英字新聞

読売、毎日、朝日各社英字新聞の主として社説を学習研究します

衆院選公示 政権構想と政策を吟味しよう (1/2)

The Yomiuri Shimbun(Aug. 19, 2009)
Voters deserve a clear presentation of policies
衆院選公示 政権構想と政策を吟味しよう(8月19日付・読売社説)

Official campaigning for the House of Representatives election kicked off Tuesday. This is an extremely important contest, the outcome of which will steer the future course of the nation.
 日本の進路を左右する極めて重要な衆院選が18日、公示された。

We hope that each voter, political party and candidate will carry an awareness of the significance of this election and fulfill their respective responsibilities in it.
 各政党、候補者はもとより、有権者一人ひとりが、今回の総選挙の意義をしっかりと自覚し、それぞれの責任を果たしてもらいたい。

The nation faces a number of difficult and serious problems.
 日本は今、多くの困難かつ深刻な課題に直面している。

The world economy appears to be emerging from the business downturn that struck the globe at the same time, but has yet to reach full-fledged recovery. How to put the nation's economy on a recovery path while taking into consideration the worsening employment situation is a pressing problem.
 世界経済は、同時不況から脱しつつあるが、本格的な景気回復には至っていない。悪化が続く雇用情勢に目配りしつつ、いかに日本経済を回復軌道に乗せるのか。

 ◆経済をどう回復させる◆
With the declining birthrate combined with the aging of the population, the assumption of a social security system supported by a steadily growing economy no longer holds water. It is necessary to work on a new mechanism that addresses benefits and burdens and to reconstruct a sustainable system to realize it.
 少子高齢化が進む中、右肩上がりの経済成長が前提の社会保障制度は機能しない。新たな給付と負担のあり方を検討し、持続可能なシステムを再構築する必要がある。

The security environment surrounding the nation has grown more severe. North Korea is accelerating its nuclear and ballistic missile development and China is aiming to be a military superpower.
 日本を取り巻く安全保障環境はかつてなく厳しい。北朝鮮は核・弾道ミサイル開発を加速させ、中国の軍事大国化も進む。日本の平和と安全をどう確保するのか。

How can the nation's peace and security be ensured? Appropriate ways to solve these pressing issues should be a key point of contention in the election.
 衆院選で争われるべきは、これらの課題に対する適切な処方箋(せん)だろう。

===

Priorities of the 2 coalitions

Each political party and candidate needs to present fresh visions for the nation and the policies needed to realize them so that voters can have clear choices.
 各党と候補者は、日本の新たな国家像と、それを実現するための政策を語り、有権者に選択肢を示すべきだ。

Both the ruling and opposition parties are presenting their ideas of a government with the notion that they will be establishing ruling coalitions.
 与野党は、連立政権を前提に政権構想を提示している。

A good way to see which policies a future government would give priority to is to look at the common policies of the current ruling coalition of the Liberal Democratic Party and New Komeito, and the common policies of three opposition parties--the Democratic Party of Japan, the Social Democratic Party and People's New Party.
政権選択の重要な手がかりは、自民、公明の連立与党の重点政策と、民主、社民、国民新の野党3党による共通政策だろう。

As their growth strategy, the ruling parties have pledged in their common campaign platform to create domestic demand worth 40 trillion yen to 60 trillion yen and secure 2 million jobs over the next three years. They specify that they will implement drastic tax reforms--including raising the consumption tax rate once the economy recovers--to ensure a stable financial resource for social security programs.
 与党は、経済成長戦略として「今後3年間で40~60兆円の需要を創出し、200万人の雇用を確保する」と強調した。社会保障の安定財源として、景気回復を前提に、消費税を含む税制の抜本改革を実行するとも明記している。

Though the pledge carries the responsible attitude of a ruling party toward tackling economic recovery and financial reconstruction in two stages, the presentation's concrete measures to realize these policies have not been made clear. The two parties need to provide a more understandable explanation of this to voters.
 景気回復と財政再建に2段階で取り組む方針を明示したのは、責任ある態度だが、実現に向けた具体的な道筋は不透明である。より明確な説明が求められよう。

The three opposition parties tout as their top policy priority the support of household budget concerns, such as directly providing child-rearing allowances and free high school education. They aim to increase disposable incomes and spur economic growth through domestic demand. They also say they would leave the current consumption tax rate unchanged until the next lower house election.
 野党3党は、子ども手当、高校無償化など直接給付型の家計支援を最重点施策に掲げた。国民の可処分所得を増やし、内需主導型の成長を目指す。消費税率は次期衆院選まで据え置くという。

===

Promises must be paid for

If the opposition parties were to implement these new policies, estimated to cost about 16.8 trillion yen a year, it would indeed bring about a certain expansion in domestic demand. But there is no denying that the ideas presented regarding domestic demand-led growth were made hastily, as evidenced by the common criticisms that the plans are "pork-barrel policies" and "lack future growth strategy."
 年16・8兆円にも上る新規施策を実施すれば、内需拡大に一定の効果は持つだろう。だが、内需主導型の成長戦略は、「ばらまき」「成長戦略がない」との批判を受けて急遽(きゅうきょ)示したもので、“後付け”との印象は否めない。

Since it was first presented, a fundamental question of whether the opposition parties can really secure this 16.8 trillion yen a year only through cuts in wasteful spending has not been cleared up.
 そもそも、16・8兆円もの財源を無駄遣いの排除などだけで本当に捻出(ねんしゅつ)できるのか、という根本的な疑問も解消されていない。

衆院選公示 政権構想と政策を吟味しよう (2/2)


 ◆4年間の総括が重要◆
In the fields of foreign policy and national security, the ruling parties stipulated the continuation of the Maritime Self-Defense Force's refueling mission in the Indian Ocean and antipiracy mission off Somalia.
 外交・安全保障分野で、与党は、海上自衛隊によるインド洋での給油活動やソマリア沖での海賊対処活動の継続を明記した。

Both missions are important activities for Japan to assume its role in the international community's fight against terrorism, and to reinforce its alliance with the United States.
 いずれも、国際社会の「テロとの戦い」の一翼を担い、日米同盟を強化する上で重要な活動だ。

On the other hand, the three opposition parties have made no reference to foreign and national security policy issues in their common policy.
 一方、野党3党の共通政策は外交・安保政策に言及していない。

This is primarily because of the large difference in the positions taken by the three parties, with, for instance, the SDP opposed to the dispatch of the Self-Defense Forces abroad. Yet this is merely an attempt at postponing the solving of thorny issues until after the election.
社民党が自衛隊の海外派遣に反対するなど、各党の立場に大きな隔たりがあるためだが、難題を衆院選後に先送りしたにすぎない。

Should the three parties form a coalition government, while leaving their stances on such a fundamental issue murky, will they be able to pursue a responsible foreign policy and protect the national interest?
 国家の基本にかかわる問題をあいまいにしたまま、連立政権を組んだ場合、責任ある外交を展開し、日本の国益を守れるのか。

It is important for parties to deepen their discussion on foreign affairs and national security through the election campaign.
 選挙戦を通じて、外交・安保政策論議を深めることが大切だ。

===

View of the past

Another vital point is how to sum up the track record of the ruling coalition government of the LDP and New Komeito since the previous lower election four years ago.
 前回衆院選以来4年間の自公連立政権を、どう総括するかも重要な視点だ。

The ruling parties suffered a crushing defeat in the House of Councillors election in 2007. Ever since, the Diet has been divided with the DPJ-led forces dominating the upper house and the ruling coalition parties controlling the lower house--sending the Diet's business into disarray.
 2007年参院選で与党が大敗した結果、国会は衆参ねじれ状態となり、機能不全に陥った。

