「憲法違反」の活動を、なぜ当面は継続するのか。仮に海自を撤収させる場合、「テロとの戦い」のために、代わりに何をするのか。それとも何もしないのか。

The DPJ has a responsibility to provide clear answers to these questions.
 民主党は衆院選前に、これらの点を明確にする責任がある。

===

Afghanistan proposal weak

In 2007, the party submitted to the Diet a counterproposal to the ruling bloc's antiterrorism bill. The DPJ's alternative plan called for providing humanitarian and reconstruction assistance to Afghanistan after a formal ceasefire has been reached in the war-torn country. The grim reality, however, is that there is absolutely no prospect of such an accord being signed. The upshot is that the DPJ proposal practically means that Japan would sit on its hands and offer nothing to the international fight against terrorism.
 一昨年、民主党が国会に提出した新テロ特措法の対案は、アフガニスタンでの武力抗争停止の合意後に人道復興支援を行う内容だった。そんな合意の見通しはなく、事実上は何もしない案だ。

Given that, the proposal is unlikely to be warmly supported in foreign capitals.
 同じ案では、国際社会の理解は到底得られまい。

The DPJ proposed in its manifesto that Japan will share roles with the United States and proactively fulfill its responsibilities to build an "equal Japan-U.S. relationship."
 民主党の政権公約は、「対等な日米関係」を構築するため、「米国と役割を分担しながら日本の責任を積極的に果たす」と明記した。

The expression "equal relationship" suggests the DPJ intends to back away from the path trodden by the Liberal Democratic Party and New Komeito, which it claims have been content to follow the lead of the United States.
「対等な関係」とは、自公政権は米国に追従してきたが、民主党政権は違う、という趣旨だろう。

The DPJ manifesto says the party plans to propose to the United States that the Japan-U.S. Status of Forces Agreement be revised and the realignment of U.S. forces stationed in Japan be reviewed.
 公約によれば、日米地位協定や米軍再編の見直しを米側に提起するという。

But if the DPJ is serious about bringing these pledges to fruition, it must explain what international responsibilities it plans to fulfill. Failure to do so will sink any hopes the party has of building an "equal relationship" with the United States.
だが、その実現には、まず、どんな国際的な「責任」を果たすのかを示すことが不可欠だろう。それなしに、「対等な関係」を築けるはずがない。

===

Adapting to the real world

On the other hand, the party offered forward-looking pledges on the antipiracy mission off Somalia and cargo inspections that form part of the international sanctions imposed on North Korea. These steps indicate the DPJ is open to taking a more realistic approach to foreign and security policy matters.
 一方で、ソマリア沖の海賊対策や、北朝鮮制裁目的の貨物検査に前向きな政策を示したことは現実路線化の表れと評価できる。

But we have some niggling doubts, not least the party's plan to form a coalition government with the Social Democratic Party, which opposes the dispatch of SDF personnel on overseas missions. Will the DPJ be able to continue the MSDF antipiracy mission despite the SDP's objections?
 ただ、懸念もある。自衛隊の海外派遣に反対する社民党との連立政権を目指していることだ。社民党の反対を押し切って海自の海賊対処活動を継続できるのか。

The right to collective self-defense is another key issue. The LDP plans to incorporate this subject in its election pledges. We welcome this move.
 集団的自衛権の問題も重要な論点である。自民党は政権公約に盛り込む方針だ。歓迎したい。

The LDP's election pledge will be based on a proposal by a panel of experts led by former Ambassador to the United States Shunji Yanai. The pledge is expected to state that the government will review its interpretation of the right to collective self-defense, which, according to the government, the nation possesses but is prohibited from exercising under the Constitution.
柳井俊二・元駐米大使が座長を務めた有識者懇談会の提言を基に、集団的自衛権の行使を禁じる政府の憲法解釈の変更を想定している。

The threats posed by North Korea amplify the need to strengthen the Japan-U.S. alliance. Exercising the nation's right to collective self-defense will be an important step to achieving this goal.
 北朝鮮の脅威を踏まえれば、日米同盟を強化する必要性は高まっている。集団的自衛権の行使は、その重要な一歩となろう。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, July 31, 2009)
(2009年7月31日01時21分 読売新聞)

