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トルコ非常事態 ここまでの粛清が必要なのか

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Can mass purge of Gulen supporters really be called necessary in Turkey?
トルコ非常事態 ここまでの粛清が必要なのか

Turkey is a regional power linking Europe and the Middle East. If Turkey becomes unstable, it could have a negative effect on efforts to prevent terrorism and deal with Syria’s civil war and the resulting refugee problem.
欧州と中東を結ぶ地域大国のトルコが不安定化すれば、シリア内戦や難民問題、テロへの対処に悪影響が及ぶ。

Turkey should refrain from politically exploiting the failed coup d’etat launched by part of its military and must avoid a situation that deepens rifts within society.
軍の一部によるクーデター未遂事件を政治的に利用して、社会の亀裂を深める事態は避けねばなるまい。

Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan has declared a three-month state of emergency. The president said this step was needed “to remove swiftly all the elements of the terrorist organization involved in the coup attempt.” Emergency rule will make it possible to significantly restrict the rights of Turkish citizens, and could result in an escalation of heavy-handed politics in that nation.
トルコのエルドアン大統領が、3か月間の非常事態を宣言した。「クーデターの試みに関与したテロ分子全員を早急に取り除くためだ」という。国民の権利の大幅な制限が可能になり、強権統治が一段とエスカレートしよう。

The Turkish government has already detained several thousand people suspected of involvement in the coup attempt, including senior military personnel and judges. The figure shoots up to 60,000 if the number of police officers, civil servants and teachers who have been suspended or dismissed is added. Twenty-four TV and radio stations have had their broadcast licenses revoked, and controls on freedom of speech have been tightened.
政権はすでに、事件に関与した疑いで軍幹部や裁判官ら数千人を拘束している。解任・停職処分を受けた警察官、公務員、教員を含めた総数は6万人に達する。テレビ・ラジオ24局の放送免許を剥奪し、言論統制も強めた。

Erdogan has pointed the finger of blame at Fethullah Gulen, a U.S.-based Muslim cleric and political foe he claims is the “mastermind” behind the coup attempt. The so-called Gulen Movement, which has built schools to spread his teachings, has extended its influence into many fields and reportedly has several million supporters.
エルドアン氏は、政敵である米国在住のイスラム教指導者ギュレン師を「事件の黒幕」と指弾する。学校を開設して教えを広める「ギュレン運動」は、各界に浸透し、支持者は数百万人とされる。

Gulen has denied any involvement in the failed coup, but Turkey’s government is demanding the United States extradite him. There is little the government can do to avoid criticism that its mass purge of Gulen supporters is a “witch hunt.”
ギュレン師は関わりを否定するが、政権側は米国に引き渡しを要求している。ギュレン派を大量粛清するのは、「魔女狩り」と非難されても仕方あるまい。

Self-restraint needed

Erdogan has led Turkey for 13 years, first as prime minister and now as president. He apparently wants to sweep aside his opponents and speed up moves to amend the Turkish Constitution to strengthen the authority of the president.
エルドアン氏は首相から大統領に転じ、13年間、国を率いている。反対派を一掃して、大統領権限の強化に向けた憲法改正の動きを加速させたいのだろう。

In response to a call by Erdogan, many Turkish citizens took to the streets and blocked the attempted coup by rebellious members of the military. Some people even risked their lives to defend democracy. If Erdogan simply steps up his crackdown even though the coup has been suppressed, he likely will lose some of his supporters.
エルドアン氏の呼びかけに応じて、多くの国民が街頭に繰り出し、反乱軍の企てを阻止した。民主主義を守るために身を挺ていした者もいた。クーデターを鎮圧しても、締め付けを強めるだけでは、支持者が離れていくのではないか。

U.S. President Barack Obama telephoned Erdogan and quite rightly called on him to respect the rule of law. The European Union has warned that Turkey will not be able to join the EU if it reinstates the death penalty.
オバマ米大統領がエルドアン氏との電話会談で、法の支配の尊重を求めたのは当然である。欧州連合(EU)は、トルコが死刑制度を復活させた場合、EU加盟は不可能になると警告した。

There is concern that if confusion drags on within the police and military forces, their ability to uphold public safety will decline. At the end of June, a major terrorist attack occurred at the international airport of Istanbul, Turkey’s largest city.
懸念されるのは、軍と警察の混乱が長期化し、治安維持能力が低下することである。先月末には、最大都市イスタンブールの国際空港で大規模テロがあった。

Operations by an international coalition aimed at wiping out the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant extremist group are at a crucial stage in efforts to take back key locations in Syria and Iraq. Turmoil in Turkey also could deal a blow to international cooperation in these operations.
過激派組織「イスラム国」掃討に向けた有志連合の作戦は、シリアとイラクの重要拠点奪還へ正念場を迎える。トルコの混迷は、国際連携にも打撃となろう。

Turkey is known as a pro-Japan nation, and Prime Minister Shinzo Abe has built up a relationship of trust with Erdogan. Japanese companies that entered the Turkish market through involvement in the construction of a nuclear power plant and a subway line are concerned about the current situation there. Erdogan will need to exercise more self-restraint.
トルコは親日国として知られ、安倍首相はエルドアン氏と信頼関係を築いてきた。原発や地下鉄の建設で進出する日本企業も現状を憂慮している。エルドアン氏には自制が求められよう。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, July 22, 2016)

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トランプ氏指名 愚かな「壁」を築くのか

July 21, 2016 (Mainichi Japan)
Editorial: Trump brings nothing to the table but rancor, future discord
トランプ氏指名 愚かな「壁」を築くのか

So it has come to this.
とうとう、ここまで来た。

After months of offensive remarks, rude behavior, and widespread expectations that his candidacy would eventually, inevitably, crash and burn, businessman Donald Trump is now the Republican Party's nominee for president of the United States.
暴言や不作法を重ね、いつかは失速すると思われた実業家のトランプ氏が、ついに米共和党の大会で大統領候補に指名された。

Trump's pick for vice president is Indiana Gov. Michael Pence, an experienced politician (unlike the nominee himself) who can act as a bridge with the Republican mainstream. However, the selection of Pence does absolutely nothing to ameliorate how dangerous Trump is.
副大統領候補には、トランプ氏と対照的に政治経験があり党主流派とのパイプ役になれるペンス・インディアナ州知事が指名された。しかし、トランプ氏の危うさは全く改善されていない。

The Republican National Convention (RNC) is usually a grand love-in for the GOP's presidential nominee, but this year has been different. The party continues to churn with misgivings about Trump, and Republican stars including both former Bush presidents, 2008 nominee Sen. John McCain, 2012 nominee and former Massachusetts Gov. Mitt Romney, and onetime 2016 candidate and Ohio Gov. John Kasich have all stayed away from the convention.
そもそも党内に疑問が渦巻いている。党大会は重要行事なのに、ブッシュ前大統領や過去2回の党大統領候補であるマケイン上院議員、ロムニー元マサチューセッツ州知事らが欠席。開催地オハイオ州の知事でトランプ氏と指名を争ったケーシック氏も出席を見送ったという。