As a matter of course, the ruling parties' major defeat stemmed from the problems involving the ruling coalition government, including the sloppy management of public pension data by the Social Insurance Agency and the opaque reports of office expenses of political fund management organizations of Cabinet members.
Yet, the DPJ may also carry grave responsibility for the political turmoil under the divided Diet, as the party, under the leadership of Ichiro Ozawa, pursued a strategy of all-out confrontation with the ruling parties.
 年金記録漏れや閣僚の事務所費問題など、大敗の原因は無論、自公政権にある。だが、ねじれ国会での政治の混乱については、小沢代表の下、政局至上主義で与党と全面対決に走った民主党側にも大きな責任があろう。

Prime Minister Shinzo Abe and his successor Yasuo Fukuda both abandoned their administrations about one year after taking office, making apparent the LDP's declining ability to govern.
 安倍、福田両首相は各1年で政権を放り出し、自民党の統治能力の低下を露呈させた。

Meanwhile, successive DPJ leaders Seiji Maehara and Ichiro Ozawa also resigned to take responsibility for scandals that damaged the party, with Maehara quitting over a DPJ lawmaker using a faked e-mail to make spurious accusations against a relative of an LDP Diet member, and Ozawa stepping down over false records of political fund donation, incidents that increased people's distrust of politics.
民主党の前原、小沢両代表も偽メールや政治資金の問題で辞任し、国民の政治不信を高めた。

Both the ruling and opposition camp should bear in mind that it is their joint responsibility to rebuild the public's trust.
政治への信頼回復は、与野党の連帯責任であることを忘れるべきではない。

===

Future of nation at stake
 ◆「日本の進路」熟考を◆

A change of government, as the DPJ asserts, is an important element for realizing a sound parliamentary democracy.
 民主党の主張する「政権交代」は、健全な議会制民主主義を実現するうえで重要な要素だ。

Yet the crucial point is not a "change of government" per se, but how the nation's politics should be changed through changes in the government.
ただ、肝心なのは、「交代」自体ではなく、「交代」によって政治をどう変えるかだろう。

The upcoming election is the third time the lower house poll has been fought based on the political parties' respective policy platforms they intend to pursue if they come to power.
 今回は、各党が政権公約を掲げて戦う3回目の衆院選となる。

Their policy pledges cover a wide range of issues and include a lot of highly technical matters. Voters should not be bewildered by mere make-believe populist policies, campaign tactics or fleeting sociopolitical atmosphere of the moment.
 政権公約は多岐にわたり、専門的な内容も多い。単なる人気取りの政策や選挙戦術、一時のムードに惑わされてはなるまい。

Voters must think carefully and consider the issues from multiple angles to grasp the pros and cons of the parties' policies level-headedly and choose the administration.
 政策の是非を冷静に見極め、政権を選択するためには、複眼的な思考が有権者に求められる。

The upcoming lower house election is an important opportunity for us to think seriously about the future course of the nation and push the nation's politics forward.
 今回の衆院選を、日本の進路を熟考し、政治を前進させるための重要な一歩としたい。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Aug. 19, 2009)
(2009年8月19日01時17分 読売新聞)

GDPプラス 本格回復へ詰めを誤るな

The Yomiuri Shimbun(Aug. 18, 2009)
Govt must pull out stops for full-fledged recovery
GDPプラス 本格回復へ詰めを誤るな(8月18日付・読売社説)

Though statistics show the nation's economy has finally hit bottom, this does not mean there is no risk that the economy will fall back into recession.
 景気の下げ止まりが数字で確認されたが、腰折れの危険が完全に去ったわけではない。

The nation's gross domestic product grew 0.9 percent in the April-June period from the previous quarter, which represents an annualized growth rate of 3.7 percent, marking the first expansion in five quarters.
 4~6月期の実質国内総生産(GDP)は、前期比0・9%増、年率換算で3・7%増と、5四半期ぶりにプラス成長となった。

Exports began increasing thanks to the recovery of overseas economies, while on the domestic front, consumer spending and public investment got a shot in the arm from the government's economic-stimulus measures.
 海外景気の持ち直しで輸出が増加に転じたほか、国内需要でも、景気対策の恩恵を受けた消費や公共投資が伸びた。

Though the rapid economic downturn, which had progressed at the worst pace since the war, has halted, annualized real GDP stands at 526 trillion yen, down about 40 trillion yen from a year ago, a state of affairs that fails to convince us that the economy is on a recovery track. The government must not stumble in putting the finishing touches on its policies for a full-scale business recovery.
 戦後最悪のペースだった景気の急落は止まったが、年換算の実質GDPは526兆円と、1年前より約40兆円少なく、回復の実感は乏しい。本格回復の実現へ、政策の詰めを誤ってはならない。

GDP growth in the April-June period was led by overseas demand. During that period, China and many other Asian countries achieved high economic growth. In the United States and Europe, the margin of economic contraction narrowed, while exports of major products, such as electronics parts and automobiles, recovered.
 今回のプラス成長は、外需主導だった。4~6月期は、中国などアジアの多くの国が高い成長率となったほか、欧米もマイナス幅が縮小し、電子部品や自動車など、主力品目の輸出が回復した。

Nevertheless, the prospects for overseas economies remain highly uncertain. Therefore, whether the Japanese economy will be able to get on a stable recovery track hinges on the strength of domestic demand.
 とはいえ、海外経済の先行きは不透明感が強い。日本経済が安定した回復軌道に乗るかどうかは、内需の力強さにかかっている。

===

Self-sustained demand crucial

The fact that consumer spending, which accounts for about 60 percent of GDP, moved into positive territory, is encouraging news. In particular, consumption of consumer durables, such as electrical appliances and vehicles, increased significantly. The government's pump-priming measures, such as tax breaks and subsidies for the purchase of eco-friendly vehicles, and the introduction of the eco point system aimed at boosting sales of eco-friendly electrical appliances, have proved quite successful.
 GDPの6割を占める消費がプラスに転じたのは明るい材料だ。特に家電や自動車など耐久消費財の消費が大幅に増えた。エコカー購入時の減税や補助、省エネ家電のエコポイント制度など対策の効果が大きかった。

Public spending, which was boosted in supplementary budgets, showed the largest growth in about 10 years, helping push up GDP.
 補正予算で追加された公共投資も、約10年ぶりの高い伸びとなり、GDPを押し上げた。

The series of economic-stimulus measures put forward by the government and ruling parties since last summer was accompanied by fiscal deterioration. However, the measures can be viewed as appropriate policy decisions because they helped prevent the economy from sinking into a double-dip recession.
 昨夏から政府・与党が相次いで打ち出した景気対策は、財政悪化の副作用を伴ったが、景気の底割れを防いだ点で、妥当な政策判断だったと評価できよう。

But once the pump-priming steps' positive effects have run their course, there will be concern that consumer spending and public investment will slow down.
だが、対策の効果が出尽くせば、消費や公共投資の息切れが心配になる。

It is desirable that domestic demand move into a self-sustaining recovery mode, which is evidenced by the expansion of consumption resulting from higher employment and higher incomes, supported by policy measures. However, the prospects for such a situation are grim.
 政策で下支えしているうちに、雇用・所得の改善による消費拡大など、内需の自律回復への移行が望まれるが、見通しは厳しい。

===

Austerity not the answer now

Unemployment continues to rise, and workers' income is on the decline due to cuts in bonus and overtime pay. Under such circumstances, we urge the government to make steady efforts to tackle unemployment and provide financial assistance to those in trouble. The government must not hesitate to take additional measures when necessary.
 失業の増加が続き、ボーナスや残業のカットで労働者の収入も減っている。失業対策や生活支援を粘り強く続け、状況に応じて追加策もためらうべきでない。