米中戦略対話 どう進む新しい時代の「G2」

The Yomiuri Shimbun(Jul. 30, 2009)
U.S.-China dialogue exposes responsibilities
米中戦略対話 どう進む新しい時代の「G2」(7月30日付・読売社説)

The first round of the ministerial-level U.S.-China Strategic and Economic Dialogue ended in Washington on Tuesday with the issuing of a joint statement.
 米中の閣僚級による初めての戦略・経済対話がワシントンで開かれ、共同文書が発表された。

The dialogue was a revamp of the talks between the financial chiefs of the two nations that were initiated by the former administration of U.S. President George W. Bush. President Barack Obama's administration has regularized and broadened these discussions to include diplomatic and security dimensions.
 ブッシュ前政権時代に始まった経済対話を、外交・安保なども協議する場に格上げし、定例化する。

Obama said in his opening speech Monday, "The relationship between the United States and China will shape the 21st century." There is weighty meaning behind these words.
 オバマ米大統領が「米中が21世紀を作る」と述べた意味は重い。

With the United States and China now being called the "G-2," Obama's remark expresses the determination of the two countries to play an important role for peace and stability in the international community, in addition to the world economy.
 2大主要国「G2」と呼ばれ始めた米中が、世界経済だけでなく、国際社会の平和と安定に重要な役割を果たしていく決意を表明したものだ。

By placing priority on China, which is getting economically stronger, the United States aims to have China share responsibility within the international community.
 米国は、経済力をつけた中国を重視し、責任を共有させることを狙っている。

Meanwhile, China seems to be exercising influence on the United States by trumpeting the fact that it has become the largest holder of U.S. Treasury securities.
中国も、米国債の最大の保有国になったことを背景に、米国への影響力を行使しようというのだろう。

===

Doing business together

It is true that many tasks cannot be solved unless the United States and China--which are strengthening their economic interdependence--act together. However, there is still much diplomatic and military friction between the two. It will be worth watching how the future U.S.-China relationship will unfold against the backdrop of both cooperation and tension.
 経済的に相互依存関係を強める米中が協調しなければ、解決できない課題が多いのも事実だ。しかし、外交・軍事面で、両国は依然、緊張の火種を抱えている。協調と対立の中で、今後の米中関係がどう進むのか注目される。

The joint statement said, at first in the economic field, that corrections should be made to the trade imbalance, which sees U.S. deficits against China continuing to balloon, and that cooperation should be aimed at achieving steady growth.
 共同文書はまず、経済分野で、中国に対する米国の赤字が膨らむ貿易不均衡を是正し、着実な成長を図るための協調をうたった。

In light of the issues besetting the two countries, it is not surprising that among key tasks for future scrutiny are the United States' overconsumption and China's domestic-demand expansion policies that are being spurred by its own increased consumption.
 米国は過剰消費の見直し、中国が消費拡大による内需拡大策を課題に掲げたのは、両国の抱える問題に照らせば当然のことだ。

Also included was the issue of U.S. budget deficit reduction, as China would like to see a restoration of fiscal soundness and a stable U.S. dollar. If the United States reduces its budget deficit, this will help the world economy, including Japan, as it attempts to overcome the financial crisis.
 米国の財政赤字削減も盛り込まれた。中国が財政健全化とドルの安定を求めたためだ。米国が財政赤字を削減することは、金融危機克服を目指す日本など世界経済にも寄与する。

===

Other issues on table

Regarding global warming, the two nations--the two largest emitters of greenhouse gases--agreed to create a framework of dialogue. It is impossible to achieve significant reductions in greenhouse gases unless these two nations work to tackle the issue.
 地球温暖化問題では、温室効果ガスの2大排出国である両国が対話の枠組み創設で合意した。両国が真剣に取り組まねば、温室効果ガスの削減は実現できない。

Regarding the suspended six-party talks on North Korea's denuclearization, the two nations affirmed that it is important to see a resumption of the talks and agreed to continue working toward denuclearization.
 中断している北朝鮮の核問題をめぐる6か国協議については、再開の重要性を確認し、非核化に向けた努力の継続で一致した。