What's more, some RNC delegates made an early push to be "unbound," or permitted to vote freely and not according to the results of the party's presidential primaries, revealing a deep vein of anti-Trump animosity. Yet more controversy was stirred when Trump's wife Melania gave a speech with parts that appeared to have been copied from Michelle Obama's address to the 2008 Democratic National Convention.
また、一部の代議員は予備選などの結果に拘束されずに候補を選ぶことを提案し、トランプ氏への根強い反感を浮き彫りにした。メラニア・トランプ夫人の演説が、ミシェル・オバマ大統領夫人の8年前の演説に酷似しているとの問題も浮上した。

But all this convention floor drama is a mere nothing compared to the stunning wrong-headedness of Trump's policies. First is his infamous plan for a wall along the U.S.-Mexican border to stop illegal immigration, which has now been duly included in the Republican platform. We are surprised that the GOP, with its emphasis on respect for American tradition and customs, would endorse such a foolish idea, which has even been condemned by Pope Francis as "not Christian." The Republican Party has drifted badly off-course. There is no other way to describe it.
だが、何より問題なのは政策だ。共和党の政策綱領には、違法移民対策としてメキシコ国境に壁を造るというトランプ氏の主張が盛り込まれた。ローマ法王も問題視した愚かな主張を、米国の伝統と美風を重んじる共和党が公認したのは驚きだ。同党の迷走は深刻と言うしかない。

Then there is Trump's suggestion that Japan and South Korea acquire nuclear weapons. These exact words do not appear in the Republican policy platform, but the document does state that the U.S. must "rebuild relationships with our allies, who understand that as long as the U.S. nuclear arsenal is their shield, they do not need to engage in nuclear proliferation."
また、トランプ氏の「日韓核武装容認」発言に関連して、綱領は「米国の核兵器を盾とする同盟国」との関係を再構築する必要があると述べ、「核の傘」を含めた米国の核政策を見直す可能性も示唆した。

The GOP platform similarly fudges Trump's call for a temporary ban on Muslims entering the U.S., stating instead that "we must apply special scrutiny to those foreign nationals seeking to enter the United States from terror-sponsoring countries or from regions associated with Islamic terrorism."
物議をかもした「イスラム教徒の入国禁止」提案は、特定地域から米入国を希望する外国人らを対象に特別な調査を行うとの表現になった。

These two policy ideas are filled to bursting with future problems. In particular, the effects of a U.S. rethink of its nuclear policy would inevitably hit Japan. The Republican platform's cautious attitude to the Trans-Pacific Partnership free trade pact is also a cause of serious concern for Japan.
だが、この二つの政策は依然、大きな問題をはらむ。特に核政策を見直すなら日本への影響は避けられない。トランプ氏に合わせて、綱領が環太平洋パートナーシップ協定(TPP)に慎重な態度に転じたのも日本にとって大きな不安材料だ。

One eye-catching and alarming detail of the GOP platform is that it begins with the following sentence: "We believe in American exceptionalism." Furthermore, the document accuses the administration of President Barack Obama of weakening the U.S. and having "invited aggression," resulting in "an emboldened China in the South China Sea (and) a resurgent Russia occupying parts of Ukraine and threatening neighbors from the Baltic to the Caucasus." It also calls North Korea "the Kim family's slave state." However, nowhere does the Republican platform describe in any detail what it wishes to do about these three countries.
目を引くのは、米国を特別な存在とする「米国例外主義」を綱領の冒頭に掲げたことだ。また、オバマ政権の「弱さ」ゆえに「侵略」が生じたとして、南シナ海での中国の「増長」やロシアのクリミア編入に言及、北朝鮮は「金一族の奴隷国家」だと厳しく批判したが、この3国への具体的な対応は詳しく述べていない。

Simply heaping criticism on the Obama administration will not win the Republicans the White House.
オバマ政権を批判するだけでは展望は開けまい。

In the loudly shouted slogans "America first" and "Make America great again," there is absolutely nothing that tells us how Trump views the safety and stability of the world.
「米国第一」「米国を再び偉大な国に」という声高な主張とは裏腹に、トランプ氏には世界の安全安定への視点が決定的に欠けている。

If he is to boast that the United States is a special country, he must think not just about the benefits and losses of his own nation, but about global interests.
米国は特別な国と誇るのなら、自国の損得だけでなく世界の利益こそ考えるべきである。

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南スーダン支援 安全優先でPKOを継続せよ

The Yomiuri Shimbun
PKO in S. Sudan should continue while putting priority on security
南スーダン支援 安全優先でPKOを継続せよ

Japan plays a part in U.N. peacekeeping operations in South Sudan to stabilize the African country. It is important to continue these missions while taking all possible measures to ensure safety.
南スーダンの安定化に向け、日本は国連平和維持活動(PKO)の一翼を担っている。安全確保に万全を期し、活動を継続することが重要だ。

Fighting broke out earlier this month in the capital of Juba between followers of the South Sudan president and vice president, leaving many people dead.
首都ジュバで今月上旬以降、大統領派と副大統領派が武力衝突し、多数の死者が出た。

The Ground Self-Defense Force engineering unit taking part in the U.N. Mission in the Republic of South Sudan (UNMISS), comprised of about 350 personnel, suspended its operations, which included developing roads and building facilities for related organizations in the suburbs of Juba.
国連南スーダン派遣団(UNMISS)に参加する陸上自衛隊の施設部隊約350人は、ジュバ近郊での道路整備、関係機関の施設建設などの活動を見合わせた。

To help Japanese civilians evacuate from South Sudan, the government sent an Air Self-Defense Force C-130 transport aircraft. The plane ultimately collected four Japanese Embassy officials. We regard this as a broadly appropriate response.
在留邦人退避を支援するため、政府は航空自衛隊のC130輸送機を派遣し、大使館員4人を輸送した。概おおむね適切な対応だった。

The C-130 aircraft had to refuel at several locations before arriving in the country because it has a short cruising distance. To conduct more mobile operations overseas, it is vital to beef up efforts for the full-fledged deployment of C-2, a new primary transport aircraft with a range of about 6,500 kilometers.
C130は航続距離が短く、現地までに数か所で給油を要した。より機動的な海外活動を行うには、航続距離が約6500キロの新型主力輸送機C2の本格配備を急ぐことが欠かせない。

The government also considered having the GSDF transport Japanese civilians by land from central Juba to an airport, a plan that was eventually put off as the local security situation improved. However, it is important for the GSDF to be ready to deal with a mission of this kind.
陸自が邦人を市街地から空港まで陸上輸送することも検討した。治安改善に伴って見送ったが、そうした任務にも対応できる態勢を整えておくことが大切だ。

The GSDF unit is currently conducting activities around its base only, such as setting up tents for locals who have fled the fighting and supplying them with food.
陸自部隊は現在、避難住民へのテント設営、食料支援など宿営地周辺での活動にとどめている。

The government will continue the GSDF missions in South Sudan, stating that the five principles for taking part in U.N. peacekeeping operations — such as a ceasefire agreement reached between parties concerned in the conflict — are still being observed. We believe this is a reasonable decision.
政府は、紛争当事者間の停戦合意などの「PKO参加5原則」は守られているとして、陸自の活動を継続する。妥当な判断だ。