Capital investment, another pillar of domestic demand along with consumer spending, has long been sluggish. Additional policies aimed at spurring business activities, such as further investment tax credits, are likely to be necessary.
 消費と並ぶ内需の柱の設備投資も長期低迷が続いている。投資減税の追加など、企業を元気づける政策がさらに必要となろう。

At this stage, the government must not take the short-term economic recovery for granted and switch to belt-tightening policy measures, such as cutting down on public works projects.
 足元の回復に安心して、公共事業削減など緊縮政策に転換することは、厳に慎まねばならない。

We also urge the government--irrespective of the political situation--to avoid delaying the compilation of the fiscal 2010 budget, which would hinder policy implementation.
 政局の都合で来年度予算の編成が遅れ、政策遂行に支障が出る事態も避けるべきだ。

Whichever party or parties take the reins of government following the general election, a business recovery must continue to be the government's top priority in its economic policies.
総選挙の結果、どの党が政権を担うことになっても、「景気最優先」の経済政策を続けねばならない。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Aug. 18, 2009)
(2009年8月18日01時22分 読売新聞)

香山リカのココロの万華鏡:芸能界の違法薬物問題 /東京

(Mainichi Japan) August 16, 2009
Alleged drug use by celebrities sending shockwaves through Japanese society
香山リカのココロの万華鏡:芸能界の違法薬物問題 /東京

 芸能界の違法薬物問題が、社会に大きな衝撃を与えている。

In times past, people in show business were seen as unique and free-spirited, living outside the rules of society. In recent years, however, I'd heard celebrities being characterized as well-mannered and generally the model-student type, barely touching alcohol or going out all night. "Unless you're the serious type, the kind who's interested only in pets and books, there's no way you can survive the brutal world of show biz," a friend of mine who works at a television station once told me.
 その昔は、芸能人といえば個性的で奔放、世の中のルールの枠外で生きる人たちというイメージもあったが、最近はむしろ礼儀正しく優等生的な人が増えていると聞いた。「お酒も飲まず夜遊びもしない、趣味は読書とペット、なんていうまじめなタイプでなければ、今の厳しい芸能界で生き抜いていけないよ」とテレビ局に勤める友人が教えてくれたこともあった。

Having been on television programs with young celebs, I've found them to be surprisingly hardworking and polite. Whenever I encounter students with a poor command of honorific language at the university where I teach, I silently think, "You really could learn a thing or two from spending a few months at a talent agency."
 私もたまにテレビの情報番組で若いタレントさんといっしょになることがあるが、みな勉強熱心であいさつもきちんとできるので驚かされる。大学で敬語も使えない学生を見るたび、「キミたち、芸能プロダクションで何カ月か修業してくれば」と言いたくなる。

And yet, just recently, celebrities popular among the younger generation have been arrested on suspicion of drug possession and use. More than a few fans must have been disappointed to discover that their beloved idols were irresponsible people after all.
 それにもかかわらず今回、若者に人気の俳優やタレントが、麻薬や覚せい剤を所持・使用していた容疑が判明した。「結局はいいかげんな人たちだったのか」と失望したファンも多いのではないか。

Every time the issue of drug abuse in the entertainment industry resurfaces, people attribute it to the acute pressures of the industry. Indeed, show business is characterized by irregular employment, where a top star today could have the plug pulled on a on his TV series next month. Those with a strong sense of duty especially must experience sleepless nights, worrying about an unpredictable tomorrow and the trouble they could potentially cause their family and colleagues.
 こういった芸能界の麻薬や覚せい剤汚染が問題になるたび、「浮き沈みの激しい業界のプレッシャー」が原因ではないか、という声が上がる。たしかに芸能界や音楽界は、ある意味で非正規雇用者の集団。今日は人気者でも来月には「ドラマ打ち切り」などの憂き目にあうかもしれない。とくに責任感の強い人なら、「明日はどうなるのだろう、家族やスタッフに迷惑をかけるのでは」と不安で眠れない夜もあるに違いない。

Still, turning to drugs to alleviate pressures one finds unbearable is unacceptable. Perhaps I'm being harsh, but people who are that fragile are probably not fit for show business to begin with.
 とはいえ、そのプレッシャーに耐えられず、それを紛らわすために薬物に手を出すようなことがあってよいはずはない。厳しい言い方をすれば、それほど脆弱(ぜいじゃく)な人は、そもそも芸能人に向いていない、と言ってもよいかもしれない。

Drugs momentarily provide users with extraordinary sensations, but they also have various harmful effects on the body. Most of all, their danger lies in the emotional and physical dependency that users can develop on them, making quitting incredibly difficult. You could say that virtually no one who uses drugs thinking they'll stop "after a few times" is actually able to do so.
 麻薬や覚せい剤は、使用した瞬間はいつもと違う刺激や感覚が味わえるが、身体にはいろいろ有害な影響がある。それに何より精神的、身体的な依存に陥り、「もうやめよう」と思ってもやめられなくなるのが恐ろしい。遊び感覚で「数回だけなら」と思って使用し、本当に数回でやめられた人はほとんどいないと言ってもよい。

There are reports that of late, drugs, seen as "relaxation medication" or something akin to vitamins and dietary supplements, are exchanged among young people with ease. Regardless of one's justification for drug use -- be it to relieve stress, seek excitement, or as mere recreation -- what is wrong is wrong. If you are unwilling to experience your demise and that of those around you, take this to heart: do not mess with drugs. (By Rika Kayama, psychiatrist)
 さらに最近は、若い人のあいだでは麻薬が「サプリメント」と「リラックスできる薬」などと言われて、気軽に受け渡しされているとも聞く。プレッシャーから逃れるため、刺激を求めて、遊び気分で。どんな言い訳をしようと、ダメなものはダメ。自分とまわりを崩壊させたくないなら、手を出すべきではない。これだけは肝に銘じておきたい。

毎日新聞 2009年8月11日 地方版

野球の五輪落選 魅力をどう世界に広めるか

The Yomiuri Shimbun(Aug. 16, 2009)
IOC decision tough on baseball, softball
野球の五輪落選 魅力をどう世界に広めるか(8月16日付・読売社説)

Even if Tokyo is chosen to host the 2016 Olympic Games, we will not be able to enjoy watching the battle for baseball and softball medals.
 2016年の東京五輪招致が実現しても、野球とソフトボールのメダル争いは見ることができなくなった。

The International Olympic Committee executive board has selected golf and rugby sevens for proposed inclusion in the 2016 Summer Games. The board will submit the two sports for ratification by the IOC Assembly in Copenhagen in October.
 16年夏季五輪で実施する競技について、国際オリンピック委員会(IOC)の理事会は、ゴルフと7人制ラグビーを追加候補に決めた。10月の総会で最終決定する。

Baseball and softball, which have been dropped from the Olympic program for the 2012 London Games, failed in their comeback bids. As both are sports Japan had a chance of winning gold medals in, it was a regrettable outcome for this nation.
 12年のロンドン五輪で実施競技から外れる野球とソフトボールは、選から漏れ、五輪復帰はならなかった。日本にとっては、どちらも金メダルを狙える競技だけに、残念な結果である。