The United States and China emphasized the importance of implementing the U.N. sanctions resolution against North Korea, which aggressively conducted a nuclear test. The United States appeared to be urging the Chinese side to again implement sanctions on North Korea.
 核実験を強行した北朝鮮に対する国連制裁決議については、「履行の有効性」を強調した。米側は改めて中国側に制裁の実行を促したものと見られる。

The two nations also discussed how to handle antiterrorism measures and strengthen cooperation toward nuclear disarmament.
 反テロへの取り組みや核軍縮に向けた連携強化も協議した。

Although the issue of human rights was taken up, the statement failed to refer to China's ethnic minority issue, including the bloody violence in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, or issues surrounding Taiwan.
人権問題も取り上げられたが、共同文書はウイグル暴動など少数民族問題に言及せず、「台湾問題」も触れなかった。

Such issues as the financial crisis, global warming and North Korea are important tasks directly linked to Japan's national interests. In addition to cooperating closely with the United States, Japan also needs to continuously call on China to play a responsible role.
 金融危機や地球温暖化、北朝鮮問題などは、日本の国益に直結する重要課題だ。日本は米国と緊密に連携するとともに、中国にも責任ある役割を果たすよう、引き続き求めていく必要がある。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, July 30, 2009)
(2009年7月30日01時16分 読売新聞)
プロフィール

srachai

自己紹介・リンク

■近況

2009年の9月15日に脳梗塞を発症、右手が少し不自由になりました。
MRAで脳梗塞の部位を特定でき、素早い処置をとれたので大事に至りませんでした。
快復にむけてリハビリ中です。
(2011/01/01更新)

■自己紹介・リンク

[ はじめに ]
タイのスラチャイです。
英語学習に王道はありません。
毎日毎日の地道な努力の積み重ねが必要です。
スラチャイはNHKのラジオ英語会話で現在の英語力を身につけました。
一日僅か15分の学習でも数年間継続すれば相当な学習効果が期待できます。

[ 名前 ]
松井 清 (スラチャイ)

[ 略歴 ]
・福岡県出身
・国立高知大学卒業
・準大手建設会社に就職
・50歳で会社を早期退職
・99/10 タイ全土を旅行
・00/10 タイに移住
・03/07 カイちゃん誕生
・07/06 シーファーちゃん誕生
・現在タイ国コンケン在住

[ 座右の銘 ]
Slow and steady wins the race.
遅くとも着実な者が勝利する
(NHK基礎英語芹沢栄先生)

[ 学習の手引き ]
・音読して耳から英語を吸収
・Think in English.
・ネイティブ発音付辞書活用
・英英辞典を活用(英和も)
・翻訳和文で専門用語確認

[ English Newspapers ]
Yomiuri
Mainichi
Asahi
Japan Times
Washington Post
Newyork Times
Bangkok Post
The Nations
Phuket Gazette

[ 英字新聞の英和対訳学習 ]
英字新聞(読売)
英字新聞(毎日)
英字新聞(朝日)
英字新聞(朝日2)

[ スラチャイ編集の辞書 ]
タイ日辞書(改訂版)
日タイ辞書(改訂版)
ラオ日辞書
日ラオ辞書

[ 英字新聞リンク ]
ocn cafe
fc2
goo
yahoo
ameba

オンラインカジノ

[ 32レッドカジノ ]



[ online casino ]
オンラインカジノとは

[ 32red casino mobile ]
for iPhone, Android
Roulette Game
Blackjack Game
Slots Game

[ my favorite way ]
Earning some money on the commuting train is fantastic.
roulette game
通勤電車の中で稼ぐ(ルーレット)^^
ルーレットで遊ぶ

[ 32red casino iPhone & Android ]
Mermaids Millions
Royal Derby
Tomb Raider
Blackjack Game
Major Millions

Tomb Raider iTunes App
Blackjack iTunes App
Roulette Game
Android & iPhone Direct Registration

[ sellection for mobile ]
32Red Web App (iPhone & Android) Casino - Homepage

[ 32red download for PC ]