Reputation at stake

The UNMISS involves 62 nations, such as India, South Korea and China. If Japan hastily pulls out, the decision could undermine the trust that exists between Japan and the United Nations as well as Japan and other countries, while also causing doubts over Tokyo’s commitment to international contributions.
UNMISSにはインド、韓国、中国など62か国が参加している。日本が拙速に撤退すれば、国連や他国との信頼関係が崩れ、国際貢献への姿勢が疑われかねない。

Since South Sudan’s independence in 2011, the Japanese government has dispatched GSDF units, rotating them at a pace of about once every half a year.
2011年の南スーダンの独立後、政府は、陸自部隊を約半年交代で派遣している。

We believe that the GSDF’s engagement in building roads, which serves as a foundation of nation-building, contributes to the country’s stability and development.
国造りの基礎である道路整備に陸自が従事することは、南スーダンの安定と発展に寄与しよう。

Currently, South Sudan is the only country where Japan takes part in U.N. peacekeeping operations. We hope that the mission will be soundly implemented, as this can also help realize a “proactive contribution to peace” as advocated by Prime Minister Shinzo Abe’s administration.
現在、日本が参加するPKOは南スーダンだけだ。安倍政権の「積極的平和主義」を体現するためにも、着実に取り組みたい。

A focus for the future is authorizing rescue missions by GSDF units, based on the security-related laws that have been enacted.
今後の焦点は、安全保障関連法の施行を踏まえた、「駆けつけ警護」任務の付与である。

The laws enable them to rescue U.N. officials, civilians, foreign troops or others in South Sudan when they face attacks by armed groups.
現地で国連職員や民間人、他国軍兵士らが武装集団などに襲われた場合、陸自部隊が救援に行くことが可能となる。

The Defense Ministry has established rules of engagement that stipulate, among other things, limits on the use of arms, while also starting to study training programs for this kind of duty. The ministry is expected to authorize a GSDF unit, which it will dispatch to the African country in November at the earliest, to carry out this mission.
防衛省は、武器使用の限度などを定める部隊行動基準を作成する一方、訓練開始に向けた検討にも入った。早ければ、11月にも現地に派遣する部隊に新任務を付与するとみられる。

An emergency situation that will require a rescue mission could occur at any time, even if not frequently. The ministry is urged to make extensive preparations in advance and offer training programs.
駆けつけ警護が必要な状況は、頻繁ではないが、いつ発生してもおかしくない。事前の十分な準備と訓練が求められよう。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, July 20, 2016)

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中国成長横ばい 過剰な生産設備の是正を急げ

The Yomiuri Shimbun
China’s excessive production capacity must be cut to ensure stable growth
中国成長横ばい 過剰な生産設備の是正を急げ

How can China overcome the pain that accompanies structural reforms and realize stable growth? The latest data on the nation’s economy has thrown into relief the difficulties of managing its economy.
構造改革に伴う痛みをどう克服し、安定成長を実現するのか。中国の経済運営の難しさが改めて浮き彫りになった。

China must face the arduous challenge of streamlining excessive manufacturing facilities and curtailing inefficient state-owned firms while averting a sudden business slowdown.
景気の腰折れを避けつつ、過剰設備の整理や、非効率な国有企業を淘汰とうたする難題に取り組まねばならない。

China’s real-term gross domestic product grew 6.7 percent in the April-June quarter when compared to the same period last year. The growth rate leveled off from the previous quarter, and a downtrend was halted for the first time in four quarters. However, it still marked a seven-year low since the shock that resulted from the collapse of U.S. investment bank Lehman Brothers.
中国の今年4~6月期の実質国内総生産(GDP)は前年同期比6・7%増となった。成長率は前期から横ばいで、4四半期ぶりに下げ止まったが、リーマン・ショック以来7年ぶりの低成長だ。

Given the slackening of investments and exports, it has become clear that China’s “world’s factory” model, used as a driving force for high growth, has reached its limit.
投資や輸出が振るわず、高度成長の原動力だった「世界の工場」モデルの限界が鮮明となった。

The Chinese administration of President Xi Jinping is pursuing a shift from investment-centered high growth to a “new normal” state of consumption-led stable growth. But consumption, which is essential, lacks the power to supplement investments and exports.
習近平政権は、投資中心の高成長から、消費主導で安定成長する「新常態」(ニューノーマル)への転換を目指している。だが、肝心の消費は、投資や輸出を補完するほどの力強さを欠いている。

The switch to expanded growth will require the overproduction of steel and coal to be rectified. However, efforts in this regard are struggling.
成長路線の転換には、鉄鋼、石炭などの過剰生産の是正が求められるが、難航している。

China’s crude steel production has ballooned to about 800 million tons a year due to a large-scale stimulus package adopted in the aftermath of the collapse of Lehman Brothers. China’s share of the global market has swelled to half, causing steel prices to fall.
リーマン・ショック後の大型景気対策で膨張した粗鋼の生産量は年約8億トンと、世界の半分を占め、相場の値崩れを招いている。

The excessive capacities of steel and other industries was mentioned as “a global issue” in the statement issued after a meeting of trade ministers from the Group of 20 major economies, held this month in Shanghai.
上海で今月開かれた主要20か国・地域(G20)貿易相会合の声明でも、鉄鋼などの過剰生産が「世界的な問題だ」と明記された。

Specter of ‘zombie firms’

China has made moves to reduce crude steel output by suspending operations at facilities, including its old blast furnaces. However, this is akin to pouring water on a hot stone. If restructuring is pushed ahead, it is estimated that 1.8 million workers will be rendered jobless in the steelmaking and coal mining industries alone.
旧式の高炉などで操業停止の動きもあるが、焼け石に水だ。強引にリストラを進めると、製鉄と炭鉱だけで180万人の失業者が出るとみられる。

Due to opposition from local governments, which are concerned about employment, curtailing production facilities has progressed little.
雇用を懸念する地方政府などが抵抗するため、生産設備の削減が進まない。

It is necessary to alter the industrial structure by promoting the service and other industries, thereby making it possible for workers who lose their jobs due to structural reforms to be accepted elsewhere.
サービス産業の振興など産業構造の転換を進め、雇用の受け皿の確保につなげる政策が必要だ。

Some state-owned businesses and firms related to local governments have, in effect, gone bust, but survive thanks to public subsidies. These “zombie companies” have become a serious issue.
国有企業や、地方政府の関連企業などで、実質破綻しながら公的補助で生き延びている「ゾンビ企業」問題も深刻化している。

It is worrying that nonperforming loans — made by financial institutions to unprofitable businesses and in connection to investments in excessive facilities and real estate — have become bloated.
気がかりなのは、過大な設備や不動産への投資に絡んで、不採算企業に貸し込んだ金融機関の不良債権が膨らんでいることだ。

According to China’s official statistics, outstanding nonperforming bank loans stand at slightly more than 1 trillion yuan. However, it is strongly believed the actual figure is several times larger.
公式統計では、銀行の不良債権残高は1兆元余だが、実態は数倍に上るという見方も根強い。

The liquidation of zombie companies is indispensable to reforming China’s state-owned firms by shifting their central businesses from the public to private sector. However, if the issue of bad debts surfaces, it could trigger financial unrest.
官から民へ経済活動の主役を移す国有企業改革は、ゾンビ企業の整理が欠かせない。しかし、不良債権問題が表面化すれば、金融不安を招きかねない。