===

Baseball stars failed to speak

Baseball is only popular in a few regions around the world, and this may be the main reason it was dropped from the Olympic program. While baseball is popular in Japan and the United States, it cannot be denied that in Europe it lags well behind other popular sports, such as soccer, and is a minor sport there.
 野球は、盛んな地域が限られている。落選した最大の要因は、そこにあるだろう。日本や米国では人気競技だが、欧州ではサッカーなどの陰に隠れたマイナーなスポーツであることは否めない。

The failure of U.S. Major League Baseball's leading players to state whether they would participate in the Games also affected the outcome. In contrast, leading golfer Tiger Woods appealed to the board for his sport to be included in the 2016 Summer Games.
 米大リーグのトップクラスの選手が、五輪に出場するかどうか、はっきりしないままだったことも響いた。ゴルフでは、第一人者であるタイガー・ウッズ選手が、五輪競技入りをアピールしたのとは対照的だったといえる。

The participation of star players increases interest in a sporting event, which in turn allows higher broadcasting rights fees to be charged, bringing in increased funds for the IOC.
 スター選手が出場することで、注目度が高まれば、テレビの放映権料が高騰し、IOCの財政は潤う。

This fact undoubtedly formed the basis of the decision to select golf and not baseball for proposed inclusion in the 2016 Olympics.
ゴルフが選ばれ、野球が落選した背景には、こうした側面があったことは否定できまい。

Allegations of performance-enhancing drug use by MLB players may also have been a key factor behind the IOC's decision, as the committee has toughened its stance on doping.
 大リーグでの相次ぐ薬物疑惑も、ドーピング対策に力を入れるIOCから見れば、大きなマイナスポイントであったといえる。

There is no doubt the World Baseball Classic will continue to be seen as an important event. To spread baseball's appeal around the world, efforts must be made to improve the standing of this competition that determines the world's number one national baseball team.
 今後、ワールド・ベースボール・クラシック(WBC)の重要性が増すのは間違いない。世界一を決める大会として、さらに充実させ、野球の魅力を広く発信していく必要がある。

In the second WBC, which was held in March, it was great to see that the competitiveness of European baseball teams had greatly improved. This is encouraging in terms of promoting the internationalization of the game.
 3月の第2回大会で、欧州チームのレベルアップが目立ったのは、野球の国際化を進めるうえで、心強いことだ。

If Japan and the United States continue to play a leading role in promoting the sport around the globe, such improvements in the skill level of emerging baseball nations should lead to the return of the game to the Olympic program in the future.
日本や米国が先導役となって、世界的に普及を図っていく。それが、将来の五輪復帰につながるはずだ。

The IOC decision also came as a huge shock to softballers, for whom participation in the Olympics was their main goal. Maintaining the high standards that saw the Japanese national team win the gold medal in the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games has now become a pressing issue.
 五輪を最大の目標としてきたソフトボールの選手にとっても、今回の落選は大きなショックであろう。昨年の北京五輪で金メダルを獲得した実力を、どう維持していくかが課題である。

===

Good news for golfers

If golf is officially included in the 2016 Summer Games, we would be able to cheer on Ryo Ishikawa and Ai Miyazato as they drive for gold.
 ゴルフが五輪競技に加われば、石川遼選手や宮里藍選手が金メダルを目指し、奮闘する姿が見られるかもしれない。

If Tokyo hosts that Games, the inclusion of the two players would make the Olympics even more exciting.
 東京五輪でそれが実現すれば、大会は大いに盛り上がるだろう。

On Oct. 2, the IOC will pick the host city for the 2016 Olympic Games. We hope the nation's bid to host the 2016 Olympic Games continues to gain momentum.
16年夏季五輪の開催地が決まる10月2日に向けて、招致の機運を一層盛り上げていきたい。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Aug. 16, 2009)
(2009年8月16日01時39分 読売新聞)

終戦の日 追悼めぐる論議を深めよ (1/2)

The Yomiuri Shimbun(Aug. 15, 2009)
Time to discuss how to commemorate war dead
終戦の日 追悼めぐる論議を深めよ(8月15日付・読売社説)

Whenever we ponder on those
who dedicated their lives
for the cause of our nation,
our heart aches with deep emotion
 「くにのためいのちささげし ひとびとの ことをおもへば むねせまりくる」

This poem by Emperor Showa (1926-1989) is inscribed on the monument to the memory of the war dead at Chidorigafuchi National Cemetery in Chiyoda Ward, Tokyo.
 東京・千代田区の千鳥ヶ淵戦没者墓苑の碑に刻まれた昭和天皇のお歌である。

Once again, the day has arrived on which the nation commemorates the end of World War II. The government will host a memorial service for the war dead at Nippon Budokan hall, which is close to the national cemetery.
 今年も「終戦の日」を迎えた。千鳥ヶ淵の墓苑にほど近い日本武道館では、政府主催の全国戦没者追悼式が行われる。

In an ordinary year, the ceremony is attended by the Emperor and Empress as well as the heads of the three branches of state power: the heads of both houses of the Diet, the prime minister and the Supreme Court chief justice. In this regard, it is the nation's most solemn event.
This year, however, the House of Representatives speaker will not attend because the lower house has been dissolved ahead of the upcoming general election.
 天皇、皇后両陛下と共に、例年、三権の長である衆参両院議長、首相、最高裁長官が列席する。日本国として最も厳粛な儀式である。とは言え、今回は衆院が解散されているため衆院議長は不在だ。

This year marks the 70th anniversary of the start of World War II. The war broke out with the German invasion of Poland on Sept. 1, 1939. Germany had concluded a nonaggression pact with the Soviet Union only a week earlier on Aug. 23.
 今年は第2次大戦勃発(ぼっぱつ)から70周年の年でもある。1939年9月1日、ドイツのポーランド侵攻で始まった。直前の8月23日には独ソ不可侵条約が締結された。

Soon after, Soviet forces invaded Poland and annexed three Baltic states. The three states only regained their independence shortly before the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991.
 ソ連もポーランドに侵攻し、バルト3国を併合した。3国が独立を回復するのは、91年にソ連が崩壊する直前のことである。

In July, the parliamentary assembly of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe adopted a resolution calling for the anniversary of the day the German-Soviet Nonaggression Pact was concluded to be a day of remembrance for victims of Stalinism and Nazism. The session was held in Lithuania--one of the Baltic states that came under Soviet control.
 バルト3国の一つ、リトアニアで今夏開催された全欧安保協力機構(OSCE)の議会は、独ソ不可侵条約が締結された日を、「スターリニズムとナチズムの犠牲者追悼の日」とすることなどを求める宣言を採択した。

===

Diplomatic blunders

During the war years, Japan repeatedly made diplomatic blunders by making approaches to Germany and the Soviet Union.
 このドイツとソ連に接近して外交上の失敗を繰り返したのが、当時の日本だった。

The Imperial Japanese Army initially believed it could keep the Soviet Union in check by forming an alliance with Germany. The signing of the nonaggression treaty between those two countries, however, stunned the Cabinet of Prime Minister Kiichiro Hiranuma, which resigned en masse after issuing a statement that said, "Europe's heaven and earth are complicated and inscrutable."
 日本陸軍は当初、ドイツと同盟を結び、ソ連をけん制しようと考えていた。その独ソによる不可侵条約の締結に驚いた平沼騏一郎内閣は「欧州の天地は複雑怪奇」との声明を出して総辞職した。

Later, the Cabinet of Prime Minister Fumimaro Konoe concluded the Tripartite Alliance with Germany and Italy as well as the Japanese-Soviet Neutrality Pact. Foreign Minister Yosuke Matsuoka apparently thought the impasse in Japan-U.S. relations could be broken by balancing against Britain and the United States by strengthening cooperation among four countries--Japan, Germany, Italy and the Soviet Union.
 その後、近衛文麿内閣は日独伊三国同盟と日ソ中立条約を締結した。松岡洋右外相は日独伊にソ連を加えた4か国の連携で、英米との力の均衡をはかり、日米関係を打開しようと考えていた。