[ online casino for PC ]
Roulette
Blackjack
Online Slots

[ zipang casino ]
in english

最新コメント
記事検索
seesaa100 英字新聞s HPs

スラチャイの家族紹介
私の家族

スラチャイの手作りリンク集
スラチャイタイ在住14年目
New!中国語会話基礎(北京語)他
タイ日辞典(単語帳)
タイ語の子音
タイ語の母音
スラチャイ編曲のmidiのギター曲
スラチャイ編曲のJ.S.Bachです

スラチャイの多国言語学習
初歩のタイ語
初歩の中国語
初歩のラオス語
初歩のビルマ語
初歩のシンハリ語
初歩のタガログ語

タイ語の基礎
タイ文字
タイ日辞書
タイ語の副詞
タイ語の前置詞
タイ語の助動詞
タイ語の接続詞

基礎タイ語一覧(タイ文字、ローマ字)
seesaaサイト内リンク一覧:
01 あいさつ
02 別れのあいさつ
03 声をかけるとき
04 感謝の言葉と答え方
05 謝罪の言葉と答え方
06 聞き直すとき
07 相手の言うことがわからないとき
08 うまく言えないとき
09 一般的なあいづち
10 よくわからないときの返事
11 強めのあいづち
12 自分について述べるとき
13 相手のことを尋ねるとき
14 頼みごとをするとき
15 申し出・依頼を断るとき
16 許可を求めるとき
17 説明してもらうとき
18 確認を求めるとき
19 状況を知りたいとき
20 値段の尋ね方と断り方
21 急いでもらいたいとき
22 待ってもらいたいとき
23 日時・場所・天候を尋ねるとき
24 その他

基礎タイ語一覧(タイ文字、音声付き)
サイト外HPリンク一覧:
01 あいさつ
02 別れのあいさつ
03 声をかけるとき
04 感謝の言葉と答え方
05 謝罪の言葉と答え方
06 聞き直すとき
07 相手の言うことがわからないとき
08 うまく言えないとき
09 一般的なあいづち
10 よくわからないときの返事
11 強めのあいづち
12 自分について述べるとき
13 相手のことを尋ねるとき
14 頼みごとをするとき
15 申し出・依頼を断るとき
16 許可を求めるとき
17 説明してもらうとき
18 確認を求めるとき
19 状況を知りたいとき
20 値段の尋ね方と断り方
21 急いでもらいたいとき
22 待ってもらいたいとき
23 日時・場所・天候を尋ねるとき
24 その他

タイの文化一覧:
01 雨の日にも傘をささないタイ人
02 勉強熱心なタイ人女性たち
03 タイ人は敬謙な仏教徒
04 タイの市場
05 タイの食堂
06 タイ人は外食が大好き
07 果物王国タイランド
08 タイ人の誕生日
09 タイの電話代は高い
10 微笑みの国タイランド

14の戒律(テラワーダ仏教戒律)
seesaaサイト内リンク一覧:
第01番目の戒律
第02番目の戒律
第03番目の戒律
第04番目の戒律
第05番目の戒律
第06番目の戒律
第07番目の戒律
第08番目の戒律
第09番目の戒律
第10番目の戒律
第11番目の戒律
第12番目の戒律
第13番目の戒律
第14番目の戒律

14の戒律(テラワーダ仏教戒律)
サイト外HPリンク一覧:
14の戒律解説
第01番目の戒律
第02番目の戒律
第03番目の戒律
第04番目の戒律
第05番目の戒律
第06番目の戒律
第07番目の戒律
第08番目の戒律
第09番目の戒律
第10番目の戒律
第11番目の戒律
第12番目の戒律
第13番目の戒律
第14番目の戒律


[ 英字新聞リンク ]
yahoo geolog
yaplog
worldpress
teacup
jugem
hatena
@word
blogger
biglobe
excite
a8
so-net
ameblo
wox
rakuten
ninja
seesaa
goo
fc2
yahoo
livedoor
dreamlog

[ HPリンク ]
cocolog 家族のアルバム
fc2 家族のアルバム
初歩の日本語(タイ人学生向け)
タイの小学三年生数学学力テスト(国家試験)
タイ語、中国語、ビルマ語
Preliminary Japanese lessons for Thai students
旅行のタイ語学習サイト
ラオ日・日老辞書
妻はタイ人/タイの文化/タイの仏教戒律

  • ライブドアブログ