Changes in the Chinese economy, and the issue of Britain’s exit from the European Union, pose a risk to the global economy. How can China maintain the sensitive balance between reform and business?
中国経済の変調は、英国の欧州連合(EU)離脱問題と並ぶ世界経済のリスクとみられている。改革と景気の微妙なバランスをどう図っていくか。

It is essential for the many Japanese firms that conduct business transactions with China to take responsive measures while closely monitoring how the matter evolves.
中国と取引のある多くの日本企業も、その推移を見極めた対応が大切となろう。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, July 18, 2016)

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トルコ軍反乱 鎮圧が国民融和につながるか

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Would suppression of military revolt in Turkey lead to reconciliation?
トルコ軍反乱 鎮圧が国民融和につながるか

The attempt by Turkish forces to use arms and overthrow a government chosen through a democratic process cannot possibly be condoned. There is a pressing need for the interested parties to exercise restraint so further bloodshed will be averted.
民主的な手続きで選ばれた政権を、軍隊が武力で転覆させる行為は到底許されない。当事者が自制し、さらなる流血を回避することが急務だ。

Some military troops attempted a coup through such actions as deploying tanks and occupying broadcasting stations in Turkey’s capital of Ankara and its largest city of Istanbul. There were clashes of arms and explosions, resulting in a large number of casualties. Large bridges connecting Europe and Asia and arterial roads were temporarily closed.
トルコの首都アンカラと最大都市イスタンブールで、軍の一部が戦車を展開し、放送局を占拠するなど、クーデターを企てた。交戦や爆発が発生し、多数の死傷者が出た。アジアと欧州を結ぶ大橋や主要道路が一時閉鎖された。

Military and police forces supporting the government have nearly quelled the rebel troops. The coup attempt ended in failure, with many soldiers killed or detained. President Recep Tayyip Erdogan emphasized that the coup attempt had been quashed, saying he was “in control” of the situation.
政府を支持する軍と警察が、反乱軍をほぼ制圧した。試みは失敗に終わり、多くの兵士が殺害、拘束された。エルドアン大統領は「クーデターを鎮圧した。事態を掌握している」と強調した。

It was only natural for the United States, the European Union, the United Nations and others to express support for the Turkish government and call for the restoration of order. Prime Minister Shinzo Abe said, “I’m concerned about the situation.” The Japanese government must strive to secure the safety of Japanese residents in Turkey in case the turmoil continues for an extended period.
米国や欧州連合(EU)、国連などが政権への支持を表明し、秩序の回復を求めたのは当然である。安倍首相は「事態を憂慮している」と語った。混乱の長期化にも備え、日本政府は在留邦人の安全確保に努めねばならない。

One of the factors behind the latest revolt seems to be that part of the military was dissatisfied with the measures implemented to reduce their power, including constitutional amendment, at a time when the Erdogan administration has become even more religious.
今回の反乱は、政権が宗教色を強め、憲法改正などで軍の権限縮小を断行したことに対する不満が背景にあるのだろう。

Turkey has stood by its national principle of secularism — the separation of religion and politics — since Kemal Ataturk, who hailed from the military, was installed as the first president of the country in 1923.
トルコは、1923年に軍人出身のケマル・アタチュルクが初代大統領に就任して以来、政教分離の世俗主義を国是としてきた。

History of coups

The military see themselves as “the defenders of secularism.” They have staged coups in the past, too, citing the government’s Islamization and political corruption as the reasons for their actions.
軍は「世俗主義の守護者」を自任する。これまでも、政府のイスラム化や政治腐敗を理由にクーデターを起こしている。

At the helm of a moderate Islamic party, Erdogan became prime minister in 2003 and president in 2014. Based on his initiative to achieve economic growth, Erdogan has implemented policy measures marked by a tilt toward Muslims, such as a ban on the sale of alcoholic beverages at night.
エルドアン氏はイスラム穏健政党を率い、2003年から首相、14年から大統領を務める。経済成長を主導した実績を基に、近年は夜間の酒類販売禁止などイスラム教徒寄りの政策を進めた。

The problem is that Erdogan’s iron-fisted approach is heightening friction within the country.
問題なのは、エルドアン氏の強権的な手法によって、国内のあつれきが増していることである。

Antigovernment demonstrations have been cracked down on, and control has been exercised over organs of public opinion critical of the government. Fighting against armed groups of separatist Kurds has turned into a quagmire, and little headway has been made in preventing terrorist attacks by the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) and other militant groups.
反政府デモを弾圧し、政権に批判的な言論機関を管理下に置いた。独立を主張するクルド人武装組織との戦闘が泥沼化し、過激派組織「イスラム国」などによる相次ぐテロを防げずにいる。

There will be no hope of stabilizing the political situation unless Erdogan facilitates reconciliation with secularists.
エルドアン氏が世俗主義者らとの融和を図らなければ、政情の安定は期待できまい。

Turkey has allowed U.S. forces to use military bases for a campaign by the coalition of the willing to uproot the ISIL group. The country also plays an important role in hindering the movement of foreign ISIL fighters.
トルコは、有志連合の「イスラム国」掃討作戦で、米軍に基地を提供している。「イスラム国」の外国人戦闘員の移動を阻止するうえでも重要な役割を担う。

Turkey has also been asked to promote cooperation with the EU in dealing with the issue of Syrian refugees staying in that country despite wanting to leave for Europe.
欧州に向かうシリア難民が滞留している問題では、EUとの協調が求められている。

It is indispensable for the international community, including Japan, to become actively involved in this respect, a task essential for preventing the latest incident from further exacerbating the situation in the Middle East.
今回の事態が中東情勢の一層の悪化につながらないよう、日本をはじめ、国際社会が積極的に関与することが欠かせない。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, July 17, 2016)

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アジア欧州会議 中国は国際法に背を向けるな

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Countries should work together to urge China not to reject international law
アジア欧州会議 中国は国際法に背を向けるな

It cannot be overlooked that China is disregarding the court of arbitration’s decision, which fully dismissed Beijing’s claims regarding its sovereignty over the South China Sea.
南シナ海での中国の主権を全面的に否定した仲裁裁判所の判決を中国が無視していることは、看過できない。

It is crucial for countries concerned to work together to continue to urge Beijing to follow the ruling.
関係国が結束して、中国に判決に従うよう促し続けることが肝要である。

The Asia-Europe Meeting (ASEM) ended its summit by adopting a chairperson’s statement that mentioned the importance of solving disputes based on the U.N. Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS).
アジア欧州会議(ASEM)首脳会議が、国連海洋法条約に則のっとった紛争解決の重要性を明記した議長声明を採択し、閉幕した。

The document refrained from making a direct reference to the South China Sea, in consideration of Beijing. This is in a way unavoidable because documents, in principle, have to be adopted unanimously.
中国への配慮から、南シナ海への直接の言及は避けた。合意文書の採択は全会一致が原則だけに、やむを得ない面もある。

We welcome the fact that many leaders discussed the South China Sea issue during the summit and expressed support for maintaining maritime order based on the rule of law.
会議で、多くの首脳が南シナ海の問題を取り上げ、「法の支配に基づく海洋秩序の維持」を支持したことは評価できよう。