But Matsuoka's plan was scuttled by the outbreak of hostilities between the Soviet Union and Germany. The next cabinet, that of Prime Minister Hideki Tojo, decided to go to war with the United States--a reckless undertaking on Japan's part.
 だが、独ソ戦が始まり構想は破綻(はたん)した。続く東条英機内閣は、米国との無謀な戦争に踏み切る。

As the conflict drew closer to its end, the Cabinet of Prime Minister Kantaro Suzuki asked the Soviet Union to broker a deal with the Allies to end the war. However, the Soviet Union turned its back on the neutrality pact with Japan and invaded Manchuria (what is now northeastern China). As a result, 575,000 Japanese officers and soldiers were captured and detained in Siberia and other parts of the Soviet Union. An estimated 55,000 Japanese are believed to have died in the Soviet Union after the war.
 戦争末期、鈴木貫太郎内閣はソ連に終戦の仲介を依頼したが、ソ連は日ソ中立条約を破って旧満州(現中国東北部)に侵攻した。57万5000人の将兵がシベリアなどに抑留され、5万5000人が死亡したと推定されている。

A massive amount of documents detailing the Japanese detainees has recently been discovered at a Russian archive. We hope these documents will help identify the Japanese who died in Soviet detention.
 最近、ロシアの公文書館で抑留者の資料が大量に見つかった。ロシア側資料による死亡者の情報の裏付けが期待されている。

Looking back, it is clear that Japanese leaders grossly misinterpreted what was happening on the international stage.
 こうした経緯からも、当時の日本の指導者たちは世界の情勢を見誤っていたのは明らかだろう。

終戦の日 追悼めぐる論議を深めよ (2/2)



The House of Representatives election to choose the leaders who will be tasked with navigating Japan through uncharted waters will be officially announced Tuesday, opening an 11-day campaign.
 これからの日本を託す指導者を選ぶ総選挙の公示は、3日後に控えている。

Both the Liberal Democratic Party and the Democratic Party of Japan have mapped out policies they plan to implement should they hold the reins of government. The battle to woo voters will be fierce.
 自民、民主両党が政権構想を示して競い合っているが、

===

Grandfathers' experiences

The current state of affairs no doubt reminds many people of the grandfathers of Prime Minister Taro Aso and DPJ President Yukio Hatoyama.
思い起こされるのは、麻生首相と民主党・鳩山代表の祖父たちのことだ。

Aso's grandfather, former Prime Minister Shigeru Yoshida, served as ambassador to Britain before the war and was a strong proponent of closer ties with Britain and the United States. Yoshida, who engaged with Konoe and other like-minded people in a futile effort to bring the fighting to an end in the closing months of World War II, was arrested by military police and detained for 40 days.
Yoshida fell ill after being released. The war ended while he was recuperating in Oiso, Kanagawa Prefecture.
 麻生首相の祖父、吉田茂は戦前駐英大使を務め、英米との連携を強く主張した。戦争末期には、近衛元首相らと連携して終戦工作に動き、憲兵隊に逮捕された。
 40日間拘束され、釈放されたあと、病に倒れ、神奈川県大磯の別宅で静養中に終戦を迎えた。

Hatoyama's grandfather, former Prime Minister Ichiro Hatoyama, was a lawmaker focused on party politics who had served as education minister. Hatoyama clashed with Tojo and, as a result, he had to spend some time in seclusion at a villa in Karuizawa, Nagano Prefecture. He listened to the radio broadcast in which Emperor Showa announced Japan's surrender while he was tucked away in Karuizawa.
 鳩山代表の祖父、鳩山一郎は文相なども務めた政党政治家だったが、東条首相と対立して軽井沢の別荘で隠とん生活を送った。玉音放送も軽井沢で聞いた。

While at his villa, Hatoyama regularly read a book written by Austro-Hungarian diplomat Richard Coudenhove-Kalergi, who is widely regarded as one of the founding fathers of European integration. The book stressed the need for "fraternal revolution." Hatoyama later translated the book under the title of "Jiyu to Jinsei" (Liberty and Life).
 別荘では、欧州統合の父とされるクーデンホーフ・カレルギーが「友愛革命」を説いた著書を愛読し、「自由と人生」と題して後に翻訳した。

===

Lessons of history

What historical lessons can Aso and Hatoyama learn from the bitter experiences of their grandfathers?
 戦後は首相を務めた2人のかつての苦い経験から、麻生首相と鳩山代表は、どのような歴史の教訓をくみとるだろうか。

Aso will observe the war anniversary for the first time since becoming prime minister. He has said he will not visit Yasukuni Shrine in Tokyo because it would be wrong to make "the people who sacrificed their precious lives for the country" a matter of political contention.
 麻生首相は就任後初めて「終戦の日」を迎えるが、靖国神社には参拝しないという。「国家のために尊い命をささげた人たち」を政争の具などにするのは間違っていると、理由を語った。

Fourteen Class-A war criminals, including Tojo and Matsuoka, are enshrined at Yasukuni Shrine along with other war dead.
 靖国神社には、東条元首相や松岡元外相ら、14人の「A級戦犯」が合祀(ごうし)されている。

Some LDP members insist the Class-A war criminals must be enshrined elsewhere. Some other LDP members have advocated constructing a national memorial facility. However, the party has not formulated a united position on the matter.
 自民党内には、靖国神社に合祀された「A級戦犯」の分祀や国立追悼施設の建設の主張もあるが、党の方針は示されていない。

Hatoyama said he would not visit Yasukuni should he become prime minister, and he would urge his cabinet ministers to refrain from going to the shrine. Hatoyama has suggested he favors establishing a national memorial facility for the war dead.
 民主党の鳩山代表は、仮に首相になっても参拝せず、閣僚にも自粛を求めるとともに、国立追悼施設の設置に向けて取り組みを進める方針を示している。

DPJ Secretary General Katsuya Okada said he wants to have a group of experts discuss building a national facility, possibly making use of the Chidorigafuchi cemetery.
 岡田幹事長も、追悼施設について、千鳥ヶ淵戦没者墓苑を生かすことも含め有識者に議論してもらう考えを表明した。

Emperor Showa expressed concern that the essence of Yasukuni Shrine, a resting place for the spirits of the nation's war dead, has been distorted with the enshrinement of the Class-A war criminals.
 昭和天皇は、戦死者の魂を鎮めるという靖国神社の性格が「A級戦犯」の合祀で変わってしまうのではないかと懸念されていた。

Yasukuni Shrine insists the teachings of Shintoism prevent it from separating the war criminals from the shrine.
 靖国神社は、いったん合祀した「A級戦犯」の分祀は、神道の教学上できないとしている。

However, even if Yasukuni Shrine refuses to separately enshrine the Class-A war criminals, discussions about establishing a national facility will gain momentum regardless of the outcome of this month's general election.
 だが、神社側が分祀に応じない限り、選挙の結果がどうであれ、国立追悼施設建立に向けての議論は、勢いを増していくだろう。

It is time to deepen national-level discussions on the best way to pay tribute to the people who sacrificed their lives for the country, and to settle this issue.
 国のために尊い命を犠牲にした人々の追悼のあり方について、改めて国民的な議論を深め、結論を導き出す時期に来ているのではないだろうか。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Aug. 15, 2009)
(2009年8月15日01時23分 読売新聞)