Prime Minister Shinzo Abe emphasized that the ruling was “final and legally binding for countries concerned in the dispute.” We regard his comments as a matter of course.
安倍首相が、判決は「最終的なもので、紛争当事国を法的に拘束する」と強調したのは当然だ。

It was questionable that Chinese Premier Li Keqiang, during a meeting with Abe, said once again that his country rejected the ruling. “Japan should not make a fuss about and intervene in the South China Sea issue,” Li said.
疑問なのは、中国の李克強首相が安倍首相との会談で「日本は南シナ海問題で騒ぎ立て、介入するのをやめるべきだ」と述べ、改めて判決を拒否したことである。

Beijing dismissed the arbitration proceedings as a “political farce” and even described the ruling as “paper waste.” The country has been repeating landing tests by civilian aircraft at airports on artificial islands it has constructed in the Spratly Islands, with the aim of making its effective control over the South China Sea a fait accompli.
中国は仲裁裁判を「政治的な茶番」と決めつけ、判決を「紙くずだ」とも言い放つ。スプラトリー(南沙)諸島の人工島に建設した飛行場では、民間機による着陸テストを繰り返し、実効支配の既成事実化を図っている。

Unworthy of UNSC

Beijing has been heightening regional tensions even further by turning its back on the international court’s decision. Such self-serving actions and statements are unworthy of a permanent member of the U.N. Security Council, which is responsible for regional stability.
国際司法判断に背を向け、一段と緊張を高める中国の独善的な言動は、地域の安定に責任を持つ国連安全保障理事会の常任理事国にあるまじき振る舞いである。

Beijing claimed that it was unfair that Shunji Yanai, then president of the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea, appointed four arbitration court judges in charge of the South China Sea case. However, we regard this as unreasonable.
中国は、当時の柳井俊二国際海洋法裁判所長が仲裁裁判の裁判官4人を選任したことを「公正でない」と主張するが、筋違いだ。

Experts were chosen as judges for the case based on procedures under UNCLOS. It is China’s boycotting of the procedures that is the problem.
裁判官には、国連海洋法条約の手続きに基づき、専門家が選ばれた。裁判への参加を拒否した中国の対応にこそ、問題がある。

China is staging a propaganda campaign to justify itself by claiming that more than 70 countries support its position. We suspect this action indicates how desperate Beijing is about becoming isolated in the international community.
70か国以上が中国の立場を支持していると主張し、自らを正当化する宣伝戦を展開するのは、孤立への危機感の表れではないか。

It is of no small significance that the chairperson’s statement expressed a resolve to prevent violent extremism, following the terrorist attacks in Nice, France, and Bangladesh.
首脳会議が議長声明で、仏ニースやバングラデシュのテロを踏まえ、暴力的過激主義を防ぐ決意を示した意義は小さくない。

Armed groups and others are committing attacks in many parts of the world in response to calls by the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) militant organization. In the medium and long term, it is important to work together in coping with social issues that can serve as hotbeds of extremism, such as employment measures for younger generations.
過激派組織「イスラム国」の呼びかけに応じ、武装集団などが各地で事件を起こしている。中長期的には、若者の就業対策など過激主義の温床となる社会問題への対応でも連携することが大切だ。

In the economic field, the summit focused on stabilizing the global economy, which has been shaken since Britain’s vote to leave the European Union.
経済分野では、英国の欧州連合(EU)離脱問題で揺れる世界経済の安定化が焦点となった。

It is reasonable that the statement confirmed that countries are ready to use all their policy tools: monetary, fiscal and structural reforms.
議長声明で、金融、財政、構造改革の全ての政策手段をとる用意があると確認したのは妥当だ。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, July 17, 2016)

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仏車突入テロ 祝祭を標的にした新手の蛮行

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Using truck as a terror weapon during celebrations a heinous act
仏車突入テロ 祝祭を標的にした新手の蛮行

It was an unforgivable, heinous act of terrorism that targeted people celebrating Bastille Day, which commemorates the French Revolution and is France’s most important holiday.
革命記念日というフランスの最も重要な祝祭を狙った残虐なテロだ。断じて許されない。

A heavy truck drove onto a promenade in Nice, a Mediterranean resort city in southeastern France, traveling about two kilometers while mowing down a crowd of people watching fireworks. The attack took the lives of many people, including children.
地中海に面する仏南東部の保養地ニースで、革命記念日の14日、大型トラックが遊歩道を約2キロ暴走し、花火の見物客をなぎ倒す事件が起きた。子供を含む多数が犠牲になった。

The driver was shot dead after exchanging fire with police officers. According to sources, he was identified as a 31-year-old Tunisian-born Frenchman who lived in Nice. He had a criminal record of theft, but was not under police surveillance.
トラックを運転していた犯人は警官との銃撃戦の末に、死亡した。ニース在住で仏国籍を有する31歳のチュニジア系の男とされる。窃盗の犯罪歴があるが、警察の監視対象ではなかったという。

This attack is categorized as a mass murder on a soft target — the man chose a lightly guarded place where large numbers of the general public gather. What makes the matter even more serious is the fact the incident was caused by a new type of “weapon” — a truck, which is relatively easy to acquire.
警備が手薄で、不特定多数の一般市民が集まる「ソフトターゲット」を襲った大量殺人と言える。深刻なのは、比較的容易に入手できるトラックという新手の「凶器」が使用されたことである。

The French government began investigating the incident after concluding it was a terrorist attack. We hope the government will swiftly discover the overall picture of the situation, including the background and the man’s motive.
仏政府は、事件を「テロ」と断定し、捜査を始めた。犯行の動機や背景など、全体像の解明を急いでもらいたい。

The attack dealt an immeasurable blow to France.
事件がフランスに与えた衝撃は計り知れない。

“France was hit on its National Day, July 14, the symbol of freedom,” French President Francois Hollande said, while expressing his resolve not to succumb to terrorism. We believe he made his remarks with the significance of the French Revolution — the people’s revolution in the 18th century — in mind.
オランド大統領は「自由の象徴である日に、フランスが攻撃された」と語り、テロに屈しない決意を表明した。18世紀の市民革命の意義を踏まえた発言だろう。

Difficulty ensuring security

France had just finished hosting the European Championship soccer tournament under heavy security, and was scheduled to lift a state of emergency late this month, which was imposed after the November coordinated terrorist attacks in Paris.
フランスは、サッカー欧州選手権の開催を厳戒態勢で乗り切り、昨年11月のパリ同時テロの直後に発した非常事態宣言を今月下旬に解除する予定だった。

The fact that a major terrorist attack took place at such a time in a regional city underscored the difficulty of ensuring security.
その矢先に、地方都市で重大なテロが起きたことは、警備の難しさを浮き彫りにした。

“The whole of France is under the threat of Islamist terrorism,” Hollande said.
オランド氏は、「仏全土がイスラム過激派のテロの脅威に直面している」との認識を示した。

The French government will extend the state of emergency for another three months, and tighten its security through such measures as calling up its military reserves. It is also important to review the nation’s program of surveillance of an estimated several thousand potential terrorists.
政府は非常事態宣言をさらに3か月延長し、軍の予備役を招集するなど警戒を強化する。数千人の潜在的なテロリストに対する監視態勢の見直しが欠かせない。

The European Union nations agreed to reinforce their public security cooperation at a summit meeting last month. The aftershock of Britain’s decision to exit from the EU should not stall the organization’s efforts against terrorism.
欧州連合(EU)は先月の首脳会議で、治安分野での協力拡充で一致した。英国のEU離脱決定に伴う動揺で、欧州のテロ対策の取り組みが停滞してはならない。

It was totally appropriate for Prime Minister Shinzo Abe, who is in Mongolia to participate in a summit meeting of the Asia-Europe Meeting (ASEM), to say, “Despicable acts of terrorism that involve innocent people are absolutely unforgivable.” Other world leaders also sent a string of messages expressing their unity with France’s fight against terrorism.
モンゴルでのアジア欧州会議(ASEM)首脳会議に出席した安倍首相が「罪のない人々を巻き込む卑劣なテロを断固非難する」と述べたのは当然である。各国首脳からも、テロと戦うフランスへの連帯を示す発言が相次いだ。

In Bangladesh, the attack by gunmen that took place earlier this month at a restaurant made it clear that terrorism caused by Islamic extremists is also spreading in Asia.
今月のバングラデシュでのレストラン襲撃事件では、イスラム過激派によるテロがアジアにも広がっていることが鮮明になった。

The ASEM meeting should be utilized as an opportunity to deepen cooperation on measures against terrorism between Asia and Europe.
今回の会議を、アジアと欧州のテロ対策での協力を一段と深める機会とせねばならない。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, July 16, 2016)

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Emperor Akihito expresses intention to abdicate: gov't source

July 13, 2016 (Mainichi Japan)
Emperor Akihito expresses intention to abdicate: gov't source
 
Emperor Akihito and Empress Michiko are pictured in Manila in this Jan. 28, 2016 file photo. (Mainichi)

Emperor Akihito has expressed his intention to abdicate, making way for his son Crown Prince Naruhito to ascend the Chrysanthemum throne, a government source has disclosed.

The Emperor conveyed his intention to a person close to the Imperial Household Agency, according to the government source. He is said to have expressed his intention to abdicate within several years.

The Imperial Household Agency is making arrangements for the Emperor to publicly express his intention in the near future. As the Imperial House Law does not contain stipulations on the Emperor's abdication, discussion will likely begin over revisions to the legislation.

Emperor Akihito, 82, is Japan's 125th emperor. After undergoing heart surgery in February 2012, he had his official duties reduced, including Imperial rituals. However, he has continued to perform numerous duties, including matters of state as stipulated in the Constitution, visiting areas affected by earthquakes and other disasters, and meeting with foreign heads of state.

According to informed sources, the Emperor does not wish to have his duties drastically reduced, nor remain in his position while leaving his duties to a substitute. He also believes that a person who can sufficiently perform his duties as a symbol of the state as stipulated in the Constitution should remain on the Chrysanthemum throne. The Emperor is said to have conveyed his intentions to Empress Michiko, Crown Prince Naruhito and Prince Akishino.

Emperor Akihito ascended the throne in 1989 as the first emperor to do so under the post-World War II Constitution, which stipulates that "The Emperor shall be the symbol of the State and of the unity of the people." During a press conference marking his ascension to the throne, which he attended with Empress Michiko, Emperor Akihito said, "I want to fulfill my duties as Emperor that are laid out in the Constitution to work for the happiness of the people and to have a monarchy that is fitting for the present age."

He has continually pursued ways to carry out his role as the symbol of the state including visits to facilities for disabled people and areas affected by the 1995 Great Hanshin Earthquake and other disasters.

At a news conference marking the 10th anniversary of his ascension to the throne, he said, "It is our important duty to empathize with disabled and elderly people, those affected by disasters, as well as those who dedicate themselves to society and the people."

The Imperial Household Agency has pursued ways to reduce the burden on Emperor Akihito as he has grown older. The agency announced in January 2009 that the Emperor would stop issuing statements in a large number of ceremonies after he developed a heartbeat irregularity, and suffered other illnesses apparently caused by mental stress in December 2008.

The Emperor underwent coronary-artery bypass surgery in February 2012. Nevertheless, he attended memorial services for victims of the March 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami held shortly afterwards. At a news conference prior to his 79th birthday, Emperor Akihito said he wanted to stay active for the time being.

At the same time, the Emperor has begun to hand over some duties to Crown Prince Naruhito. His last visits to facilities as part of his official duties were in 2014, on the occasions of Children's Day and Respect-for-the-Aged Day. In May this year, the agency further reviewed Emperor Akihito's official duties, cancelling eight planned meetings with the heads of national and local governments.

It was not unheard-of among the past 124 emperors to abdicate and hand over the Imperial throne to their successors while they were alive, according to the Imperial Household Agency. The last emperor to do so, however, was Emperor Kokaku, who was on the throne from 1780 to 1817 during the late Edo Period.

In royal families in European countries, it is not unusual for the monarch to hand over his or her throne to a successor. In 2013, then Netherlands Queen Beatrix, who has friendly relations with the Japanese Imperial Family, and Pope Benedict XVI abdicated, drawing worldwide attention.

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自公が国政選4連勝 「後出し改憲」に信はない

--The Asahi Shimbun, July 11
EDITORIAL: Election victory is not a mandate to change the Constitution
(社説)自公が国政選4連勝 「後出し改憲」に信はない

The outcome of the July 10 Upper House election has turned out to be a watershed in the nation's postwar politics.
歴史的な選挙となった。

In the 1956 Upper House election, the Socialists, along with other parties, erected a sort of legislative wall by securing more than one-third of the seats to prevent the newly formed Liberal Democratic Party from carrying out its pledge to amend the Constitution.
Six decades on, the wall in the Upper House has now crumbled. It had already gone in the Lower House.
1956年、結党間もない自民党が掲げた憲法改正を阻むため、社会党などが築いた「3分の1」の壁。これが、60年たって参院でも崩れ去った。

The ruling coalition of the Liberal Democratic Party and its junior partner, Komeito, won a crushing victory in the election. The four pro-amendment parties, which include Initiatives from Osaka, together with some independent members who support the idea but didn’t face election this year, now control more than two-thirds of the chamber. The LDP and Komeito already have a two-thirds majority in the Lower House. Constitutional amendments can be initiated by the Diet through a concurring vote of two-thirds or more of all the members of each chamber.
自民、公明の与党が大勝し、おおさか維新なども含めた「改憲4党」、それに改憲に前向きな非改選の無所属議員もあわせれば、憲法改正案の国会発議ができる「3分の2」を超えた。衆院では、自公だけでこの議席を占めている。

Rewriting the Constitution, of course, is a very complicated political challenge, and these numbers don’t mean the process will move forward immediately.
もちろん、これで一気に進むほど憲法改正は容易ではない。

The four pro-amendment parties have widely different political agendas. Komeito, in particular, is increasingly cautious about pushing through any initiative to amend the Constitution.
改憲4党といってもめざすところはバラバラで、とりわけ公明党は慎重論を強めている。

There is, however, no doubt that debate on constitutional amendments will gain traction in the Diet in the coming months as Prime Minister Shinzo Abe has pledged to activate the Commission on the Constitution in both houses during the next Diet session. In the process, the prospects of actual changes in the Constitution will increase gradually.
それでも、安倍首相が「次の国会から憲法審査会をぜひ動かしていきたい」と予告したように、改憲の議論が現実味を帯びながら進められていくのは間違いない。