年金改革 党派の対立超え接点を探れ

The Yomiuri Shimbun(Aug. 14, 2009)
Compromise necessary for pension reform
年金改革 党派の対立超え接点を探れ(8月14日付・読売社説)

The pension system is the bedrock upon which the citizens of this nation build their postretirement life. However, if this system lacks stability, notions of a strong ultra-aging society will be nothing more than a pipe dream.
 年金制度は老後を支える根幹だ。これが揺らいでは、安定した超高齢社会は築けない。

In the last fiscal year, the rate of contributions paid by subscribers to the national pension scheme, which mainly covers self-employed and nonregular workers, declined to a record low of 62.1 percent. This figure is believed to reflect public distrust in the current system, with many people reportedly concerned about being unable to receive pension benefits, despite having paid premiums over many years.
 自営業者や非正規労働者などが支払う国民年金保険料の納付率は昨年度、過去最低の62・1%まで下がった。保険料を納めても年金を受け取れないのではないか、という不信感を反映したものだろう。

Evidently, the pension system will need to be fundamentally overhauled before public confidence can be restored.
 年金制度への信頼を取り戻すために、思い切った改革が必要であることは明らかだ。

===

Different visions

The Liberal Democratic Party pledged in its policy platforms for the upcoming House of Representatives election to offer help within three years to people who currently receive little or no pension benefits.
 自民党は、無年金・低年金者を3年以内に救済することを公約に掲げた。

More specifically, the party--in a shared pledge with its coalition partner, New Komeito--proposed shortening the minimum period that people are required to pay premiums in order to qualify for pension benefits from the current 25 years to 10 years.
具体的には公明党との与党共通公約として、年金をもらうための最低加入期間を現行の25年から10年に短縮するなどとしている。

In addition, New Komeito proposed improvements aimed at guaranteeing minimum benefits for low-income earners by providing additional financial assistance from the state coffers.
公明党はさらに、低所得者に年金を上乗せして最低保障機能を充実することを唱えている。

Conversely, the Democratic Party of Japan proposed an all-encompassing pension program in which everyone would be asked to pay premiums in proportion to their income. The envisaged program also is designed to guarantee a minimum monthly pension income of 70,000 yen by drawing upon taxpayers' money to provide extra benefits. Such a move would transform the current pension scheme.
 一方、民主党は国民共通の所得比例年金を創設し、受け取り月額が7万円以上になるように税金で最低保障年金を上乗せする案を示した。新しい制度に移行する抜本改革である。

Though the ruling bloc's pension reform plans and the DPJ's ideas are significantly different, they are not completely incompatible.
 与党と民主党の年金改革案は大きく異なる。ただし、全く相いれないものではない。

Up until the previous House of Councillors election, the DPJ had said the basic pension portion of its minimum-guarantee pension scheme would rely entirely on taxpayers' money. This proposal thus gave the impression that the current premium-based system would be rebuilt from the ground up into a system that was fully funded by tax revenues.
 民主党は前回の参院選まで、自らが唱える最低保障年金について「基礎部分をすべて税にする」と説明し、現行の保険料方式を全額税方式に転換するかのように印象づけていた。

However, the party altered its rationale ahead of the upcoming lower house election. Under its newly drafted reform plan, the envisaged pension scheme would be based on benefits linked to the amount of premiums paid into the system by people during their working years, with the minimum-guarantee pension benefits complementing this income-linked pension.
 しかし、衆院選では説明を変えている。基本となるのは保険料による所得比例年金であり、最低保障年金はそれを補完する形に概念図を作り直した。

As a result of this new stance, friction lessened between the ruling and opposition blocs over whether a premium-based or tax-funded program was best suited to the nation's needs.
 この結果、保険料方式か全額税方式かという、これまでの与野党の対立は弱まった。

===

Cross-party challenge

The ruling parties continue to maintain that a domestic unified pension program should be this country's long-term goal.
 与党はかねて「最終的には年金制度の一元化が望ましい」としていた。

We believe the idea of a unified income-linked pension program to be worthy of serious consideration.
すべての国民が保険料方式の所得比例年金に入る構想は到達点として十分検討に値しよう。

However, the DPJ plan would require a long transitional period before the new system could be operated smoothly and effectively. Therefore, as proposed by the ruling parties, the government would need to take measures to financially support those people who had only small pensions, or no benefits at all.
 一方、民主党案も完成させるには長期の移行期間が必要であり、与党が主張するような、現に生じている無年金・低年金者への対策が不要になるわけではない。

The ruling and opposition blocs' pension reform proposals are not completely contradictory. As such, it would be possible to seek a compromise.
 年金改革に関して、与野党の主張は互いを全否定する関係にはなく、接点は見いだしうる。

As for coming debates on pension reform, voters should keep a close eye on which party or candidate seems the most constructively minded on the issue.
 有権者が見極めるべきは、建設的な姿勢で議論しているのは、どの政党、どの候補者か、という点であろう。

Whatever political shape the nation takes after the lower house election, reforming the pension system is a task that must be tackled across party lines.
 衆院選後に政権の枠組みがどうなろうとも、年金改革は超党派で取り組まねばならない。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Aug. 14, 2009)
(2009年8月14日01時13分 読売新聞)

サイバー攻撃 ネット社会に深刻な脅威だ

The Yomiuri Shimbun(Aug. 13, 2009)
Cyber attacks a threat to modern society
サイバー攻撃 ネット社会に深刻な脅威だ(8月13日付・読売社説)

Cyber attacks are a grave threat to the globe-spanning computer networks that underpin modern society and it is imperative that checks be made to ensure adequate countermeasures are in place to deal with potential problems in this country.
 世界規模でネットワーク化が進んだ現代社会にとって、サイバー攻撃は大きな脅威だ。国内の対策は十分か、点検を怠るべきではない。

In early July, a spate of cyber attacks hit the Web sites of government organizations, banks and stock exchanges in the United States and South Korea.
 米国と韓国で、政府機関や銀行、証券取引所などのウェブサイトが先月上旬、集中的なサイバー攻撃の標的となった。

Internet bots, which can remotely control the computers of unsuspecting users, were used to launch the attacks. Using such hijacked computers, the hackers simultaneously sent enormous volumes of data to particular Web sites, forcing them to shut down.
 使われたのはボット・ウイルスだ。ボットに感染したコンピューターは外部から遠隔操作が可能になる。ハッカーは、乗っ取った多数のコンピューターから、大量のデータを標的のサイトに一斉に送りつけて機能まひに陥らせた。

The distributed denial of service (DDoS) attacks in South Korea were compounded by the destruction of data, which meant it took many of the affected organizations a considerable time to restore their Web sites.
 韓国では、この「DDoS(ディードス=分散型サービス拒否)攻撃」のほかに、データが破壊される被害も重なって、サイトの復旧に時間がかかった。

===

North Korean involvement?