This is the first time that the postwar Constitution faces a realistic possibility of amendments being made. It’s nothing less than a critical turning point for Japan’s postwar politics.
いまの憲法のもとでは初めての政治状況だ。まさに戦後政治の分岐点である。

CAMPAIGN DEBATE DEVOID OF KEY ELEMENTS
■判断材料欠けた論戦

Before the election campaign kicked off, Abe expressed his desire to carry out constitutional amendments while he was in office. But he avoided addressing the issue head-on during the campaign.
首相は憲法改正について、選挙前は「自分の在任中には成し遂げたい」とまで語っていたのに、選挙が始まったとたん、積極的な発言を封印した。

The election is now over, and Abe is again ratcheting up his rhetoric about constitutional change.
We have to say Abe's approach to realize his long-held political aspiration is insincere.
それでいて選挙が終われば、再び改憲へのアクセルをふかす――。首相は自らの悲願を、こんな不誠実な「後出し」で実現しようというのだろうか。

Exactly what kind of message did Japanese voters send out in the poll?
有権者がこの選挙で示した民意をどう読み解くべきか。

Abe said the key election issues were the appropriateness of his decision to again postpone a rise in the consumption tax rate and whether his economic policy, known as "Abenomics," should be promoted further.
首相が掲げたのは、消費税率引き上げ先送りの是非と、「アベノミクス」をさらに進めるかどうかだった。

As for the consumption tax rate increase, Katsuya Okada, president of the main opposition Democratic Party, had already called for it to be delayed before Abe announced his decision. The party pointed to the limitations of Abenomics but failed to offer a convincing alternative.
消費税率引き上げについては、民進党の岡田代表が先んじて先送りを表明した。一方、民進党はアベノミクスの限界を指摘したが、それに代わりうる説得力ある案は示せなかった。

The LDP, on the other hand, promised to achieve a “virtuous cycle of growth and distribution,” a slogan that is reminiscent of the Democratic Party’s pledge to pursue both “distribution and growth.”
逆に自民党は、民進党が掲げた「分配と成長の両立」をなぞるように「成長と分配の好循環」と訴えた。

The opposition parties focused their campaigning on blocking the Abe administration’s bid to amend the Constitution. But the prime minister did not respond to their challenge.
野党側は安倍政権による改憲阻止を訴えたが、首相はこれにはこたえない。

There was no detailed debate on energy policy, which is facing the crucial decision of whether to promote or phase out nuclear power generation.
また、推進か脱却かの岐路にある原発政策は、多くは語られなかった。

All in all, the election campaign was short on vital elements that could strongly affect voters’ decisions at the ballot box.
結局、有権者には判断材料が乏しいままだった。

Abe argued that his efforts to revitalize the economy through Abenomics have not been a failure, but still have a long way to go. Many voters may have cast ballots for the status quo in a “wait-and-see” stance even though they were not fully sold on Abe’s argument.
「アベノミクスは失敗していないが、道半ばだ」という首相の説明には首をかしげても、「しばらく様子を見よう」と有権者の多くは現状維持を選んだと見ることもできよう。

ESCHEWING CONSTITUTIONAL REVISION TO PREVENT BACKLASH
■反発恐れ「改憲隠し」

Why did Abe not talk much about his desire to amend the Constitution?
安倍首相が今回、憲法改正への意欲を積極的に語らなかったのはなぜか。

He has probably learned a lesson from his bitter experience with regard to the 2007 Upper House election, when he campaigned on a pledge to seek the initiation of constitutional amendments in 2010. He resigned after the ruling party took a drubbing in the poll.
「2010年に憲法改正案の発議をめざす」。公約にこう掲げながら惨敗し、退陣につながった07年参院選の苦い教訓があったのは想像に難くない。

Abe apparently thought that the more he talked eagerly about his wish to rewrite the Constitution in specific terms the more likely the public would react negatively to his case.
憲法改正を具体的に語れば語るほど、世論の反発が大きくなるとの判断もあっただろう。

Abe also pointed out that any proposal to amend the Constitution has to be approved by the public through a national referendum and said it was not vital to discuss the issue in an election campaign.
首相はまた、改憲案を最終的に承認するのは国民投票であることなどを指摘して「選挙で争点とすることは必ずしも必要ない」と説明した。

But he is wrong. The due process of amending the Constitution should be composed of three stages. First, a specific proposal to change the Constitution should be made a key topic for an election. Then, the elected representatives of the people should have mature debate on the proposal at the Diet for the purpose of building broad consensus. And finally, the proposal should be put to a national referendum for public approval.
それは違う。改正の論点を選挙で問い、そのうえで選ばれた議員によって幅広い合意形成を図る熟議があり、最終的に国民投票で承認する。これがあるべきプロセスだ。

If he really believes it is not necessary to listen to the people’s opinions about a proposal to amend the Constitution until the Diet initiates the amendment, Abe has the wrong idea about to whom the Constitution belongs.
国会が発議するまで国民の意見は聞かなくていいというのであれば、やはり憲法は誰のものであるのかという根本をはき違えている。

Abe himself has admitted that there is no agreement on which provision should be amended first. This is clear evidence that there is no urgent need to change the Constitution.
「どの条項から改正すべきか議論が収斂(しゅうれん)していない」と首相がいうのも、改憲に差し迫った必要性がないことの証左だ。

The outcome of the election doesn’t at all mean Abe has a public mandate to amend the Constitution.
この選挙結果で、憲法改正に国民からゴーサインが出たとは決していえない。

OPPOSITION ALLIANCE SHOULD CONTINUE
■次への野党共闘は

Whether he will immediately start taking steps toward constitutional amendments or not, it is certain that Abe now has a very strong power base after four consecutive wins in national elections.
憲法改正に直ちに進むかどうかは別にしても、国政選挙で4連勝した安倍首相が、当面、極めて強固な権力基盤を手にしたのは間違いない。

This is not simply about the ruling camp’s overwhelming majority in both houses. Since he returned to power in December 2012, Abe has appointed individuals he favors for posts that should be independent of political power, such as the Bank of Japan governor, the chief of the Cabinet Legislation Bureau and the governors of Japan Broadcasting Corp. (NHK).
単に国会の勢力だけの話ではない。安倍氏は首相に返り咲いてから、日銀総裁、内閣法制局長官、NHK経営委員と、本来は政治権力から距離を置くべきポストを自分の色に染めてきた。

Abe is also putting unprecedented political pressure on appointments to senior posts at ministries and agencies through the Cabinet bureau of personnel affairs.
内閣人事局を通じ、各省幹部人事にもこれまでにないにらみをきかせている。

There is no political force in the nation’s governing system that can counter or check the huge political power Abe has amassed.
「安倍1強」に対抗できる、あるいは歯止めとなりうる力が統治機構の中に見あたらない。