According to global information security experts, the attacks were launched from about 170,000 bot-infected computers in 74 countries. Though it is highly suspected that North Korea or pro-North Korean groups had a hand in the cyber offensives, it is difficult to conclusively identify the attackers.
 各国の情報セキュリティー専門家の解析から、74か国計17万台のボット感染のコンピューターが攻撃に使われ、北朝鮮もしくは親北朝鮮勢力が関与した疑いが濃厚とみられている。ただ、具体的に特定することは困難という。

However, if North Korea was involved in the attacks in some form, it is likely that Japan will be targeted at some point in the future. We hope careful analyses of the U.S. and South Korean cases will help bolster domestic countermeasures against such attacks.
 仮に北朝鮮が何らかの形で関与していたのなら、日本がいつ標的になるとも限らない。米韓の事例を詳細に分析し、国内対策に役立てるようにしてほしい。

As exemplified by these recent events, government Web sites are the prime targets for cyber assaults.
 米韓のケースをみてもわかる通り、政府系のウェブサイトは真っ先に攻撃対象となる。

While government Web sites are becoming increasingly convenient for the public--such as by allowing people to file income tax returns online, among other tasks--the fact that anyone can access these networks leaves such computer systems vulnerable to cyber attacks.
 政府系サイトは、確定申告をはじめオンライン申請できるなど利便性が向上している反面、ネットワークを通じて誰でも接続できるため、サイバー攻撃のリスクがつきまとう。

At the end of July, the Education, Science and Technology Ministry's Web site was tampered with by an unidentified person or group. As a result, it was possible to access with a single click a Web site written in Chinese. Although no real damage was confirmed, this was typical of the kind of malicious behavior that drives hackers to send out computer-infecting bots.
 先月末には、文部科学省のサイトが何者かに改竄(かいざん)された。クリックすると、中国語のサイトにつながる状態になっていた。実害は確認されていないが、ボット感染させる典型的な手口だ。

We hope the government, led primarily by the Cabinet Secretariat's National Information Security Center, will closely monitor the situation and take the requisite steps to ensure security is given high priority.
 内閣官房情報セキュリティセンターを中心に、監視の目が十分行き届くようにしてもらいたい。

===

Vigilance required

In terms of countermeasures, individuals, too, also have an important role to play. It has been confirmed that many Japan-based computers were unknowingly involved in the recent digital bombardment of U.S. and South Korean Web sites. According to a government estimate, there are about 300,000 bot-infected computers in Japan.
 個々人の対策も欠かせない。米韓でのサイバー攻撃では、日本国内のパソコンも多数利用されたことが確認済みだ。政府の推計では、ボット感染している日本国内のパソコンは30万台にのぼる。

The most important single step that users can take to protect their computers is to install antivirus software and make sure that it always runs the latest version. Running an up-to-date operating system, such as Windows, also is an effective countermeasure. The Web site of the government-operated Cyber Clean Center offers users a free check to learn whether their computers are infected with bots.
 基本はウイルス対策ソフトを組み込み、常に最新版に更新しておくことだ。ウィンドウズなど基本ソフトの更新も必要だ。政府が運営する「サイバークリーンセンター」のホームページでは、ボット感染の自己チェックもできる。

Let us hope we can all avoid becoming unwitting accomplices in bot-based cyber attacks.
 知らぬ間にボット感染し、サイバー攻撃の片棒を担がされることのないようにしたい。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Aug. 13, 2009)
(2009年8月13日01時09分 読売新聞)

消費税引き上げ 必要性を率直に国民に説け

The Yomiuri Shimbun(Aug. 9, 2009)
Parties must explain need for consumption tax hike
消費税引き上げ 必要性を率直に国民に説け(8月9日付・読売社説)

It is time to answer the question of how to secure the financial resources needed to make the social security system sustainable.
 社会保障制度を持続可能にする財源をどう確保するか、もう答えを出す時ではないか。

Most of the public understand that the consumption tax, which spreads the burden on taxpayers broadly and thinly, is the only tax that can be tapped to provide a stable source of financing.
 安定財源となり得るのは、広く薄く負担を求める消費税しかないことは多くの国民が理解している。

But deep debate on the consumption tax among the ruling and opposition parties in the run-up to the House of Representatives election is yet to occur. Even if the parties argue that priority should be given to economic recovery or thorough expenditure cuts, they also should try to show how a consumption tax rate hike might be achieved.
 だが、衆院選に向けた与野党の消費税議論は一向に深まっていない。景気回復や歳出削減の徹底が先だとしても、与野党は選挙戦を通じて、将来の引き上げの具体像を示すよう努めるべきだ。

The ruling Liberal Democratic Party specifies in its manifesto that it will take the necessary legal steps by fiscal 2011 to implement drastic reform of the taxation system--including consumption tax changes--immediately after the economy turns for the better.
 自民党は消費税を含む税制抜本改革について、「2011年度までに必要な法制上の措置を講じ、経済状況の好転後、遅滞なく実施する」と政権公約に明記した。

The LDP will designate the consumption tax as a special purpose tax, allowing it to allot all the increased revenue to social security programs, while gradually raising the consumption tax rate. The party also stated a deadline for completion of the preparation stage, which seems to be a responsible attitude for a ruling party.
 増収分の全額を社会保障財源に充てる目的税化を行い、税率を段階的に引き上げる。その準備を終える期限を約束したのは、責任ある姿勢といえるだろう。

In the 2005 lower house election, the ruling bloc pledged to implement drastic reform, including consumption tax reform, around fiscal 2007, but failed to fulfill their promise. If it intends to tackle the reform issue seriously this time, it should clearly state what the tax rate will be and when it will be raised.
 与党は05年の前回衆院選で、07年度をメドに消費税などの抜本改革を実現すると公約したが、果たせなかった。今回は真剣に取り組むというなら、税率や引き上げ時期をはっきりさせるべきだ。

===

DPJ must explain position

The main opposition Democratic Party of Japan said in its manifesto that it will not raise the consumption tax rate in the coming four years. In the run-up to the 2005 lower house election, the DPJ said it backed a three percentage point consumption tax rate hike. So far, the party has not sufficiently explained to the public why it has decided there is no need to raise the tax rate this time.
 民主党は、今後4年間は消費税率は引き上げないという。前回衆院選では年金目的消費税として、3%の引き上げを掲げていた。なぜ今回は引き上げを不要としたのか、十分な説明はない。

As part of its program for taxation reform announced in December 2008, the DPJ said the importance of the consumption tax would continue to grow and that it intended to draw up a framework for tax reform, including consumption tax changes, during its first term if it gains power.
 昨年暮れの「税制抜本改革アクションプログラム」では、「消費税の重要性はますます高まる」とし、民主党政権の最初の任期中に消費税を含む税制改革の制度設計を進めることを明記した。

If the DPJ intends to use the consumption tax as a financial resource to fund the social security system and begin to draw up a plan for drastic taxation reform, little would separate the DPJ and LDP on the issue. The DPJ therefore needs to admit it is necessary to increase the consumption tax burden and frankly explain the reasons why to the public.
 社会保障財源として消費税を活用し、その制度設計を始めるなら、与党が示した道筋と大差はない。ならば、国民に負担増の必要性を率直に説くべきではないか。

===

Scope for a rate increase

At 25 percent, Sweden has the highest consumption tax rate in Europe, with value-added tax rates in much of the continent, including Britain, France and Germany, ranging from 15 percent to 20 percent. Those of China and South Korea are 17 percent and 10 percent, respectively, making Japan's 5 percent rather exceptional.
 スウェーデンの25%を筆頭に、イギリス、ドイツ、フランスなど欧州の付加価値税の税率は、15~20%が当たり前だ。中国は17%、韓国でも10%だ。日本の5%は、むしろ例外的といえる。

It is necessary to take into consideration the effect on low-income earners whose burden will become larger if the consumption tax rate is raised.
 引き上げで負担が増える低所得者に対する配慮は必要だ。

By allotting some of the increased revenue to the financing of social security programs, the benefits received by low-income earners can be increased. But at the same time, the question of what the reduced tax rate should be on daily necessities will arise. It will be necessary to consider making mandatory an invoicing system in which various taxes would have to be recorded on an itemized bill whenever a purchase is made.
増収分を社会保障に回すことで低所得者への給付は手厚くなるが、同時に生活必需品への軽減税率の適用も課題になる。インボイス(伝票)方式の検討も避けて通れまい。

The DPJ is proposing a system that would see low-income earners given payments equivalent to the consumption tax levied on daily necessities, but this leaves key problems unaddressed, including how to accurately assess each low-income earner's income. So, it is more realistic to first consider applying a lower tax rate on daily necessities than on other items.
 民主党は生活必需品の消費税相当額を低所得者に還元する「給付つき消費税額控除」を提唱しているが、実現には所得把握の方法など難題を抱えている。まず軽減税率を考えた方が現実的だ。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Aug. 9, 2009)
(2009年8月9日01時19分 読売新聞)
プロフィール

srachai

自己紹介・リンク

■近況

2009年の9月15日に脳梗塞を発症、右手が少し不自由になりました。
MRAで脳梗塞の部位を特定でき、素早い処置をとれたので大事に至りませんでした。
快復にむけてリハビリ中です。
(2011/01/01更新)

■自己紹介・リンク

[ はじめに ]
タイのスラチャイです。
英語学習に王道はありません。
毎日毎日の地道な努力の積み重ねが必要です。
スラチャイはNHKのラジオ英語会話で現在の英語力を身につけました。
一日僅か15分の学習でも数年間継続すれば相当な学習効果が期待できます。

[ 名前 ]
松井 清 (スラチャイ)

[ 略歴 ]
・福岡県出身
・国立高知大学卒業
・準大手建設会社に就職
・50歳で会社を早期退職
・99/10 タイ全土を旅行
・00/10 タイに移住
・03/07 カイちゃん誕生
・07/06 シーファーちゃん誕生
・現在タイ国コンケン在住

[ 座右の銘 ]
Slow and steady wins the race.
遅くとも着実な者が勝利する
(NHK基礎英語芹沢栄先生)

[ 学習の手引き ]
・音読して耳から英語を吸収
・Think in English.
・ネイティブ発音付辞書活用
・英英辞典を活用(英和も)
・翻訳和文で専門用語確認

[ English Newspapers ]
Yomiuri
Mainichi
Asahi
Japan Times
Washington Post
Newyork Times
Bangkok Post
The Nations
Phuket Gazette

[ 英字新聞の英和対訳学習 ]
英字新聞(読売)
英字新聞(毎日)
英字新聞(朝日)
英字新聞(朝日2)

[ スラチャイ編集の辞書 ]
タイ日辞書(改訂版)
日タイ辞書(改訂版)
ラオ日辞書
日ラオ辞書

[ 英字新聞リンク ]
ocn cafe
fc2
goo
yahoo
ameba

オンラインカジノ

[ 32レッドカジノ ]



[ online casino ]
オンラインカジノとは

[ 32red casino mobile ]
for iPhone, Android
Roulette Game
Blackjack Game
Slots Game

[ my favorite way ]
Earning some money on the commuting train is fantastic.
roulette game
通勤電車の中で稼ぐ(ルーレット)^^
ルーレットで遊ぶ

[ 32red casino iPhone & Android ]
Mermaids Millions
Royal Derby
Tomb Raider
Blackjack Game
Major Millions

Tomb Raider iTunes App
Blackjack iTunes App
Roulette Game
Android & iPhone Direct Registration

[ sellection for mobile ]
32Red Web App (iPhone & Android) Casino - Homepage

[ 32red download for PC ]


[ online casino for PC ]
Roulette
Blackjack
Online Slots

[ zipang casino ]
in english

最新コメント
記事検索
seesaa100 英字新聞s HPs

スラチャイの家族紹介
私の家族

スラチャイの手作りリンク集
スラチャイタイ在住14年目
New!中国語会話基礎(北京語)他
タイ日辞典(単語帳)
タイ語の子音
タイ語の母音
スラチャイ編曲のmidiのギター曲
スラチャイ編曲のJ.S.Bachです

スラチャイの多国言語学習
初歩のタイ語
初歩の中国語
初歩のラオス語
初歩のビルマ語
初歩のシンハリ語
初歩のタガログ語

タイ語の基礎
タイ文字
タイ日辞書
タイ語の副詞
タイ語の前置詞
タイ語の助動詞
タイ語の接続詞

基礎タイ語一覧(タイ文字、ローマ字)
seesaaサイト内リンク一覧:
01 あいさつ
02 別れのあいさつ
03 声をかけるとき
04 感謝の言葉と答え方
05 謝罪の言葉と答え方
06 聞き直すとき
07 相手の言うことがわからないとき
08 うまく言えないとき
09 一般的なあいづち
10 よくわからないときの返事
11 強めのあいづち
12 自分について述べるとき
13 相手のことを尋ねるとき
14 頼みごとをするとき
15 申し出・依頼を断るとき
16 許可を求めるとき
17 説明してもらうとき
18 確認を求めるとき
19 状況を知りたいとき
20 値段の尋ね方と断り方
21 急いでもらいたいとき
22 待ってもらいたいとき
23 日時・場所・天候を尋ねるとき
24 その他

基礎タイ語一覧(タイ文字、音声付き)
サイト外HPリンク一覧:
01 あいさつ
02 別れのあいさつ
03 声をかけるとき
04 感謝の言葉と答え方
05 謝罪の言葉と答え方
06 聞き直すとき
07 相手の言うことがわからないとき
08 うまく言えないとき
09 一般的なあいづち
10 よくわからないときの返事
11 強めのあいづち
12 自分について述べるとき
13 相手のことを尋ねるとき
14 頼みごとをするとき
15 申し出・依頼を断るとき
16 許可を求めるとき
17 説明してもらうとき
18 確認を求めるとき
19 状況を知りたいとき
20 値段の尋ね方と断り方
21 急いでもらいたいとき
22 待ってもらいたいとき
23 日時・場所・天候を尋ねるとき
24 その他

タイの文化一覧:
01 雨の日にも傘をささないタイ人
02 勉強熱心なタイ人女性たち
03 タイ人は敬謙な仏教徒
04 タイの市場
05 タイの食堂
06 タイ人は外食が大好き
07 果物王国タイランド
08 タイ人の誕生日
09 タイの電話代は高い
10 微笑みの国タイランド

14の戒律(テラワーダ仏教戒律)
seesaaサイト内リンク一覧:
第01番目の戒律
第02番目の戒律
第03番目の戒律
第04番目の戒律
第05番目の戒律
第06番目の戒律
第07番目の戒律
第08番目の戒律
第09番目の戒律
第10番目の戒律
第11番目の戒律
第12番目の戒律
第13番目の戒律
第14番目の戒律

14の戒律(テラワーダ仏教戒律)
サイト外HPリンク一覧:
14の戒律解説
第01番目の戒律
第02番目の戒律
第03番目の戒律
第04番目の戒律
第05番目の戒律
第06番目の戒律
第07番目の戒律
第08番目の戒律
第09番目の戒律
第10番目の戒律
第11番目の戒律
第12番目の戒律
第13番目の戒律
第14番目の戒律


[ 英字新聞リンク ]
yahoo geolog
yaplog
worldpress
teacup
jugem
hatena
@word
blogger
biglobe
excite
a8
so-net
ameblo
wox
rakuten
ninja
seesaa
goo
fc2
yahoo
livedoor
dreamlog

[ HPリンク ]
cocolog 家族のアルバム
fc2 家族のアルバム
初歩の日本語(タイ人学生向け)
タイの小学三年生数学学力テスト(国家試験)
タイ語、中国語、ビルマ語
Preliminary Japanese lessons for Thai students
旅行のタイ語学習サイト
ラオ日・日老辞書
妻はタイ人/タイの文化/タイの仏教戒律

  • ライブドアブログ