Meanwhile, four opposition parties, including the Democratic Party and the Japanese Communist Party, fielded their unified candidates for all of the 32 single-seat constituencies in the election. They formed an electoral alliance for the common goals of repealing the national security legislation and thwarting Abe’s attempt to amend the Constitution.
The opposition alliance has proved effective, at least to a certain degree. But it has failed to shape up as a powerful national movement that can give a unified voice to public criticism about the Abe administration.
一方、民進、共産など野党4党は、安全保障関連法廃止や改憲阻止を旗印に、32の1人区すべてで候補を統一し、一定の結果を残した。ただ、全国的に政権批判の受け皿になるには力強さを欠いた。

As the election campaigning entered its final stage, the opposition coalition came under fierce attack from the ruling camp, which denounced their partnership as an unprincipled coalition for political convenience. In particular, the ruling camp roundly criticized the Democratic Party and its non-communist allies for campaigning with the JCP, which regards the existence of the Self-Defense Forces as unconstitutional.
終盤になると、与党側から野合批判、とりわけ自衛隊を違憲とする共産党との共闘への激しい攻撃を浴びた。

If they hadn’t formed the alliance, however, they would have lost in even more of the single-seat constituencies. Their electoral cooperation has been meaningful from this point of view.
もっとも、共闘していなければ、1人区の当選者はさらに限られただろうことを考えれば、共闘の試みに意味はあった。

Under the current election system, nearly 300 of the 475 Lower House seats are contested in single-seat constituencies. Single-seat constituencies are also vital for the overall outcomes of Upper House elections.
An electoral alliance is undoubtedly the most effective way for smaller opposition parties to fight against the dominant ruling camp under this system.
小選挙区制の衆院、1人区が全体の結果を左右する参院のいまの選挙制度では、巨大与党に対抗するには野党共闘が最も有効であるのは間違いない。

The opposition parties need to figure out an effective formula for their alliance for the next Lower House election, which will enable voters to choose their government.
If they fail to do so, the LDP is likely to continue winning overwhelming election victories.
政権選択を問う次の衆院選に向けて、どのような共闘ができるか。野党側が戦える態勢をととのえられなければ、自民ひとり勝ちの選挙がさらに続きかねない。

続きを読む

1st typhoon of season expected to bring heavy winds, rain to southwestern Japan

July 7, 2016 (Mainichi Japan)
1st typhoon of season expected to bring heavy winds, rain to southwestern Japan

Nepartak, a fierce typhoon and the first of the season, was moving northwest south of the Sakishima islands in Okinawa Prefecture as of the morning of July 7.

According to the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), the powerful storm has a central pressure of 900 hectopascals and winds gusting up to 60 meters per second near the core. The typhoon will probably bring winds of at least 15 meters per second to the Sakishima islands, and make landfall on Taiwan on the morning of July 8.

The storm is expected to draw closest to the Sakishima islands between the evening of July 7 and the pre-dawn hours of July 8. It is predicted that waves will reach around 9 meters high and winds will hit speeds of up to 25 meters per second by the morning of July 8.

The JMA is calling on residents not to go near the ocean.

Okinawa's main island, meanwhile, has been covered in clouds from the outer rim of the typhoon, and is likely to see heavy rains of up to 50 millimeters per hour through the evening of July 7. Damp air has made its way to southern Kyushu as well, bringing unstable weather to the region. The Amami region is expected to see rain until July 8.

続きを読む
クリック募金^^
プロフィール
自己紹介・リンク

■近況

2009年の9月15日に脳梗塞を発症、右手が少し不自由になりました。
MRAで脳梗塞の部位を特定でき、素早い処置をとれたので大事に至りませんでした。
快復にむけてリハビリ中です。
(2011/01/01更新)

■自己紹介・リンク

[ はじめに ]
タイのスラチャイです。
英語学習に王道はありません。
毎日毎日の地道な努力の積み重ねが必要です。
スラチャイはNHKのラジオ英語会話で現在の英語力を身につけました。
一日僅か15分の学習でも数年間継続すれば相当な学習効果が期待できます。

[ 名前 ]
松井 清 (スラチャイ)

[ 略歴 ]
・福岡県出身
・国立高知大学卒業
・準大手建設会社に就職
・50歳で会社を早期退職
・99/10 タイ全土を旅行
・00/10 タイに移住
・03/07 カイちゃん誕生
・07/06 シーファーちゃん誕生
・現在タイ国コンケン在住

[ 座右の銘 ]
Slow and steady wins the race.
遅くとも着実な者が勝利する
(NHK基礎英語芹沢栄先生)

[ 学習の手引き ]
・音読して耳から英語を吸収
・Think in English.
・ネイティブ発音付辞書活用
・英英辞典を活用(英和も)
・翻訳和文で専門用語確認

[ English Newspapers ]
Yomiuri
Mainichi
Asahi
Japan Times
Washington Post
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Bangkok Post
The Nations
Phuket Gazette

[ 英字新聞の英和対訳学習 ]
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英字新聞(朝日2)

[ スラチャイ編集の辞書 ]
タイ日辞書(改訂版)
日タイ辞書(改訂版)
ラオ日辞書
日ラオ辞書

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スラチャイ編曲のmidiのギター曲
スラチャイ編曲のJ.S.Bachです

スラチャイの多国言語学習
初歩のタイ語
初歩の中国語
初歩のラオス語
初歩のビルマ語
初歩のシンハリ語
初歩のタガログ語

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基礎タイ語一覧(タイ文字、ローマ字)
seesaaサイト内リンク一覧:
01 あいさつ
02 別れのあいさつ
03 声をかけるとき
04 感謝の言葉と答え方
05 謝罪の言葉と答え方
06 聞き直すとき
07 相手の言うことがわからないとき
08 うまく言えないとき
09 一般的なあいづち
10 よくわからないときの返事
11 強めのあいづち
12 自分について述べるとき
13 相手のことを尋ねるとき
14 頼みごとをするとき
15 申し出・依頼を断るとき
16 許可を求めるとき
17 説明してもらうとき
18 確認を求めるとき
19 状況を知りたいとき
20 値段の尋ね方と断り方
21 急いでもらいたいとき
22 待ってもらいたいとき
23 日時・場所・天候を尋ねるとき
24 その他

基礎タイ語一覧(タイ文字、音声付き)
サイト外HPリンク一覧:
01 あいさつ
02 別れのあいさつ
03 声をかけるとき
04 感謝の言葉と答え方
05 謝罪の言葉と答え方
06 聞き直すとき
07 相手の言うことがわからないとき
08 うまく言えないとき
09 一般的なあいづち
10 よくわからないときの返事
11 強めのあいづち
12 自分について述べるとき
13 相手のことを尋ねるとき
14 頼みごとをするとき
15 申し出・依頼を断るとき
16 許可を求めるとき
17 説明してもらうとき
18 確認を求めるとき
19 状況を知りたいとき
20 値段の尋ね方と断り方
21 急いでもらいたいとき
22 待ってもらいたいとき
23 日時・場所・天候を尋ねるとき
24 その他

タイの文化一覧:
01 雨の日にも傘をささないタイ人
02 勉強熱心なタイ人女性たち
03 タイ人は敬謙な仏教徒
04 タイの市場
05 タイの食堂
06 タイ人は外食が大好き
07 果物王国タイランド
08 タイ人の誕生日
09 タイの電話代は高い
10 微笑みの国タイランド

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14の戒律解説
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第10番目の戒律
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